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==Organization== It is headed by Director Gaudencio S.

Pangilinan and the bureau has 2,362 employees, 61% of whom are [[Janitor|custodial]] officers, 33% are [[Administration (business)|administrative]] [[personnel]] and 6% are members of the [[Medicine|medical]] [[Employment|staff]].<ref name="Department of Justice"/>

===Mission=== To maximize the assets' value of the BuCor to effectively pursue its responsibility in safely securing transforming national prisoners through responsive rehabilitation programs managed by professional Correctional Officers.<ref name="Bureau of Corrections">{{Citation | title = Bureau of Corrections | url=http://www.bucor.gov.ph/ | accessdate = 2008-05-27 }}</ref>

===Mandate=== The Principal task of the Bureau of Corrections is the rehabilitation of National Prisoners.<ref name="Bureau of Corrections"/>

::The Bureau carries out the following task to carry out its mandate:<ref name="Bureau of Corrections"/>Country Listing Philippines Table of Contents

Philippines
The Correctional System
In the late 1980s, institutions for the confinement of convicts and the detention of those awaiting trial included a variety of national prisons and penal farms as well as numerous small local jails and lockups. In general, the national prisons housed more serious offenders, and those serving short-term sentences were held in local facilities. The prison system at the national level was supervised by the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Justice. The bureau was responsible for the safekeeping of prisoners and their rehabilitation through general and moral education and technical training in industry and agriculture. The bureau also oversaw the operation of prison agro-industries and the production of food commodities. In 1991 the newly formed Philippine National Police took over administration of local jails. The government maintained six correctional institutions and penal farms. The nation's largest prison was the National Penitentiary at Muntinlupa, Rizal Province, near Manila, which also operated the Manila City Jail. The penitentiary served as the central facility for those sentenced

to life imprisonment or long-term incarceration. It was divided into two camps to separate those serving maximum and minimum penalties. The Correctional Institution for Women was located in Metropolitan Manila. Combination prison and penal farms also were located in Zamboanga City, and in Palawan, Mindoro Occidental, and in several Mindanao provinces. Prison conditions in the Philippines were generally poor, and prison life was harsh. Some prison inmates were eligible for parole and probation. Before serving their sentence, felons, who were not charged with subversion or insurgency, or had not been on probation before, could apply for probation. Probationers were required to meet with their parole officers monthly, to avoid any further offense, and to comply with all other court-imposed conditions. After serving an established minimum sentence, certain prisoners could apply to their parole board for release. The board could also recommend pardon to the president for prisoners it believed to have reformed and who presented no menace to society. In 1991 crime still was a serious, if somewhat reduced, threat to the general peace and security of society and was aggravated by corruption in the police and court systems. The politicization of the military was seen as a long-term problem and the threat of a military coup remained significant. The threat of a CPP-led takeover seemed to be receding as NPA guerrilla strength ebbed. The socioeconomic roots of the revolutionary movement remained and promised to make the insurgency a problem for some time to come, despite its slow decline. The government also recognized the continuing threat posed by well-armed Filipino Muslim rebels, although few feared a near-term resurgent Moro uprising. External security threats were not perceived.
* * *

A series of well-researched books published in the late 1980s added immensely to the available body of work on the Philippine communist insurgency. William Chapman's Inside the Philippine Revolution offers unique insights on the revolutionary movement. Richard Kessler's Rebellion and Repression in the Philippines provides a thorough review of the insurgency, especially its social and cultural roots. Gregg Jones's Red Revolution combines discussions of the CPP's historical development with revealing interviews with communist leaders and first-hand reports on guerrilla commanders and political cadres in the field. Although predictably dogmatic, books by CPP founder Jose Maria Sison--Philippine Society and Revolution and The Philippine Revolution--present the theoretical underpinnings of the insurgency (the former appears under his nom de guerre, Amado Guerrero). Annual updates on the progress of the communist movement can be found in the Yearbook on International Communist Affairs. Comprehensive studies of the Philippine military are few. Richard Kessler's Rebellion and Repression in the Philippines provides the most thorough examination of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and their strengths and weaknesses. The history of Philippine civil-military relations is explored by two doctoral dissertations: Donald L. Berlin's "Prelude to Martial Law" and Carolina Hernandez's "The Extent of Civilian Control of the Military in the Philippines." More current information on the military's role in politics can be found in the Far Eastern Economic Review, Asian Defence Journal, and Pacific Defence Reporter. Standard references on military capabilities include annual editions of The Military Balance, prepared by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, and the United States Arms Control

institutions for the confinement of convicts and the detention of those awaiting trial included a variety of national prisons and penal farms as well as numerous small local jails and lockups. The Correctional Institution for Women was located in Metropolitan Manila. Jane's Armour and Artillery. The government also recognized the continuing threat posed by wellarmed Filipino Muslim rebels. The military's human rights performance is reviewed annually by the Amnesty International Report and by the United States Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. (For further information and complete citations. and to comply with all other court-imposed conditions. and in several Mindanao provinces. and those serving short-term sentences were held in local facilities. External security threats were not perceived. and prison life was harsh. certain prisoners could apply to their parole board for release. felons. could apply for probation. see Bibliography. and Jane's Fighting Ships also are useful. Before serving their sentence. Rizal Province. although few feared a near-term resurgent Moro uprising. despite its slow decline. who were not charged with subversion or insurgency. The threat of a CPPled takeover seemed to be receding as NPA guerrilla strength ebbed. or had not been on probation before. The bureau also oversaw the operation of prison agro-industries and the production of food commodities. Probationers were required to meet with their parole officers monthly. Prison conditions in the Philippines were generally poor.and Disarmament Agency's World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers. In 1991 the newly formed Philippine National Police took over administration of local jails. The prison system at the national level was supervised by the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Justice. Mindoro Occidental.) Data as of June 1991 Country Listing Philippines Table of Contents Philippines-The Correctional System Philippines Index In the late 1980s. In general. It was divided into two camps to separate those serving maximum and minimum penalties. The nation's largest prison was the National Penitentiary at Muntinlupa. Some prison inmates were eligible for parole and probation. threat to the general peace and security of society and was aggravated by corruption in the police and court systems. The board could also recommend pardon to the president for prisoners it believed to have reformed and who presented no menace to society. to avoid any further offense. The politicization of the military was seen as a long-term problem and the threat of a military coup remained significant. and in Palawan. The bureau was responsible for the safekeeping of prisoners and their rehabilitation through general and moral education and technical training in industry and agriculture. After serving an established minimum sentence. The socioeconomic roots of the revolutionary movement remained and promised to make the insurgency a problem for some time to come. . Jane's Infantry Weapons. Combination prison and penal farms also were located in Zamboanga City. Jane's All the World's Aircraft. In 1991 crime still was a serious. near Manila. the national prisons housed more serious offenders. The penitentiary served as the central facility for those sentenced to life imprisonment or long-term incarceration. The government maintained six correctional institutions and penal farms. if somewhat reduced. which also operated the Manila City Jail.

