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Chapter 15: The Renaissance in Italy and Northern Europe Renaissance Thought and Art 1300-1600 (Page 394)

1000 years after fall of Rome a.k.a. the Dark Ages Humanists Renaissance scholars who were dedicated to the recover, study, and transmission of the intellectual and cultural heritage of Greece and Rome (Classical Period) Renaissance considered rebirth of Classical Period Sought worth as individual (luomo universale or complete man) Previous Medieval institutions challenged: Medieval Period Renaissance Scholasticism Individualism Church authority Critical inquiry Conformity Science Began in urban areas of central + northern Italy I. The Italian Renaissance (Page 396) Political, social, and economic change during late Middle Ages especially in Italy A. Emergence of the Italian City-States (Page 396) 1. Increased urbanization, self-government, commerce, and money economy gave way to middle class (bourgeoisie) during 12th-13th centuries, Italy especially aspired because of Feudalisms demise during this time period 2. During the 14th-15th centuries (after Black Death), city-states in northern + central Italy were experiencing dramatic population increases, causing the creation of small territorial states (Ex. Papal States) 3. So much wealth gained by merchant-capitalists, who were formerly Italian nobles during Medieval Period, started lending money + banking system; 1200s-1400s, Italy monopolized Europes banking 4. Literature + art reflected self-confidence in city-state (Ex. palazzi) of ruling families (Medici) 5. Humanists focus on individuals + society 6. Embraced secular art, contrasting values with religious culture of Medieval period B. Renaissance Patrons (Page 397) 1. Leaders, wealthy merchants, bankers, manufacturers display wealth through patronizing artists + humanists 2. During the early Renaissance, artists commissioned for work + already knew where their work would be placed, work only on commission later, painted only what they wanted and tried to sell to anyone interested in buying 3. Medici family (1434-1494) ruled Florence for 60 years, most famous patrons, nominally Republic but ruled by oligarchy, Lorenzo the Magnificent last ruler of Medici family and most famous for patronage 4. Renaissance popes lavish patrons, Rome center of art + literature until 1500, Nicholas V + Clement VII (also a Medici)

II. Humanism and Classical Revival (Page 399) Medieval Period Renaissance Pagan literature from Classical Period New appreciation of Classical literature interpreted according to Christianity + used starting in Italy, representatives called by authority to support the Church, distorted humanists legacy Scholasticism emphasized Aristotle, logic, Humanists wanted to solve problems of science, medicine, law, religion at the society + find value of human living, expense of art focused on humanities (history, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy) Feel inferior to Classical thinkers, pupilFeel equal to Classical thinkers teacher/child-parent relationship Niccol Machiavelli (1469-1527) had a different attitude, Florentine politician, diplomat, political theorist, author of The Prince (1513) a secular + realistic treatise (book that carefully deals with one subject) A. Petrarch and Boccaccio (Page 400) 1. Francesco Petraca a.k.a. Petrarch (1304-1374) father of humanism first to play role in making people conscious of the attractions of Classical works a) Fell in love with Laura, a married woman, wrote sonnets inspired by love and feelings, before women were portrayed idealistically and unreal b) On the Simple Conflict of My Cares, an imaginary debate with St. Augustine, conflict between modern thought and religion, portrays humanisms struggle in Western culture 2. Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) author of Decameron (1348 during the Black Death), 3 young men + 7 young women tell stories to escape depressing atmosphere of Black Death, satire of Feudalism because based on Medieval chivalry and romance a) Decameron has anecdotes, human characters, glimpse of Renaissance b) Petrarch caused Boccaccio to retire from writing and study Classical Period, the study of literature and antiquity increased after the deaths of Petrarch and Boccaccio 3. Increased desire for Greek + Latin manuscripts, sought by men and women B. Civic Humanism (Page 402) 1. 15th century humanists called Civic Humanists because foundation of humanism was not for pure contemplation but because used classics to help encourage rule of Italian city-states 2. Adored Ciceros emphasis on moral philosophy, rhetoric, commitment to public affairs C. Revival of Platonism (Page 402) 1. Late 15th century, slowly moved towards Platonism/Neo-Platonism because of lack of interest in Aristotles teachings of natural science and search for classics moral purpose + religious/mystical values

