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Action

Inquiry Project Using Google Apps as a Model for Adopting New Technology
Ryan McClintock INTE 6720, Fall 2011
Castle View High School is a public school located in the Denver suburb of Castle Rock, Colorado. It opened in 2006 offering an academy-style education working on a 4x4 block schedule. Castle View currently serves 1,720 students who, upon enrollment, choose one of four academies: Biotechnology and Health Sciences (BHS); Leadership, Global Studies, and Communication (LGC); Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM); and Visual and Performing Arts (VPA). Within each academy are pathways of study that further focus students course offerings and internship opportunities. Castle Views reform-minded programs were designed around a culture of Relationships, Rigor, and Relevance. Central to this design is the schools advisement program, which partner each teacher with a group of 20-28 students. This teacher-student advisement group meets daily and progresses together from grade 9 to grade 12 ultimately culminating in graduation where the teacher is honored to announce his/her advisement students names during the ceremony. I have had the privilege of working at Castle View since 2007 (the schools second year of operation). Ive taught chemistry, earth and space science, physical science, and biotechnology at Castle View. I currently teach chemistry and biotechnology and serve as the Science department chair (this is my fourth year in this position). As a teacher-leader I participated in our Summer-2011 development project to design our four-year plan for school and learning improvement. This project involved attending a leadership conference, planning and leading our schools summer retreat for staff, and designing and implementing our Professional Development sessions. The 2011-2012 academic year will mark the first of our four-year plan that focuses on technology implementation, next generation instruction, and improving our advisement program. To effect creative and marked improvement in these areas, CV staff and teachers must continue to collaborate across content areas within their respective academies, but must also share ideas and progress across academy barriers. Effective use of already available technology that reaches beyond email and traditional face-to-face meetings will catalyze this change.

Current Opportunity
The Douglas County School District (DCSD) and Castle View High School have recently transitioned its employees and students to a Google Apps cloud-based environment. While several Castle View teachers are beginning to realize the opportunities this transition has introduced, mainly collaborative documents and sites, many remain overwhelmed with the

details involved in learning this new system. As a teacher-leader at Castle View, I see an opportunity to help my colleagues learn the advantages of Google Apps as an email and collaboration environment. I believe many will not only learn to appreciate the merits of Google Apps but also begin to understand the creative possibilities the platform allows to further connect with our students and ultimately enhance learning and instruction. New technologies are, more often than not, introduced to teachers with the expectation they will be implemented successfully, despite lackluster training and support. Teachers and staff are often left alone to learn and master the details of the technology. This often serves to frustrate and may foster a sense of technological distrust. Can Castle View leaders and staff thwart such frustration and distrust by designing and implementing its own training program? The programs and creative ideas behind Castle Views design are too important to leave this question unanswered. Castle View teachers and staff must understand the main features of Google Apps to effect the clear communication and collaboration required to improve in our mission to educate students.

Purpose
This inquiry will document and evaluate the grass-roots efforts of CV leaders, teachers, and staff to design and implement professional development, training and support in the use of Google Apps to increase the efficiency of communication and collaboration across the building.

Research Questions
The following questions will guide this inquiry: 1. What are the basic uses teachers will share with respect to Google Apps use (minimum proficiency)? 2. What differences are there among teachers with respect to Google Apps use (e.g., subject matter, level)? 3. What needs do different types of teachers have with respect to Google Apps support and incentives for use (e.g., early adopters versus slower or more reluctant adopters)? 4. How can technology best be deployed to support the needs of different teachers at different levels of use and confidence (e.g., drop-in sessions, video demos, direct over- the-shoulder support)? 5. How can we create a support environment wherein all teachers can successfully adopt Google Apps, but fostering at the same time a culture of innovation and open sharing of ideas/uses?