1866. Although predictably dogmatic. and Jane's Fighting Ships also are useful. Richard Kessler's Rebellion and Repression in the Philippines provides the most thorough examination of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and their strengths and weaknesses. Asian Defence Journal. and the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency's World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers. (For further information and complete citations. see Bibliography. The military's human rights performance is reviewed annually by the Amnesty International Report and by the United States Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. [edit] American Colony the Iuhit penal Settlement now known as Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm was established in 1904 by the Americans in 28. books by CPP founder Jose Maria Sison--Philippine Society and Revolution andThe Philippine Revolution--present the theoretical underpinnings of the insurgency (the former appears under his nom de guerre. Annual updates on the progress of the communist movement can be found in the Yearbook on International Communist Affairs. Jane's Armour and Artillery. Richard Kessler's Rebellion and Repression in the Philippines provides a thorough review of the insurgency. The land areas expanded to 40. Berlin's "Prelude to Martial Law" and Carolina Hernandez's "The Extent of Civilian Control of the Military in the Philippines." More current information on the military's role in politics can be found in the Far Eastern Economic Review. Standard references on military capabilities include annual editions of The Military Balance. Jane's All the World's Aircraft. 1870 the San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm was established in Zamboanga City for Muslim and political prisoners opposed to the rule of Spain.* * * A series of well-researched books published in the late 1980s added immensely to the available body of work on the Philippine communist insurgency. The history of Philippine civil-military relations is explored by two doctoral dissertations: Donald L. William Chapman's Inside the Philippine Revolution offers unique insights on the revolutionary movement. Jane's Infantry Weapons.) Data as of June 1991 Spanish Rule Old Bilibid Prison circa 1900 The Old Bilibid Prison which was located on Oroquieta Street in Manila was established in 1847 and by a Royal Decree formally opened on April 10. Comprehensive studies of the Philippine military are few.072 hectares of land.000 hectares in the . prepared by the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Amado Guerrero). On August 21. Gregg Jones's Red Revolution combines discussions of the CPP's historical development with revealing interviews with communist leaders and first-hand reports on guerrilla commanders and political cadres in the field. and Pacific Defence Reporter. especially its social and cultural roots.

The color orange is symbolic of happiness.072 hectares of land. established the Sablayan Prison and Penal Farm in Occidental Mindoro. 1101.late 1950s. 1912. The Reorganization Act also re-established the San Ramon Prison in 1907 which was destroyed during the Spanish-American War in 1888. The prison was placed under the Bureau of Prisons and receive prisoners in Mindanao.[4] and expanded again to 41. the bureau opened the Davao Penal Colony in Southern Mindanao. 67 issued by Governor Newton Gilbert on October 15. the rehabilitation of inmate.000 hectares in the late 1950s. 3579. 1973. 72 issued on September 26.[4] Proclamation No. 1932. It presents man behind bars. The land areas expanded to 40.[4] [edit] Logo The logo presented here. 1989. is symbolic of the Bureau's mandate. . and the Leyte Regional Prison was established on January 16. The logo focuses on the man in prison as the main concern of rehabilitation.007 hectares by virtue of Executive Order No.[4] The Correctional Institution for Women was founded on November 27.007 hectares by virtue of Executive Order No. but who looks outwards with the hope of rejoining the free community.[4] [edit] New Name Administrative Code of 1987 and Proclamation No. 1954. The rays of the sun and the color green are symbolic of hope.[4] The New Bilibid Prison was established in 1935 in Mutinlupa due to the increased rate of prisoners. under Proclamation No. 495 issued on November 22.[4] and expanded again to 41.It was established to the Act No. (jrcp)[4] American Colony the Iuhit penal Settlement now known as Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm was established in 1904 by the Americans in 28. The bar of justice represents the justice system. 67 issued by Governor Newton Gilbert on October 15. Change the agencies' name to Bureau of Corrections from Bureau of Prisons.[4] On January 21. The Bureau of Prisons was created under the Reorganization Act of 1905 as an agency under the Department of Commerce and Police. 1912. 1929 and it is the one and only prison for women in the Philippines.

Established in 1847 pursuant to Section 1708 of the Revised Administrative Code and formally opened by Royal Decree in 1865.[4] The New Bilibid Prison was established in 1935 in Mutinlupa due to the increased rate of prisoners. and 15 buildings or departments for prisoners that were arranged in a radial way to form spokes. The prison was divided in the middle by a thick wall. There were four cellhouses for the isolated prisoners and four isolated buildings located on the four corners of the walls. The prison occupied a quadrangular piece of land 180 meters long on each side. 1973. established the Sablayan Prison and Penal Farm in Occidental Mindoro. Change the agencies' name to Bureau of Corrections from Bureau of Prisons. Incarceration in the community was only meant to prevent the culprit from further harming the local residents. 1101. The prison was placed under the Bureau of Prisons and receive prisoners in Mindanao. Plans for the construction of the prison were first published on September 12. the informal prison system was community-based. 1859 but it was not until April 10. and the Leyte Regional Prison was established on January 16.It was established to the Act No. Manila and designed to house the prison population of the country.[4] The Correctional Institution for Women was founded on November 27. which served as kitchen. 1954. 1989. 1866 that the entire facility was completed.[4] On January 21.[4] Proclamation No. Under this tower was the chapel. hospital and stores. 3579. The formal prison system in the Philippines started only during the Spanish regime. concrete modern 200-bed capacity hospitals as well as new dormitories for the prisoners were . sex and crime while the Presidio could accommodate 527 prisoners. This prison became known as the “Carcel y Presidio Correccional” and could accommodate 1. the bureau opened the Davao Penal Colony in Southern Mindanao. Natives who defied or violated the local laws were meted appropriate penalties by the local chieftains.[4] [edit] New Name Administrative Code of 1987 and Proclamation No. The central tower formed the hub. 1932. It housed a building for the offices and quarters of the prison warden. as there were no national penitentiaries to speak of. The Reorganization Act also re-established the San Ramon Prison in 1907 which was destroyed during the Spanish-American War in 1888. 495 issued on November 22.[4] During the pre-colonial times.The Bureau of Prisons was created under the Reorganization Act of 1905 as an agency under the Department of Commerce and Police. the Old Bilibid Prison was constructed as the main penitentiary on Oroquieta Street. The Carcel was designed to house 600 prisoners who were segregated according to class.127 prisoners. which was formerly a part of the Mayhalique Estate in the heart of Manila. 1929 and it is the one and only prison for women in the Philippines. Onehalf of the enclosed space was assigned to Presidio prisoners and the other half to Carcel prisoners. under Proclamation No. In 1908. where an organized corrective service was made operational. 72 issued on September 26.