2. Cosimo di Medici founded Platonic Academy 3. Marsilo Ficino first to fully translate Platos works into Latin, fused Plato with Christianity like Thomas Aquinas (who fused Aristotle with Christianity) 4. Pico della Mirandola, disciple of Ficino, Oration on the Dignity of Man was essay considered greatest tributes to human race in all Renaissance writing D. Aristoteleanism (Page 402) 1. Natural science, logic, metaphysics, and his teachings still dominated universities 2. Averroists followers of Muslim philosopher Averos, matter=eternal but soul is not, believed truth in philosophy doesnt have to be true in religion (doctrine of double-truth) 3. 15th century, University of Padua center of Aristotelianism, philosophy kept separate from theology, environment lead to rise in scientific though in 17th century (Copernicus, Vesalius, Galileo all who overthrew Aristotles ideas) E. Evaluation of Humanism (Page 402) 1. Downgraded science, sought individual happiness + getting ready to play worthy role in society 2. Luomo Universale 3. Castigliones (1478-1529) The Courtier, model for gentlemen and ladies a) Men good manners, social skills, intellectual with good character and capable in arts of war + peace b) Women becoming more socially active, must be good, intelligent hostesses 4. Close minded, cultural boundaries set by Greece + Rome, which meant no new discoveries, strongly disliked Medieval period because separated them from Golden Antiquity 5. Most imitated Classical writing and thinking 6. Renaissance women read Classical Greek, painted, wrote, daughters of privileged aristocrats a) Sofonisba Anguissola (1531-1625) first female painter of Renaissance, caused acceptance of female students II. Italian Renaissance Art (Page 404) Gothic still dominated art in 14th-15th centuries outside Italy Italian art exemplified revived interest in art of Greece + Rome A. Transitional Period in Painting (Page 404) 1. Giotto (1266-1337) Florentine painter, first to paint realism, emotion, observed life + painted 3D, The Flight to Egypt shows apprehensive mood, movement, realistic baby, Madonna has facial expression B. Quattrocento Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture (Page 405) 1. Masaccio (1401-1428) finished revolution of technique started by Giotto, used perspective, anatomy, chiaroscuro (color for shading), painted nudity a reverse trend of Christian art, Tribute Money shows

feeling 2. Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506) paintings show depth 3. Pierro della Francesca (1420-1492) used mathematics in paintings, science + intellect, made perspective a mathematical science, similar to modern abstract 4. Ghirlandaio (1449-1494) The Old Man and His Grandson first portrait artist 5. Sandro Botticelli (1447-1510) unconventional Florentine artist, Christian + Pagan paintings (The Birth of Venus) 6. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) relief sculpture of human figures modeled after Classical period, Doors of Baptistry in Florence Michelangelo said worthy of being Gates to Paradise 7. Donatello (1386-1466) sculptures using anatomy, David first nude bronze sculpture since Classical period, heavily based on Roman sculpture 8. Verrocchio Bust of Lorenzo di Medici, and Equestrian Statue (balances on 3 legs) 9. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) constructed first dome to be built since Romans, recreated Roman style with some originality C. The High Renaissance, 1500-1530 (Page 407) 1. Florence Rome, popes were patrons, secular + religious art in Vatican 2. Donato Bramante (1444-1514) from Milan, commissioned by Pope Julius II to rebuild St. Peters basilica, heavily influenced by Roman architecture, Michelangelo took over + altered design 3. Quattrocento painters concerned over depth, chiaroscuro, color but High Renaissance painters concerned over a classic effect of seriousness, serenity, idealistic values D. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo (Page 408) 1. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) a) Engineer, mathematician, architect, geologist, botanist, physiologist, anatomist, sculptor, painter, musician, poet, overall luomo universale b) Loved experimentation rather than finishing c) Deep psychological insight into human nature, A good painter has two chief objects to pain, man and the intention of his soul. d) La Gioconda (The Mona Lisa), The Last Supper 2. Raphael (1453-1520) a) Synergy of da Vinci + Michelangelo, Classical + Christian, precise design + balance, serenity b) Madonna of the Chair, The School of Athens (fresco) 3. Michelangelo (1475-1564) a) Sculptor, poet, engineer, architect, greatest sculptor of Renaissance, true luomo universale b) Strong influences from Platonism + Classics, as seen in David c) Outlived High Renaissance d) La Pieta (sculpture), The Creation of Adam + the Sistine Chapel