Methods
An initial survey was circulated to ascertain how CV teachers and staff members are currently using their Google Apps. This short survey asked them to check the apps they routinely use, as well as what training they have received to date. Following a review of the survey results, I identified teachers with requisite knowledge to help others learn the technology. These teachers were asked of their willingness to participate in several casual, drop-in training sessions to help their colleagues learn the main features of Google Apps. Several of these trainings were offered after-school. They were approximately 45 minutes in duration. Participant names and their primary needs were logged during these sessions. In parallel to these casual, drop-in sessions, several how to videos/screencast videos were created and organized into a site shared with staff members. This site served as supplemental training for those looking to learn on their own rather than attend training sessions. Additionally, several of the training teachers will circulate at prescribed times to teachers classrooms asking them if they need any on the spot help. After several training sessions, a second survey was circulated asking about their comfort with Google Apps and desire to use the technology to enhance instruction and student learning. A forum for teachers, staff, and administrators to share creative and innovative ways they are using Google Apps was created to provide a transparent nature to this training and to demonstrate the unique ways we are using the technology to, ultimately, effect student learning.

Participants
The key participants in this project were my Castle View colleagues: fellow teachers, staff members, and administrators. This project spanned the entire building. Understanding the nature of a cloud-based system, like Google Apps, is critical to all involved in educating our students, as it represents much more than efficiently reading email messages. The collaborative nature of Google Apps coupled with its continued and ongoing evolution towards more creative and functional possibilities is central and analogous to understanding the changes currently underway in education. Sharing Google docs, sites, calendars, and many other features of Google Apps, impacts teacher-to-teacher and student-to-teacher interactions, namely collaboration and learning. Teachers must be confident in using this type of technology.

Non-teaching staff members must also be competent using Google Apps to effect, among other things, clear communication within the building. This project, therefore, will also involve their input and feedback. School leaders and administration must understand all foundational efforts that impact morale, efficiency, and ultimately learning. They must lead by example and model behavior that they wish to observe of their staff. This project will involve my Principal and his Assistants.

Data Collection
The following show the plan for data collection for this project as they relate to the research questions.
Research Question What are the basic uses teachers will share with respect to Google Apps use (minimum proficiency)? What differences are there among teachers with respect to Google Apps use (e.g., subject matter, level)? What needs do different types of teachers have with respect to Google Apps support and incentives for use (e.g., early adopters versus slower or more reluctant adopters)? How can technology best be deployed to support the needs of different teachers at different levels of use and confidence (e.g., drop-in sessions, video demos, direct over-the-shoulder support)? How can we create a support environment wherein all teachers can successfully adopt Google Apps, but fostering at the same time a culture of innovation and open sharing of ideas/uses? How can we create a support environment wherein all teachers can successfully adopt Google Apps, but fostering at the same time a culture of innovation and open sharing of ideas/uses? Data Collection Procedures An initial survey asks participants to identify their experience, expertise, and competence using Google Apps. This survey also asks participants to identify their content/area of work and teaching experience. Responses to the initial survey will be groups into the following categories: early adopters, slow adopter, and reluctant adopter. Representatives from each group will be interviewed to ascertain their thoughts regarding different types of support (e.g., casual drop-in, video tutorials, and over-the- shoulder support). Observation, interviews, and a survey will ultimately address this question. Observation and interviews will be conducted during drop-in sessions and via feedback forms linked to the site containing How To videos. A survey towards the end of the study asks participants to identify which of the resources they used and learned best from. This information will be correlated to their previously identified level of expertise regarding Google Apps usage.

The answers to this question lie in staff contributions to shared resources (as modeled through Google Apps usage). This resource asks name, content/position, and description of Google Apps use (with a place for them to link to a doc if appropriate).