the Americans established in 1904 the Iuhit penal settlement (now Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm) on a vast reservation of 28. A carpentry shop was organized within the confines of the facility. It was later abandoned and is now under the jurisdiction of the Public Estates Authority.007 hectares by virtue of Executive Order No. which was to be on the outskirts of the urban center. On August 21. all inmates of the Old Bilibid Prison in Manila were transferred to the new site. 1905) as an agency under the Department of Commerce and Police. It was surrounded by three layers of barbed wire. fences were further reinforced with concrete slabs. Commonwealth Act No. 1912.000. A death chamber was constructed in 1941 at the rear area of the camp when the mode of execution was through electrocution. At this time. Developments After WWII: After World War II. The old prison was transformed into a receiving center and a storage facility for farm produce from the colonies. the height of the concrete wall was increased and another facility was constructed. the Correctional Institution for Women (CIW) was created under Act No. the San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm in Zamboanga City was established to confine Muslim rebels and recalcitrant political prisoners opposed to the Spanish rule. Accordingly.added. 3579 to provide separate facilities for women offenders while the Davao Penal Colony in Southern Mindanao was opened in 1932 under Act No. 3732. Transfer of the Old Bilibid to Muntinlupa: The increasing number of committals to the Old Bilibid Prison. The facility. It would reach a total land area of 40. Located on the westernmost part of the archipelago far from the main town to confine incorrigibles with little hope of rehabilitation. In the 1980s. The American and Commonwealth Governments: When the Americans took over in the 1900s. 1407 dated November 1. 1869. which faced the Jolo sea had Spanish-inspired dormitories and was originally set on a 1.000..000 hectares in the late 1950s. In the late „60s. 1929. the growing urbanization of Manila and the constant lobbying by conservative groups prompted the government to plan and develop a new site for the national penitentiary. Other penal colonies were established during the American regime. multiple convictions and sentences of more than 20 years. On January 1.00) pesos for the construction of a new national prison in the southern suburb of Muntinlupa. It also paved the way for the re-establishment of San Ramon Prison in 1907 which was destroyed during the Spanish-American War. As a consequence. Rizal in 1935. the San Ramon Prison was placed under the auspices of the Bureau of Prisons and started receiving prisoners from Mindanao.000 prisoners and it was officially named the New Bilibid Prison on January 22. 1915.5 . 2. For sometime the shop became a trademark for fine workmanship of furniture made by prisoners. 1940.414-hectare sprawling estate. there was a surplus of steel matting in the inventory and it was used to improve the security fences of the prison. The new institution had a capacity of 3. The prison compound proper had an area of 300 x 300 meters or a total of nine hectares. but also those with numerous pending cases. appropriating one million (P1. The original institution became the maximum security compound in the 70s and continues to be so up to present. Before the reconstruction of San Ramon Prison. On November 15. sales of handicrafts were done through the institutions and inmates were compensated depending on the availability of funds. the area was expanded to 41. part of which was arable. housing not only death convicts and inmates sentenced to life terms. The prison reservation has an area of 587 hectares. the Bureau of Prisons was created under the Reorganization Act of 1905 (Act No. 1941. 67 issued by Governor Newton Gilbert on October 15. inmates often had to sell through the retail or barter their products.072 hectares. 67 was enacted. On November 27.

On June 4. 2004. the RDC was relocated to Building No. the RDC was given administrative control over all other RDCs of the Bureau of Corrections. the RDC also started erasing gang marks of all newly committed prisoners in an effort to eradicate the gang system within the Bureau. physical inadequacies. which was used as a military stockade during the martial law years and the Minimum Security Camp. Muntinlupa City. two national prisons were established by the government which are no long operational. series of 1953 of the Department of Justice. The RDC chief reports directly to the Director all the activities undertaken by RDC personnel. the RDC is constantly improving its rehabilitative programs. this was transferred to another site within the reservation where the former depot was situated. To further insulate the newly received inmates from gangs. Every effort is made to determine an inmate‟s strength as well as moral weaknesses. 72 issued on September 26. Vinarao dated March 31. formerly referred to as Metro Jail of the Medium Security Compound of Camp Sampaguita. 1101 issued on January 16. The success of prison rehabilitation programs depends on how the RDC handles the orientation. This became known as Camp Sampaguita or the Medium Security Camp. Non-Operational National Prisons: Before World War II. Originally a program for drug dependents. and classify all national prisoners committed by final judgment to the National Penitentiary. social and vocational needs. To isolate the facility from the maximum security wing which was rocked by violence in 1973. the Reception and Diagnostic Center (RDC) was created through Administrative Order No. during the initial contact between a prisoner and his new environment that primordial functions pertaining to his care and rehabilitation treatment are exhaustively carried out by the staff.kilometers from the main building. Birth of the Reception and Diagnostic Center: Recognizing the need to properly orient newly committed prisoners to the Bureau of Corrections. One was on Corregidor Island and the other in the Mountain Province. 7. At the end of the period. whose first site was christened “Bukang Liwayway”. NBP. 2003. The RDC is an independent institution tasked to receive. . the RDC chief recognized the potential of applying its principles to all committed inmates. One such reform is the adoption of the behavioral modification modality. Later. 1954. It is during the first sixty (60) days. 2005. Thus the RDC was turned into a Therapeutic Community Camp on February 6. 9 of the Maximum Security Compound of the New Bilibid Prison (NBP). Under a memorandum of Director Vicente G. 8. the Sablayan Prison and Penal Farm in Occidental Mindoro was established. 1973. 2005. In The Leyte Regional Prison followed suit under Proclamation No. Being the initial stop of every national male prisoner. the Center was transferred to what was once the military command post adjacent to the Medium Security facility where the RDC remains to this day. the inmate is ready for transfer to any of the penal institutions. study. and his educational. The RDC is a separate division with a technical function. then Director Dionisio Santiago entrusted the administration of the Muntinlupa Juvenile Training Center (MJTC) to the RDC through a memorandum dated June 18. The first RDC facility was created in Building No. He is expected to have overcome his fears and prejudices and is prepared to cooperate in the implementation of his rehabilitation program. Under Proclamation No. The Chief of the RDC sees to its independence in carrying out its tasks of receiving and classifying all male national inmates committed to the Bureau of Corrections by the competent courts. It was patterned after the reception facilities of the California State Prison. The RDC has evolved into an institution that uses a modern positive approach towards penology. Later on. diagnosis and treatment of newly arrived inmates. character disorders.