ceiling, shows classical appearance with Christian spirit e) Senate House and Piazza in Rome pedestal for Roman equestrian statue, Laurentian Library in Florence E. The Venetian School (Page 409) 1. After sack of Rome in 1527 + Italian Wars, art moved from Rome to Venice, secular art, portraits, full of color, light, and depth 2. Giorgion (1477-1510) delicate, dreamy, poetic lyricism, languor + relaxation, no story, The Sleeping Venus 3. Titian (1477-1576) less subtle/poetic, model Venetian painter, robust sensuousness F. Mannerism: The Anti-Renaissance Style (Page 410) 1. 1494, French King Charles VIII with his army of 40,000, invaded Italy starting Italian Wars which lasted until 1559 2. 1527, Charles V, Spanish king + German emperor, sacked Rome + cause many to flee 3. Optimistic emphasis on dignity of man turns to pessimistic emphasis on mans evil (as seen in The Prince and The Last Judgment by Michelangelo + his various sculptures) 4. 1530-1600, new style emerged called Mannerism, expressed own inner vision instead of Classical serenity + poise 5. Parmigianino Madonna With the Long Neck, no proportion or realism 6. Tintoretto (1518-194) Abduction of St. Mark, no proportion, balance, or realism 7. Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571) rejected moral + artistic standards, too elaborate, snuff box ornaments on sculptures, Salt Cellar for Francis I, Bust of Cosimo di Medici, cup in Metropolitan Museum of Art in NY 8. Architecture in Jesuit style, tried to achieve anti-Classical effects, leads to Baroque style G. Renaissance Music (Page 412) 1. Middle Ages used monophonic plainsong/Gregorian chant, Renaissance changed to polyphonic music 2. Josquin des Pres (1440-1521) founder of Renaissance music, grand yet simple, used mathematics 3. Secular music emerged, madrigal (love lyrics for music) 4. The Courtier requires men and women to be able to sing, play an instrument, and read music III. The Northern Renaissance (Page 412) o Intellectual climate of Italy with enthusiasm for Classics interest Europe A. The Influence of Printing (Page 412) 1. 1440s in Mainz, Germany, Johann Gutenberg + other printers invented first movable block-letter printer, printed first Bible in 1454 2. Printing spread, classical authors works printed, price dropped to 1/8t allowing more access to knowledge, new ideas reached more people within a shorter time span B. Erasmus and Northern Humanism (Page 413) 1. Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) Dutch humanist, the scholar of



E. F.





Europe, Praise of Folly, states reforms 2. Italian humanists spoke to/for political leaders, defended no condemned 3. Northern humanists were reformers who spoke out against political, social, economic, and religious evil 4. Northern humanists had interest in early Christian writing, more accurate editions of religious works printed Sir Thomas Mores Utopia (Page 414) 1. Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) wrote Utopia, first description of ideal society since Platos Republic 2. Utopia land of nowhere, book 1 criticizes England, book 2 describes Utopia, economy is planned, not capitalism 3. First of modern socialists, wanted legacy of medieval economy 4. Thought church should be in hands of pope, caused Henry VIII to execute More Rabelaiss Gargantua and Pantagruel (Page 414) 1. Francois Rabelais (1483-1553) French humanist, wrote satire Gargantua and Pantagruel about a father and his son, sought education + religious reform Ulrich von Hutten: German Humanist and Patriot (Page 415) 1. Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1528) satirist, strong supporter of Luther, religious reformer but wanted political unity Montaignes Essays (Page 415) 1. Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) French humanist, created the essay, supported open-mindedness + tolerance, Of Experience when reason fails then rely on experience Cervantess Don Quixote (Page 415) 1. Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) wrote Spanish satire Don Quixote de la Mancha, used to expose how chivalry could not work in new, modern times, against Medieval Period 2. Also about ideals that would like to see realized but must compromise in world of other interests Secular Drama (Page 416) 1. Medieval Period drama tied to religion, early Renaissance drama consisted mainly of ancient Roman comedies 2. As theaters increased, secular drama did as well William Shakespeare (Page 419) 1. Elizabethan age (1558-1603), also English Renaissance 2. Plays were emotional, romantic, extravagant 3. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) wrote sonnets + 37 plays comedies, tragedies, romances, histories, borrowed from earlier works but had diverse realistic characters a) Dealt with jealousy, ambition, internal conflict, love Northern Painting (Page 417) 1. Before Italian Renaissance spread north, advancement in painting in Benelux 2. Jan van Eyck (1395-1441) Flemish painter, realistic painting,

Wedding Portrait 3. Albrecht Druer (1471-1528) first German painter to be heavily influenced by Italian art, Knight, Death, and the Devil, gothic + realism, mainly used wood prints 4. Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) German painter, Italian dignity 5. Hieronymus Bosch (1480-1576) not influenced by Italian Renaissance, Garden of Delights about sin + Hell 6. Pieter Brueghl the Elder (1525-1569) also not influenced by Italian Renaissance, painted everyday life + peasants