Data Analysis
The data in the project consists of surveys, interviews, and observations (recorded in a log). The initial survey asks participants to supply feedback in the form of short answer, multiple- choice, rankings, and yes/no responses. The survey was created in Google forms and disseminated using email. Google forms collects responses in spreadsheet format, which allows for easy sorting and identification (of response patterns). Face-to-face interviews of Early Adopters, Slow Adopters, and Reluctant Adopters asks them to identify their support preferences so as to identify patterns regarding comfort with the technology and support style. A log will organize observations of drop-in sessions. This log will contain participant names, content areas, area(s) in of needed support, and frequency of visits. A site containing several How To videos will be shared with teachers, staff, and administrators. This site contains embedded Google forms that ask for feedback to the video(s) they watched and used. Another survey will circulate (also via email) to those that participated in the drop-in sessions and/or utilized the video tutorials. This survey asks for participants to identify their current competence using Google Apps and to (via short answer) to discuss the methods of support of this grassroots type movement.

Questions X Methods Table


Research Question What are the basic uses teachers will share with respect to Google Apps use (minimum proficiency)? What differences are there among teachers with respect to Google Apps use (e.g., subject matter, level)? What needs do different types of teachers have with respect to Google Apps support and incentives for use (e.g., early adopters versus slower or more reluctant adopters)? How can technology best be deployed to support the needs of different teachers, staff, and administration at different levels of use and confidence (e.g., drop-in Primary Data Data Source #2 Data Source #3 Source Teachers, staff, leadership Teaches by content Teachers by subcontent

Teachers, staff, DCSD and leadership technology office

Literature Review

Teachers, staff, Literature and leadership review

sessions, video demos, direct over- the-shoulder support)? How can we create a support environment wherein all teachers can successfully adopt Google Apps, but fostering at the same time a culture of innovation and open sharing of ideas/uses? How can we create a support environment wherein all teachers can successfully adopt Google Apps, but fostering at the same time a culture of innovation and open sharing of ideas/uses?

Teachers

Literature review

Social media (e.g., Twitter)

Schedule
The following was the planned schedule for this project.
Week 1 (9/4 to 9/10) Scan to identify problem within work (school) setting to determine next steps for action inquiry project. Week 2 (9/11 to 9/17) Determine research methods and data collection for project Week 3 (9/18 to 9/24) Create and submit proposal Week 4 (9/25 to 10/1) Begin collecting data, circulate initial survey to teachers, staff, and administrators. interviews with teachers and principal. Weeks 5-7 (10/2 to 10/22) Review initial survey responses, conduct interviews, create video tutorial site, organize dates and times for drop-in session Weeks 8 & 9 (10/23 to 11/5) Analyze data and circulate final survey Week 10 (11/6 to 11/12) Summarize and conclude

Ethical/Stakeholder Impacts
This project has two main ethical concerns. My first concern is with my ability to ask teachers, staff, and administrators either how long they have worked in education or, more directly, their age. These questions will help identify any correlation between this data and responses to technology adaptability. My second area of concern involves the sustainability of this type of grassroots efforts to provide technology support from within. My efforts and those of my colleagues that will support other staff are, at this time, voluntary in nature. At some point in time a stipend must be discussed to encourage those with particular expertise to utilize their time and energy to support others.

Findings
Literature Review
Researching the use of Google Apps among teachers and students, and the training required to properly support a transition to Google Apps, led to much about technology gaps and inefficient implementation of technology in education. This review organizes many of my findings around the research questions central to my inquiry project.

Search Procedures
To compile my literature regarding Google Apps, technology training, technology gaps, cloud computing, all of which are critical search terms for this project, I used Google (basic and advanced features), Google Scholar, and the Auraria Library. I found no shortage of literature pertaining to technology and education, both with respect to teacher to student and teacher to teacher. Specific references to Google Apps, however, were harder to find. To overcome this I instead searched for cloud computing, which yielded more results. Technology gaps among teachers was also an area that yielded much in terms of articles and information.

Research Question #1: What are the basic uses teachers will share with respect to Google Apps use?
The potential of cloud computing for improving efficiency, cost and convenience for the educational sector is being recognized by a number of US educational establishments (Sultan, 2010). Cloud computing, often led by the use of Google Apps, is becoming more and more popular among school districts and universities. Most Google users will utilize Gmail features prior to venturing into the other utilities (e.g., Docs, Sites, Calendar, and Reader). Once comfortable with Gmail, users will no doubt notice functional similarities between it and other Google Apps. Users may begin using Docs by creating and collaborating on a lesson plan with other users (Google, 2011). By using Google Apps, teachers will begin to migrate to cloud-based applications and usage patterns.