Mountain Province. The Bontoc prison could be reach only through narrow. Due to the enormous expenses incurred in transporting personnel. 1876 providing for the establishment of a prison in Bontoc. equipment and supplies to the prison. This move was in accordance with an order from the Department of Instructions. The island prison was never reopened. poorly developed mountain roads. inmates from Bilibid Prison were regularly sent to Corregidor for labor purposes. The prison was built for the prisoners of the province and insular prisoners who were members of the non-Christian tribes of Mountain Province and Nueva Viscaya. When the War broke out. ::: Asst Director for Prison and Security ::: Medical and Dental Division ::: Reception and Diagnostic Center ::: Administrative Division ::: General Services Division ::: Logistics Division ::: Operations and Plans Division ::: Budget and Finance Division ::: Accounting Division ::: Training and Education Division ::: Information Technology Center ::: Intel and Investigation Division ::: Documents Division ::: Industry Development Division ::: Moral and Spiritual Division ::: External Relations Division ::: New Bilibid Prison ::: Correctional Institution for Women ::: Davao Prison and Penal Farm ::: Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm ::: Sablayan Prison and Penal Farm ::: San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm ::: Leyte Regional Prison . prisoners on Corregidor were returned to Bilibid Prison. The inmates were transported not to serve time but for prison labor. :: The BuCor Organization Office of the Director ::: Asst Director for Admin. Until the outbreak of the Second World War. which approved the transfer of inmates so they could assist in maintenance and other operations in the stockade. some 100 prisoners were transferred from the Old Bilibid Prison to the Corregidor Island Prison Stockage to work under military authorities. The Philippine Legislature during the American regime also passed Act No. and Rehab. the facility was abandoned and officially closed on April 26.In 1908 during the American regime. 1932.

Office of the Director ::: Asst Director for Admin. Such methods as . for their re-integration into the mainstream of society. medical staff and custodial forces.The BuCor Organization As envisioned. and Rehab. ::: Asst Director for Prison and Security ::: Medical and Dental Division ::: Reception and Diagnostic Center ::: Administrative Division ::: General Services Division ::: Logistics Division ::: Operations and Plans Division ::: Budget and Finance Division ::: Accounting Division ::: Training and Education Division ::: Information Technology Center ::: Intel and Investigation Division ::: Documents Division ::: Industry Development Division ::: Moral and Spiritual Division ::: External Relations Division ::: New Bilibid Prison ::: Correctional Institution for Women ::: Davao Prison and Penal Farm ::: Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm ::: Sablayan Prison and Penal Farm ::: San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm ::: Leyte Regional Prison Prior to the building of facilities specifically designed for detention and correctional confinement. trials and punishments were swift on the American frontier. the BuCor has an authorized plantilla positions of mixed personnel consisting of civilian employees. the BuCor will be a modern. secured and professional correction institution which is characterized by a more responsive prison system that is geared towards the humane and spiritually guided rehabilitation of inmates. To administer and operate the national prison system.

The electrocution of James Dukes in 1962 was the last execution carried out at the Cook County Jail. Nearly all were poor. The House of Correction opened in 1871 on the city's far Southwest Side. to the improved construction and architectural design of the city's correctional facilities. Overused and filthy dens of despair. was termed obsolete on the day it opened in 1929 because it lacked adequate heating and had no separate facilities for female prisoners. In 1967. leaving EXTERIOR OF BRIDEWELL PRISON. most had been imprisoned before. A new addition to the County Jail in 1896 at Dearborn Avenue and Illinois Street included separate facilities for women and a section for juvenile offenders. This structure served the city until it was swept away by the Great Fire of 1871. As a result. it was common practice to imprison witnesses to crimes—often women and children—along with the accused against whom they were scheduled to testify. although flogging and pillorying continued inside Illinois prisons into the early twentieth century.1903 Cook County with the only county jail in the state eligible to maintain its own electric chair and carry out its own executions. petty thieves. Moreover. and the city watch-house. and short-term custody as well as the death penalty served as modes of censuring and punishing criminals in early Chicago. a Bastille-like structure at 26th Street and California. Moreover. revisions in the Illinois Criminal Code prohibited public whipping and the pillory. the pillory. pickpockets. these “police prisons” finally gave way. the sheriff's office. This system inadvertently fostered the growth of gang influence in the inmate population and jail operations. which included a basement jail. C. This prison workhouse confined mainly individuals unable to pay fines: vagrants. in 1928 all state executions were moved from the county jails to the state penitentiaries except in counties with populations over a million. the newly chartered town of Chicago constructed an “estray pen” at the town square (Randolph and Clark) and a year later developed it into a log jail structure. by the late 1890s. a county civil service system was introduced to counter the political influence of patronage jobs and to better prepare officers to manage the jail. counterfeiters. and especially criminals preying on the growing commerce of Chicago's docks. In 1831. Subject to the politics of a one-term sheriff and an entrenched patronage system. the County Jail had to rely on a grossly untrained and underpaid jail guard corps. The method of inflicting capital punishment was likewise changed from hanging to the electric chair. detention periods were becoming longer as a result of delays in the courts. smugglers. the Illinois Department of Corrections opened the nation's first centralized training academy for correctional officers at Saint Xavier University in Mount Greenwood. The new County Jail. In 1832. In the first quarter of the twentieth century. . During this period the police station-house lockup—the “calaboose”—emerged as Chicago's standard form of custody for street criminals. the jailer's dwelling rooms. In 1974. Cook County and the town erected a courthouse in 1853. drunks. the wardens and supervisors yielded to the convenience of a “barn boss” system using particularly intimidating inmates for guard functions.public flogging.

abolished the Duke of York?s severe criminal code which was in effect in other parts of British North America. food. Three class-action lawsuits were filed alleging racial bias in inmate classification and housing and a lack of mental health services. Now officially defined and readily recognized by the public and media as the Cook County Department of Corrections. Pennsylvania?s Quaker-inspired code abolished the death penalty for all crimes except murder. It also contains the largest forensic residential psychiatric facility in Illinois and is developing gender-specific programs for female and male inmates. and for attaching and removing irons incident to a court appearance. Here. A 1989 court mandate responding to overcrowding released 35. as in other county jails in Pennsylvania at the time. as well as a boot camp. heat.METROPOLITAN CORRECTIONAL CENTER. the penalty of death was applied for murder. men and women were all crowded together. black and white. Penn. the English custom of charging for various other services was also in force.g." homosexual acts and kidnapping. among other offenses. To understand how this happened. old and young.. life imprisonment for the second. Philadelphia and Pennsylvania became the center of prison reform worldwide. e. one must look briefly at the early development of penal practices in William Penn?s colony. Every aspect of correctional operations came under judicial scrutiny. charging inflated prices to the prisoners for spirits. punishments such as the pillory and hanging were carried out in public. As late as 1780. which replaced the archaic Arthur J. a halfway house. The Cook County Jail was also racked by waves of disturbances. clothing." Jails up until the time of the American Revolution were used largely for persons awaiting trial and other punishments and for debtors and sometimes witnesses. etc. who himself had been confined in England for his Quaker beliefs. where.] 1 o?clock. A massive building program beginning in the 1970s yielded a new women's jail and the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center. and a substanceabuse program. Upon Penn?s death. using instead imprisonment with labor and fines. The law did call for severe penalties for sexual offenses: "defiling the marriage bed" was to be punished by whipping plus a one year sentence for the first offense. [sic.000 low-category inmates from the County Jail on individual-recognizance bonds. Two centuries ago. an electric monitoring program for community correctional custody. A new sentencing system of day-reporting and other community correctional alternatives to incarceration also reduced the prison population. An account of an execution that year related how two prisoners "were taken out amidst a crowd of spectators ? they walked after a cart in which were two coffins and a ladder. escapes. Severe physical punishments were used for what were considered lesser crimes. In Chester County. each had a rope about his neck and their arms tied behin [sic] them? they were both hanged in the commons of this city [Philadelphia] abt. it boasts “the largest (96 acres) single-site county pre-detention facility in the United States. denying "the true God. fees for locking and unlocking cells. In the Old Stone Jail at Third and Market Streets in Philadelphia. These lawsuits brought enormous changes in jail programs and staffing. conservative factions in the American colony and in England reintroduced many of the more sanguinary punishments.” It has 11 jail divisions. . suicides. it was a common custom for the jailer or sheriff to provide a bar. 1976 The 1960s and 1970s were the years of the prisoner rights movement within the jails and prisons of America. Audy Home. and murders of inmates.