Research Question #2: What differences are there among teachers with respect to Google Apps use (e.g., subject matter, level)?
It seems to reason that certain content areas utilize more technology than others. Science, for example, often employs the use of computers and lab probes to investigate matter. One may think that they are more open to implementing all uses of technology into their teaching. Research, however, suggest technology implementation may be more closely related to years of teaching experience. Experienced teachers generally decide to use technology involuntarily in response to external forces while teachers will little experience are more likely to use it on their own will (Baek, 2008). Experienced teaches may have developed methods and practices that they value and know to work in teaching students. They may also have experiences numerous attempts by administrators and district officials to implement new technologies with limited support. These new technologies often are abandoned over time leaving the 7

experienced teacher highly skeptical of new offerings. Less experienced teachers are less skeptical and more open-minded to new technologies and teaching practices. Exceptions, however, occur with teachers who constantly reflect and seek to improve their efforts.

Research Question #3: How can technology best be deployed to support the needs of different teachers at different levels of use and confidence (e.g., drop-in sessions, video demos, direct over-the-shoulder support)?
Technology guides and trainers must organize several training sessions that allow users (in this case, teachers) to explore Google Apps and ask questions when needed (Google, 2011). Additional training session will allow these teachers, now slightly experienced in Google Apps, to bring more specific questions and needs to trainers. At this point the teachers should be encouraged to help one another, that is, collaborate, under the watchful eyes of the trainers. Also according to Google (2011), video support should be available for learning teachers so they are encouraged to try new features when not surrounded by trainers and guides. Multimedia (e.g., video screencasts) are potentially useful in many situations, such as showing processes in action or adding opportunities for student interaction with the material in a realistic setting (Oud, 2009). Screencast videos are most effective when coupled with face-to-face support.

Research Question #4: How can we create a support environment wherin all teachers can successfully adopt Google Apps, but fostering, at the same time, a culture of innovation and open sharing of ideas/uses?
Most educators are enthusiastic about the role technology can play in improving learning, but may still feel unprepared to take advantage of digital tools in the classroom (Boss, ND). Effective support programs must be designed and implemented to capitalize on this enthusiasm. Google Apps allows guides to model the technology to help users, teachers, learn. Using collaborative documents, like Google Docs, to learn, say, Google Docs is what will allow learning and progress to converge. It is of the utmost in practicality to learn how to do something and, at the same time, use this new information to create and share. Teachers need help figuring out how the technology fits with their teaching styles and lesson plans (McCrea, 2009). Who better to teach teachers than teachers? Teacher professional learning designed and implemented by teaching colleagues will ensure practical approaches that can be utilized immediately by the teachers being taught. Google Apps training sessions conducted by teaching colleagues (guides) can foster learning, sharing, and innovation. Imaging a teacher learning how to create and share a Google Doc with her colleagues designed to brainstorm ideas about using Google Docs.

Literature Summary
Researching literature regarding helping teachers appreciate new technologies, Google Apps in this case, has helped me realize the personal nature required to really help. Teachers need technology support, timely and personal, that will help them see the need and reach of 8

implementing the technology. Such help should almost always be grassroots in that it should be created and carried out by knowledgeable colleagues that can be available almost at a moments notice. These helping teachers must model the technology and maintain professional respect for their colleagues experience and skepticism regarding the implementation of new technologies. Training ones colleagues to use Google Apps will almost certainly transfer skills and knowledge to countless other cloud-based or so-called 2.0 technologies. Teachers that successfully bridge the technology gap will then help other teachers and colleagues experience the same level of confidence. According to Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich (2010), teachers must realize that they are the agents of instructional change, not the technology itself. Ultimately this change, coupled with newly learned technology skills, will transfer to instruction and learning with students.

Discussion and Recommendations


This section combines teacher surveys, interviews, and observations to address this projects four research questions.

Research Question #1: What are the basic uses teachers will share with respect to Google Apps use (i.e., minimum proficiency)?
The Douglas County School District (DCSD) moved all of its email and calendar function from FirstClass to Google at the end of the 2011 academic year. To effect this change, teachers attended a mandatory thirty-minute training session where the trainer simply showed teachers how to access their accounts. At this time there was no official mention of the other various applications within Google Apps, such as, Docs, Calendar, and Sites. Many teachers simply viewed the transition to Google as an email change only. Results from my initial survey of teachers indicate the validity of this idea: Email Calendar Docs Sites How are you currently using DCSD 32 4 6 3 Google Apps? Only a small number of the surveyed teachers are using Google Apps for more than email functionality. Additionally, all 27 of the teachers that attended one or more of the Drop-In training sessions identified their main reason as Help with Google Docs. Those who attended multiple training sessions eventually began asking about the Calendar and Sites features of Google Apps. Competency with Gmail and Google Docs was universally deemed necessary before advancing to the other types of apps. Minimum Google Apps proficiency, therefore, is Gmail (intermediate/advanced features) and Google Docs (creating and sharing documents).

Research Question #2: What needs do different types of teachers have with respect to Google Apps support and incentives for use (e.g., early adopters versus slower or more reluctant adopters)?
The initial survey asked participants to identify themselves as Early Adopters (EA), Skeptical Adopters (SA), or Reluctant Adopters (RA) with respect to technology comfort level. Heres how they responded:
Which best describes your comfort level with technology? Early Adopter 8 Skeptical Adopter 21 Reluctant Adopter 3

Seven of the eight Early Adopters were less than 29 years old, one of the Early Adopters was 35- 39 years old. Two of the three Reluctant Adopters were over 55 years old. One was in the 30-34 year-old range. The remaining participants, i.e., the Skeptical Adopters, were all between 30 and 54 years old. This data suggests younger teachers are more comfortable with technology than older teachers. Teaching experience was also recorded. With few exceptions, more teaching experience tended to result in Skeptical or Reluctant Adopters and less teaching experience correlated to Early or (somewhat) Skeptical Adopters. A follow up to the age and teaching experience questions asked participants to identify the type of technology training that works best for them.
Which type of technology training works best for you? Video Tutorial 10 Lecture 0 Over-the- Shoulder 18 Self- Exploration 4

Early Adopters tended to identify Self-Exploration and Video Tutorial as their methods of choice. Skeptical Adopters identified Video Tutorial and Over-the-Shoulder as their preferred method. All three Reluctant Adopters identified Over-the-Shoulder as the method that works best for them. To address these varying needs, technology training at Castle View High School must blend Over-the-Shoulder help with Video Tutorials. This combination will work for all three types of learners and should maintain a constant presence during the school year.

Research Question #3: How can technology best be deployed to support the needs of different teachers at different levels of use and confidence (e.g., drop-in help sessions, video tutorials, and direct over-the-shoulder support)?
When asked whether the District should provide technology training (e.g., Google Apps) or Castle View teachers should design and implement our own training, the answers from Early