Only an entire larger structure. (a name it retained for 100 years. The new prison had the traditional layout of large rooms for the inmates." Walnut Street Jail. that site would never prove the value of the system of separate confinement which came to be called the Pennsylvania System. 1821. Because of the rapidly growing population. many of whom were suffering from starvation at the time and even several deaths. Following 1790. at which time it became The Pennsylvania Prison Society). became the first state prison in Pennsylvania. But reaction against the public display of convicts on the streets of the city and the disgraceful conditions in the Walnut Street jail led to the formation in 1787 of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons. Initially. a new jail was begun in 1773 on Walnut Street. Wistar formed the Philadelphia Society for Assisting Distressed Prisoners. Partially as the result of the Prison Society?s efforts. later to be the first warden of the prison. Among them was Samuel Wood. a group of prominent citizens led by Benjamin Franklin. The reformers also remained convinced that in spite of the small-scale isolation cellblock at Walnut Street. . conditions were little better than they had been at the old jail. and eleven commissioners were appointed by the governor. by the same legislation. a Quaker. Sr. the first of such societies in the world. built specifically to separate inmates from one another.In 1776. which still housed most of the prisoners. became intolerably crowded. Benjamin Rush and others organized a movement to reform the harsh penal code of 1718. it. After the peace of 1783. with separation of different sorts of prisoners and workshops providing useful trade instruction. behind the State House (later. like its predecessor. The old abuses and idleness seemed eliminated. but with the British occupation of the city the next year. Prisoners awaiting trial might barter their clothes for liquor or be forcibly stripped upon entering by other inmates seeking funds for the bar. The result was great suffering when the weather turned cold. The new law substituted public labor for the previous severe punishments. would be needed. 18 feet square. by 1795 had between 30 and 40 occupants each. Members of the Society were appalled by what they learned about the new Walnut Street prison and the next year presented to the state legislature an account of their investigations of conditions and recommended solitary confinement at hard labor as a remedy and reformative strategy. The large rooms. It was also considered a common practice for certain women to arrange to get arrested to gain access to the male prisoners. now part of Pittsburgh. The Prison Society continued to urge the creation of large penitentiaries for the more efficient handling of prisoners. the Walnut Street jail became a showplace. the organization was disbanded. had soup prepared in his home to be distributed to the inmates in Philadelphia prisons. All but three of the building commissioners were either members of the Pennsylvania Prison Society or had served on the board of inspectors of the Walnut Street jail. An act of 1790 brought about sweeping reforms in the prison and authorized a penitentiary house with 16 cells to be built in the yard of the jail to carry out solitary confinement with labor for "hardened atrocious offenders. One estimate stated that 20 gallons of spirits were brought into the prison daily by the jailer for sale to the inmates. Authorizing legislation was finally passed on March 20. Independence Hall). Richard Wistar. money was appropriated for a state penitentiary to be built at Allegheny. but with Walnut Street now a state prison and the population of Philadelphia increasing rapidly..

it turned out to be one of the largest structures in the country at the time and far exceeding preliminary cost estimates. At Eastern State Penitentiary in one month alone. the Separate System and its distinctive hub-and-spoke or radial architecture. ensures citizen involvement in the administration of justice which provides a base of information for the oversight of the prison system and for inmate advocacy. and remained the official position of the Pennsylvania Prison Society throughout the 19th century. Each prisoner was to be provided with a cell from which they would rarely leave and each cell had to be large enough to be a workplace and have attached a small individual exercise yard. unmatched anywhere in the nation. and assistance to men and women released from prison. shower baths (apparently the first in the country). which had developed in the Philadelphia prison. work began on what was to become Eastern State Penitentiary. work. The Prison Society?s Official Visitors are provided access to all state and county correctional facilities through act of legislature. sometimes as small as 2? by 6 ? feet. the prison opened in 1829. An alternative system known as the Auburn or Silent system developed elsewhere in the United States. However. What was needed was a wholly new kind of prison on a large scale. although at the time it was called Cherry Hill because it displaced a cherry orchard. Despite not being finished. a system which had been tried occasionally in England but was always abandoned because of costs and inadequate prison structures. the Prison Society?s network of more than 450 Official Visitors makes roughly 5. and work in congregate shops in silence during the day. became the template for reform all over Europe. The role of the Prison Society could be subsumed under three rubrics: oversight and advocacy. Prison Society members made regular visits to prisons to speak with prisoners about their lives as well as conditions in the prison. heating of the cells and sanitation could be noticed by the visitors. The system of 24-hour separation of each prisoner coupled with in-cell feeding. in 1861. and sometimes vocational instruction.000 prison visits each year and continues to be one of the most vital and important aspects of the organization. Completed in 1836. This legislative mandate. a flush toilet in each cell (long before the White House was provided with such conveniences). The small "penitentiary house" of 16 cells at Walnut Street jail had ended up being used mostly for hard core prisoners and as punishment of infractions of prison rules. nearly 800 visits in the cells and 300 at the cell door were carried out by Prison Society members. and Asia. clothing. neither system was used in the United States. From the time of the organization?s inception.S. Such matters as food. came to be known as the Pennsylvania System or Separate System. Some scholars believe that those early visitors were easily hoodwinked by both officials and inmates but certainly their periodic visits did discourage some of the abuses which might otherwise have occurred over the years.Members of the Prison Society felt that the solution to the disorder and corruption in most prisons and even at the Walnut Street Jail lay in complete separation of each inmate for his or her entire sentence. Today. By the early decades of the 20th Century. South America. In 1822. although the system and its unusual architecture ? a central hub and radiating cellblocks ? were seldom imitated in other states. Capitol). Cutting edge technology of the 1820s and 1830s was used to install conveniences unmatched in other public buildings: central heating (before the U. prison visiting. with individual sleeping cells. .