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Adopters, Skeptical Adopters, and Reluctant Adopters varied greatly. Those more comfortable with learning new technology were not shy about indicating their desires for a local, building- level training program. Reluctant Adopters tended more to want the district to provide technology training. Here are some responses to the question: Early Adapter: We should absolutely take control of our own training. Skeptical Adapter: Both. I think there are enough tech-savvy teachers here to help those in need, but these teachers, the tech-savvy ones, should be compensated for their efforts. Reluctant Adapter: If the change is district-mandated, then the district must support all of us. Take Google Apps for example, they changed us from FirstClass to Google and should, therefore, run support classes and such. Castle View teachers have no control over district-led technology training so this project created and implemented a program that allowed for direct, over-the-shoulder training blended with video tutorials and encouragement to help other teachers beyond those involved in this project. Following the initial survey and subsequent interviews of selected Early Adopters, Skeptical Adopters, and Reluctant Adopters, a total of four drop-in style training sessions were held after school. I welcomed assistance from two of the Early Adopters during these sessions. Twenty-seven of the thirty-two invited teachers attended one or more of the drop-in sessions. Fifteen attended the first session alone. Every participant identified Help with Google Apps as their main reason for attending their first sessions. Those who attended additional sessions soon found themselves asking about the Calendar and Sites apps. Most of the questions fielded during these sessions were in regards to the uses of cloud-type technologies. It seems saving information on remote servers proved to be confusing enough to inhibit any form of self- exploration. Insecurity was overcome with the confidence born of over-the-shoulder instruction. After the first drop-in session I sent all thirty-two participants an email linking them to a shared Google Site that housed several video tutorials. These How To-type videos ranged from creating and sharing Google Docs to organizing Google collections. Twenty-four of the thirty- two participants purposefully watched one or more of the video tutorials. Reluctant Adopters showed no interest in these videos at any time during this project. Skeptical Adopters appreciated these videos as resources to be used if over-the-shoulder assistance was not available. Early Adopters readily referred to these videos if they covered material that they had yet to master themselves. 11

Very Somewhat Not Helpful Helpful Helpful How helpful was/were the video 22 2 0 tutorial video(s) you watched All of the Early Adopters and four of the Skeptical Adopters asked if they could contribute to the bank of video tutorials at some point in time. This suggests a steady (and contagious) rate of learning, which can more than likely be attributed to the commonalities that exist among the various Google Apps and peoples positive experience with the tools.

Research Question #4: How can we create a supportive environment wherein all teachers can successfully adopt Google Apps, but fostering at the same time a culture of innovation and open sharing of ideas/uses?
I asked several Early Adopters, Skeptical Adopters, and Reluctant Adopters about their worries as they pertain to integrating technology in their classrooms. Here are several responses: Early Adopters I worry that teachers will not learn new ways of doing things and that we, educators as a whole, risk further alienating ourselves from the ways of the so-called real world. The world is changing and we need to keep up. Technology will help us do this. Skeptical Adopters Time. I need time to learn and practice new things. If I am not supported and taught how to use a new technology I will more than likely ignore it. A lack of information and training make keeping up with all the new stuff hard. Im just too busy. Reluctant Adopters I think some of the new things weve been introduced to are neat but they dont necessarily make it any easier for students to learn. Traditional methods should not be changed because Google or Apple, for instance, release a new product. I worry about everybody saving their work in The Cloud and making it easy for hackers to access the material. Security is an issue for me. These comments suggest Early Adopters fear falling behind and Reluctant Adopters fear spending too much time using things (technologies) that are faddish and will disappear from our thoughts and practices. Skeptical Adopters seemed to focus on being trained and supported when new technology is introduced. Regardless, creating, implementing, and developing frequent technology training drop-in sessions supported and supplemented by video tutorials will help teachers increase their 12

confidence levels with the technologies. The following responses to the follow-up survey support these conclusions: Yes No, not yet Have you referenced (email, conversation, in 22 10 passing) a colleague to the Resource Site? No, Im not Yes No, not yet planning to Have you implemented Google Apps into your 15 7 0 teaching? Google Apps are collaborative tools. Gaining confidence in creating and sharing Google Apps (e.g., Google docs) will naturally lead to an increase in sharing and innovation within our building. To catalyze this building technology leaders must encourage other teachers to try using Google Apps when creating teaching lessons and interacting with students.