For example. meeting regularly with top corrections officials to promote reform. where. parenting education. An account of an execution that year related how two prisoners "were taken out amidst a crowd of spectators ? they walked after a cart in which were two coffins and a ladder. Pennsylvania?s Quaker-inspired code abolished the death penalty for all crimes except murder.. using instead imprisonment with labor and fines. establishing specialty courts (drug and mental health). Because "life means life" in Pennsylvania. abolished the Duke of York?s severe criminal code which was in effect in other parts of British North America. Two centuries ago. the Prison Society established in 1845 the Journal of Prison Discipline and Philanthropy. and more than 1. To understand how this happened. For more than two centuries." homosexual acts and kidnapping. As late as 1780. . The Prison Society helps families affected by incarceration build and maintain their relationships through programs such as virtual video conferencing. Today. and promoting legislation that does not prohibit ex-offenders from employment. Upon Penn?s death.Advocacy issues the Prison Society has tackled in recent years include: influencing the Board of Pardons to hear more cases. Additionally. Philadelphia and Pennsylvania became the center of prison reform worldwide. and their families. denying "the true God. the Prison Society published a quarterly newsletter. the graying prison population is rising dramatically and the Prison Society provides case management to incarcerated men and women age 50 and older. a committed board of directors with exceptional expertise in the criminal justice and corrections world. and panelists for seminars and conferences. among other offenses. conservative factions in the American colony and in England reintroduced many of the more sanguinary punishments. repealing mandatory sentencing codes. which is published today as The Prison Journal. the Prison Society provides testimony on criminal justice issues. As part of its mission to inform the public on issues dealing with the treatment of prisoners and corrections in general. Correctional Forum. the Prison Society continues that mission with patience and passion and with steadfast energy through a dedicated and competant statewide staff. Graterfriends. who himself had been confined in England for his Quaker beliefs. Penn. community speakers. obtaining necessary identification. ex-offenders. and support groups for children of incarcerated parents. punishments such as the pillory and hanging were carried out in public. advocating for the abolition of the death penalty. job search preparation. etc. Re-Entry Services Programs empower ex-offenders to become respected and productive members of the community by helping them with life skills. the penalty of death was applied for murder. published primarily for prisoners. and job readiness. The law did call for severe penalties for sexual offenses: "defiling the marriage bed" was to be punished by whipping plus a one year sentence for the first offense.000 members who support the organization. Additionally. the Prison Society has worked diligently to combine justice and compassion for a more humane and restorative correctional system. Severe physical punishments were used for what were considered lesser crimes. and public welfare benefits. especially those of life sentenced prisoners. one must look briefly at the early development of penal practices in William Penn?s colony. The Prison Society is involved in a wide range of program areas which provide services for prisoners. Restorative Justice services help offenders find meaningful ways to be accountable for their crimes and build relationships with communities and victims. housing. encouraging legislative changes in the areas of early parole for "good time" behavior. life imprisonment for the second. as well as a monthly newsletter.

The old abuses and idleness seemed eliminated. men and women were all crowded together. fees for locking and unlocking cells. had soup prepared in his home to be distributed to the inmates in Philadelphia prisons. e.] 1 o?clock. Independence Hall). a Quaker. In the Old Stone Jail at Third and Market Streets in Philadelphia. it was a common custom for the jailer or sheriff to provide a bar. Benjamin Rush and others organized a movement to reform the harsh penal code of 1718. charging inflated prices to the prisoners for spirits.g. But reaction against the public display of convicts on the streets of the city and the disgraceful conditions in the Walnut Street jail led to the formation in 1787 of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons. as in other county jails in Pennsylvania at the time. Here. old and young. and for attaching and removing irons incident to a court appearance. conditions were little better than they had been at the old jail. clothing. The result was great suffering when the weather turned cold. Sr. The new law substituted public labor for the previous severe punishments. The new prison had the traditional layout of large rooms for the inmates. the first of such societies in the world. with separation of different sorts of prisoners and workshops providing useful trade instruction. the English custom of charging for various other services was also in force. many of whom were suffering from starvation at the time and even several deaths. The large . the organization was disbanded." Walnut Street Jail. In Chester County. [sic.each had a rope about his neck and their arms tied behin [sic] them? they were both hanged in the commons of this city [Philadelphia] abt. but with Walnut Street now a state prison and the population of Philadelphia increasing rapidly. by the same legislation. behind the State House (later." Jails up until the time of the American Revolution were used largely for persons awaiting trial and other punishments and for debtors and sometimes witnesses.. food. Prisoners awaiting trial might barter their clothes for liquor or be forcibly stripped upon entering by other inmates seeking funds for the bar. Following 1790. black and white. Initially. After the peace of 1783. heat. a new jail was begun in 1773 on Walnut Street. An act of 1790 brought about sweeping reforms in the prison and authorized a penitentiary house with 16 cells to be built in the yard of the jail to carry out solitary confinement with labor for "hardened atrocious offenders. Wistar formed the Philadelphia Society for Assisting Distressed Prisoners. Richard Wistar. Because of the rapidly growing population. (a name it retained for 100 years. became the first state prison in Pennsylvania. Members of the Society were appalled by what they learned about the new Walnut Street prison and the next year presented to the state legislature an account of their investigations of conditions and recommended solitary confinement at hard labor as a remedy and reformative strategy. but with the British occupation of the city the next year. the Walnut Street jail became a showplace. became intolerably crowded. it. at which time it became The Pennsylvania Prison Society). a group of prominent citizens led by Benjamin Franklin. One estimate stated that 20 gallons of spirits were brought into the prison daily by the jailer for sale to the inmates. It was also considered a common practice for certain women to arrange to get arrested to gain access to the male prisoners. like its predecessor. In 1776.

18 feet square. it turned out to be one of the largest structures in the country at the time and far exceeding preliminary cost estimates. the prison opened in 1829. The system of 24-hour separation of each prisoner coupled with in-cell feeding. now part of Pittsburgh. In 1822. What was needed was a wholly new kind of prison on a large scale. although at the time it was called Cherry Hill because it displaced a cherry orchard. From the time . built specifically to separate inmates from one another. which still housed most of the prisoners. Capitol). 1821. The role of the Prison Society could be subsumed under three rubrics: oversight and advocacy. The Prison Society continued to urge the creation of large penitentiaries for the more efficient handling of prisoners. Members of the Prison Society felt that the solution to the disorder and corruption in most prisons and even at the Walnut Street Jail lay in complete separation of each inmate for his or her entire sentence. An alternative system known as the Auburn or Silent system developed elsewhere in the United States. By the early decades of the 20th Century. with individual sleeping cells. Despite not being finished. The small "penitentiary house" of 16 cells at Walnut Street jail had ended up being used mostly for hard core prisoners and as punishment of infractions of prison rules. although the system and its unusual architecture ? a central hub and radiating cellblocks ? were seldom imitated in other states. Authorizing legislation was finally passed on March 20. However. Only an entire larger structure. became the template for reform all over Europe. would be needed. and remained the official position of the Pennsylvania Prison Society throughout the 19th century. Each prisoner was to be provided with a cell from which they would rarely leave and each cell had to be large enough to be a workplace and have attached a small individual exercise yard. prison visiting. a flush toilet in each cell (long before the White House was provided with such conveniences). a system which had been tried occasionally in England but was always abandoned because of costs and inadequate prison structures. sometimes as small as 2? by 6 ? feet. Cutting edge technology of the 1820s and 1830s was used to install conveniences unmatched in other public buildings: central heating (before the U. that site would never prove the value of the system of separate confinement which came to be called the Pennsylvania System.rooms. The reformers also remained convinced that in spite of the small-scale isolation cellblock at Walnut Street. which had developed in the Philadelphia prison. Partially as the result of the Prison Society?s efforts. the Separate System and its distinctive hub-and-spoke or radial architecture. money was appropriated for a state penitentiary to be built at Allegheny. neither system was used in the United States. and assistance to men and women released from prison. Among them was Samuel Wood. and Asia. South America. by 1795 had between 30 and 40 occupants each. later to be the first warden of the prison. work. All but three of the building commissioners were either members of the Pennsylvania Prison Society or had served on the board of inspectors of the Walnut Street jail. shower baths (apparently the first in the country). and work in congregate shops in silence during the day. came to be known as the Pennsylvania System or Separate System. work began on what was to become Eastern State Penitentiary. and eleven commissioners were appointed by the governor. Completed in 1836.S. and sometimes vocational instruction.

As part of its mission to inform the public on issues dealing with the treatment of prisoners and corrections in general. parenting education. Additionally. advocating for the abolition of the death penalty. encouraging legislative changes in the areas of early parole for "good time" behavior. Today. ex-offenders. the graying prison population is rising dramatically and the Prison Society provides case management to incarcerated men and women age 50 and older. the Prison Society published a quarterly newsletter. published primarily for prisoners. and public welfare benefits. For example. Correctional Forum. and job readiness. heating of the cells and sanitation could be noticed by the visitors.000 members who support the organization. The Prison Society is involved in a wide range of program areas which provide services for prisoners. community speakers. and panelists for seminars and conferences. Additionally. establishing specialty courts (drug and mental health). For more than two centuries. Such matters as food. which is published today as The Prison Journal.of the organization?s inception. At Eastern State Penitentiary in one month alone. Advocacy issues the Prison Society has tackled in recent years include: influencing the Board of Pardons to hear more cases. especially those of life sentenced prisoners. the Prison Society continues that mission with patience and passion and with steadfast energy through a dedicated and competant statewide staff. Restorative Justice services help offenders find meaningful ways to be accountable for their crimes and build relationships with communities and victims. in 1861. unmatched anywhere in the nation. ensures citizen involvement in the administration of justice which provides a base of information for the oversight of the prison system and for inmate advocacy. Re-Entry Services Programs empower ex-offenders to become respected and productive members of the community by helping them with life skills. the Prison Society provides testimony on criminal justice issues. the Prison Society?s network of more than 450 Official Visitors makes roughly 5. and their families. This legislative mandate. housing. the Prison Society has worked diligently to combine justice and compassion for a more humane and restorative correctional system. nearly 800 visits in the cells and 300 at the cell door were carried out by Prison Society members. meeting regularly with top corrections officials to promote reform. The Prison Society helps families affected by incarceration build and maintain their relationships through programs such as virtual video conferencing. Some scholars believe that those early visitors were easily hoodwinked by both officials and inmates but certainly their periodic visits did discourage some of the abuses which might otherwise have occurred over the years. as well as a monthly newsletter. clothing. Today. repealing mandatory sentencing codes. Because "life means life" in Pennsylvania. the Prison Society established in 1845 the Journal of Prison Discipline and Philanthropy. and support groups for children of incarcerated parents. The Prison Society?s Official Visitors are provided access to all state and county correctional facilities through act of legislature. and more than 1. Prison Society members made regular visits to prisons to speak with prisoners about their lives as well as conditions in the prison. and promoting legislation that does not prohibit ex-offenders from employment. obtaining necessary identification.000 prison visits each year and continues to be one of the most vital and important aspects of the organization. job search preparation. . a committed board of directors with exceptional expertise in the criminal justice and corrections world. Graterfriends.

had stumbled upon something that was important in the public's eye. They were rarely used for the incarceration of the criminal classes. The jail of the eighteenth century was not too different from a jail in the late twentieth century. John Howard published his breakthrough book. Thus. Barnes (1972) described the jail as follows: The jails or prisons were chiefly used for the detention of those accused of crime pending their trial and for the confinement of debtors and religious political offenders. 45-46) In 1777. British society started to move away from corporal punishment and toward imprisonment with the hope of reforming the mind and body. it was also the facility that housed individuals waiting for trial who could not afford bail and those sentenced for a short period of time. the British did not have a foreign colony where they could imprison individuals without it costing a great deal of money." This book provided critical information on the status of prisons and the prisoners contained there. as quoted by Ignatieff (1978). John Howard. In addition. Henry Fielding. known as the father of the modern penitentiary. According to McGowen (1995) there were two types of prisons in the eighteenth century: the jail and the house of correction. After reading his book. the convict system began in 1776 as a backlash to the loss of the American colonies. the word penitentiary more aptly describes this type of building. "The State of Prisons in England and Wales. With the United States winning its independence from England in 1776. (p. These changes ultimately helped to pave the way for penitentiaries throughout the world and the rest of Europe. JACKSON LEICESTER PRISON (1825) THE PENITENTIARY IN ENGLAND AND WALES Although prison is a term that one often likes to use when describing the facilities used to incarcerate convicted individuals. "It was necessary to find an intermediate penalty. combining 'correction of the body' and 'correction of the mind'. the public's attention was turned toward the penal situation in England." (pp. The push for penitientiaries instead of prisons began in England and Wales in the eighteenth century. Beginning in the eighteenth century. 114) GLOUCASTER PENITENTIARY (1795) . thought.INCARCERATED: THE HISTORY OF THE PENITENTIARY FROM 1776-PRESENT BY N.