Concluding Thoughts
The results of this inquiry project have identified efficient methods with which Castle View High School can use to communicate and effect technology training despite ones classification as an Early Adapter, Skeptical Adapter, or Reluctant Adapter. This training takes advantage of several drop-in-type training sessions throughout the year coupled with a bank of video tutorials. It is important to identify your tech-savvy Early Adapters so they can help with training. Trainers must maintain a safe learning environment so participants (learners) do not become overwhelmed by the vast amount of change. Portions of this research should be considered for all future Professional Development (PD) trainings. Feedback must be sought and incorporated into these trainings. Teachers should be allowed choice in their PD and technology training. Teacher-designed training and development are better at meeting the needs of their colleagues than District-level programs. The lessons learned from this project justify the creation of a team of teachers competent in various technologies. These teachers should maintain an online tutorial presence and conduct frequent drop in sessions that will allow their colleagues to grow more confident with using and incorporating new forms of technology. This tech team of teachers should seek constant feedback from those they are helping and should create and develop an evolving database of tutorial-type videos for popular technologies (e.g., Google Apps). At least thirty-two teachers were positively impacted by the research summarized in this report. I believe this type of training will scale nicely to involve many more teachers and trainers, which will encourage professional learning and ultimately improve instruction and student learning.

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References
Baek, Y. (2008). What makes teaches use technology in the classroom? Computers & Education, 50, 224-234 Blin, F., & Munro, M. (2008). Why hasnt technology disrupted academics teaching practices? Computers & Education, 50, 475-490 Boss, S. (2011). (ND). Overcoming technology barriers: How to innovate without extra money or support. Edutopia. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/technology-how-to- implement-classroom Ertmer, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42 (3), 225-284 Google. (2011). Guide to going google. https://sites.google.com/a/googleapps.com/k12-guide- to-going-google/pd (accessed on: 5 October 2011). McCrea, B. (2009). Helping educators bridge the technology gap. The Journal. Retrieved from: http://thejournal.com/articles/2009/06/18/helping-educators-bridge-the-technology- gap.aspx Oud, J. (2009). Guildelines for effective online instruction using multimedia screencasts. Reference Services Review, 37 (2), 164-177 Sultan, N. (2010). Cloud computing for education: a new dawn? International Journal of Information Management, 30, 109-116

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Appendix 1:
Initial Teacher Survey
1. 2. Name Content Area a. Art b. Business c. Language Arts d. Mathematics e. Performing Arts f. Physical Education g. Science h. Social Sciences i. World Languages Age a. 24 or younger b. 25-29 c. 30-34 d. 35-39 e. 40-44 f. 45-49 g. 50-54 h. 55-59 i. 60-64 j. 65 or older Years of Teaching Experience a. 5 or fewer b. 6-9 c. 10-14 d. 15-19 e. 20-24 f. 25-29 g. 30 or more Comfort Level with Technology a. Early Adopter b. Skeptical Adopter c. Reluctant Adopter Which type of technology training best works for you? a. Video Demonstration b. Lecture c. Over-the-Shoulder d. Self-Exploration How are you currently using DCSD Google Apps? (Please check all that apply.)

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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8.

a. Email b. Calendar c. Docs d. Sites Do you currently use Google Apps with your students? a. Yes b. No

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Appendix 2:
Teacher Interview Questions
1. 2. 3. What about integrating technology in your classroom worries you the most? Should the district provide training for Google Apps (and other technologies) or should we design and implement a Castle View training program? Should CVHS students be expected to use their @s.dcsdk12.org Google Apps email accounts?

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Appendix 3:
Final Teacher Survey
1. 2. Did you attend any of the Drop In training sessions? a. Yes b. No If Yes to Question #1, how helpful was (were) the session(s)? a. Very Helpful b. Somewhat Helpful c. Not Helpful Did you visit the Resource Site? a. Yes b. No, not yet Did you (purposefully) watch any of the resource videos? a. Yes b. No, not yet If Yes to Question #4, how helpful was (were) the resource video(s) you watched? a. Very Helpful b. Somewhat Helpful c. Not Helpful Did you reference (email, conversation, in passing) a colleague to the Resource Site? a. Yes b. No, not yet If yes to number 6, have you implemented Google Apps into your teaching? a. Yes b. No, not yet c. No, Im not planning to

3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

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