there were several changes made within the convict system in England. to strike terror into the hearts of its inmates. The first major change was the trial period of the silent system in 1834. Prisoners were not confined to cells but they worked together on various outdoor projects. The Penitentiary House was a step above the House of Safe Custody. The difference between a jail and the House of Safe Custody was that the House of Safe Custody did not imprison those individuals who had short sentence terms to serve. 29) Not only did Bentham elaborate on the types of prisons. If the silence was broken. Bentham thought its sole purpose was to house debtors and those waiting for trial. The second type of prison Bentham established was the Penitentiary House. a severe punishment would be issued. Semple (1993) describes the Black Prison as follows: In the Black Prison. the three types of prisons where the House of Safe Custody. Bentham had concluded that there were in fact three types of prisons. but he developed a specific type of architecture that was conducive to the prison environment. thus reminding them that they were indeed an abode of death from which there was no escape. "the separate system provided an opportunity for the prisoner to 'commune with his conscience'. Panopticon means a view that can see everything." (pp. (p. a health reformer. The House of Safe Custody was similar to an eighteenth century jail. Bentham proposed the idea of the panopticon to make it easier to patrol the prisoners. 99-100) . Jeremy Bentham. Bentham had separated the tasks of the jail by dividing those tasks between the House of Safe Custody and the Penitentiary House. The separate system was a truly unique system in which each prisoner had his own cell and was confined there for extensive hours during the day. His ideas had expanded upon what was previously thought of as the status quo. and the Black Prison. According to Bentham. This system eventually paved the way for the more popular separate system. the Penitentiary House. This prison offered longer stays than the Penitentiary House.ABINGDON JAIL (1804-1812) Using John Howard's work as a basis. The silent system gave slightly more freedom to prisoners but any type of communication was completely forbidden. The second major change was the introduction of the separate system. The separate system was established between 1835 and 1850 and was promoted by the prison reformer Jonas Hanway. The Black Prison was the last type of prison Bentham established. This is where the temporary imprisonment occurred. This type of architecture was the idea of the panopticon. Shortly after Bentham released his ideas of what a prison ought to be. two skeletons were to lie slumped together one either side of an iron door. stepped into the prison forum. McGowen (1995) thought.

McGowen (1995) thought. in conjunction with the separate system. prisoners were confined to their cells for the duration of their sentence. Prisoners were sent there upon completion of the nine months in separate confinement." (p. Jebb was chairman of the Directors of Convict Prisons from the late 1840s until his death in 1863. After Jebb had established his three stages of imprisonment in the convict system. "Pentonville represented the apotheosis of the idea that a totally controlled environment could produce a reformed and autonomous individual. As part of the separate system. he was given a certificate demonstrating his good behavior and a few shillings and pounds. their ultimate goal was to make the prisoners work excruciatingly hard. Jebb continued with this type of punishment but he made the length of the separate confinement nine months long. This prison used the design of the separate system. Joshua Jebb transformed the penitentiary into its modern day counterpart." (p. This release was contingent upon good behavior in the prior two stages of imprisonment. 101) Not only did Pentonville fulfill the goals of the separate system but it also used the panopticon idea created by Jeremy Bentham. Edmund du Cane. 146) The third stage of Joshua Jebb's imprisonment was a conditional release. Prisoners worked on difficult tasks that would benefit the public. McGowen (1995) described these stages as "imprisonment with hard labor had become a near universal substitute for flogging and other corporal punishments by the middle of the nineteenth century. the Pentonville prison was opened. he tried to consolidate the local prison system with the . he had wanted to make the length of confinement eighteen months long but the solitude took too much of a mental toll on the prisoners and occasionally even caused death. During his reign as king of the prisons. Toward the middle part of the nineteenth century and the birth of the industrial revolution. These tasks varied in nature but. allows prison overseers to effectively separate prisoners while maintaining a careful watch upon each of them. Jebb created a three-stage tier of imprisonment in the convict prison system that combined the separate system with the silent system. First. Once the prisoner was released. The second stage of imprisonment Jebb instituted was the use of a public works prison. Jebb created terms of separate confinement. Jebb made some lasting imprints that are still present in today. his counterpart in the local system. Edmund du Cane became chairman of the Directors of Convict Prisons once Joshua Jebb had passed away. Yet before Jebb died. The panopticon design.The separation system was popular and is still the main method of imprisonment throughout the world and England. Originally. had tried to introduce those stages as well. PENTONVILLE PRISON INMATE In 1842.

The other Borstal element Paterson borrowed that he established a housemaster (also called assistant governor). In fact. The final blow toward the decimation of prison development was World War II. the idea of having multiple levels of security within the convict system. Thus. prisons began to erode into overcrowded buildings. During the 1960s. By the start of the this century. One major way that prisons began to erode was because of World War I. the second was the social and penal reformers' assurance that successive governments could not be blamed for wanting to believe . . all of the money was spent on the war effort. This period became the golden epoque of prison history that has yet to be surpassed in any decade of the twentieth century. The accused individuals were housed in separate dwellings. . prison budgets were the first to get slashed. there were only four prisons built between 1900 and 1939. 154-155) During these thirty years of destruction and chaos. . National budgets were completely decimated while the world's economy was on its hands and knees. The local prison was the jail or house of corrections. there were several key accomplishments that were made. that it was part of the passing turmoil of wartime upheaval. With Europe literally destroying its self. With barely any money to spend. and Alexander Paterson's goals were brought to life. Thus. 42 prisons had been built in England before 1900. money in the budget was spent on rebuilding England after the war. he began to borrow ideas from other prison facilities. Britain took one of the hardest hands dealt during the war. during the Great Depression there were some key ideas that truly changed the organizational structure of the prison system.convict prison system. With the country in shambles. The Great Depression dealt another heavy blow to the slashing of prison budgets. With Europe in constant battle. the first minimum security prison opened. and that the need for prisons would decline. However. During Victoria's reign as queen of England. Before that. The ideas that Paterson borrowed were called the Borstal elements. These two systems had ironically gone their separate ways in the late eighteenth century. There were two distinct types of prisons within England. there were only a handful of prisons built. The convict prison was the facility at which Joshua Jebb. The first element was that he created. The first was local prison. When Alexander Paterson became head of the Prison Commission.that crime would yield to social amelioration. The housemaster's duty was to watch a specific section of the prison. or rather borrowed. The local prison no longer housed those individuals waiting for their trials. Edmund du Cane. This meant that a majority of England's prisoners were being incarcerated in facilities that were over one hundred years old. The second distinct type of prison was the convict prison. . less money was spent on prisons. national budgets were devoted to the war effort. in 1936. (pp. things began to turn around in the English penal system in a positive manner. This prison was called New Hall. specifically the juvenile detention centers. McConville (1995) described these factors as follows: The first was the vast and pressing program of repairing war damages.

These two facilities are local prison and the convict prison.392 prisons that were being incarcerated as of January 1. 2) house those serving out their sentence. England had a 100.The modern English prison is overcrowded. With the help of people who are looking out for the best interest of those less fortunate than themselves.6% occupation rate and had a total of 49. the prison has become a humane yet overcrowded facility apart from the real world. In present day England. According to the Penal Lexicon web site (4/14/97). the prison has evolved into two types of facilities that have goals of reforming the individual into a prosperous member of society." Due to overcrowding. the jail has now assumed two functions: 1) house those waiting for trial and. if their sentence or behavior allows it. 1994. "pre-trial and convicted prisoners were held in the police station because of a shortage of space in Liverpool prison. . Also. the Penal Lexicon web site reported that in 1994.