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Titre original : AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN THE ESTIMATION OF FORMATION WATER SATURATION AND FREE WATER LEVEL IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS – CASE STUDIES

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- EFFICIENCY OF CLEANING TECHNIQUES FOR OIL AND ESTER BASED MUDS ON UNCONSOLIDATED AND TIGHT SANDS
- Issues Impacting the Productivity of Tight Gas Producing Formations_Bennion2004
- Tight Gas Chap1
- BG Data Book 08
- Gas Production Potential 1
- Tight Gas, Shale Gas and Hydrates
- Tight Gas Sandstone Oct 2010
- Geology
- Techlog-Technical Brochure 2007
- Fuzzy Mathematics
- Nodal System Analysis of Oil and Gas Wells
- BP AND SHELL: RISING RISKS IN TAR SANDS INVESTMENTS
- geostatistics
- Deep Gas Exploration in Cambay
- East Africa Oil Exploration
- Lab5- Variowin Basics
- problem solving in C
- Principles of Geostatistic
- Preventing Differential Sticking and Mud Losses in Highly Depleted Sands
- Uncertainty Theory, 3rd ed., 2009; Liu B.

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UNCERTAINTY IN THE ESTIMATION OF FORMATION

WATER SATURATION AND FREE WATER LEVEL IN

TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS – CASE STUDIES

Sheng Ding and Tai Pham, El Paso Production Company

ABSTRACT

To reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of hydrocarbon in place and fluid contact in

tight gas reservoirs, it is essential to integrate core data and log analysis. A newly

developed JMOD (an EXCEL-based saturation-height approach) has been successfully

applied to calibrate log analysis to better define petrophysical properties such as

formation water saturation and free water level in tight gas reservoirs. The application of

this approach has played a critical role in exploration and development decision-making

processes for tight gas reservoirs.

This approach is derived from capillary pressure and Leverett’s “J-Function” concepts.

The approach utilizes the constants that are obtained from curve-fitting “J-Function”

from measured capillary pressure data. Unlike most of the models published in the

literature, this approach accommodates different forms of J-Sw regressions, which is

applicable to different pore geometries and very powerful in tight gas reservoirs. Using

this approach, water saturation is calculated continuously from log porosity and free

water level without formation resistivity and Archie exponents. This approach also

estimates free water level by iterating on water saturations until matching those derived

from log data.

In a tight gas “wild-cat” well where the porosity from most of the well logs is much

larger than that from core analysis, this new approach was successfully utilized to

reconcile the difference and predict the rock quality up-dip. The results are confirmed by

the pressure transient analysis from the production test. Based on the integrated analysis,

the decision to abandon the current well and up-dip drilling plan saved the company

millions of dollars.

The reservoir simulation could not get a history match for a tight gas field. The

parameters of this new approach were calibrated to several key wells with core data in

this gas field. The results of the calibration were then used to populate water saturation

throughout the field. Eventually, the history match was successfully achieved and the

infill drilling opportunity was identified for this field.

approach (JMOD) and its application to tight gas reservoirs. This paper also presents the

SCA2002-41 2/12

case studies that document the avoided failures and the captured opportunities by

applying the proposed approach.

INTRODUCTION

There are significant uncertainties in log calculated water saturation (Sw), especially in

tight gas, shaly, and heterogeneous reservoirs. Capillary pressure is an adhesive force

caused by electro-static charges at the interface and is equal to the pressure difference

between non-wetting and wetting phases at equilibrium condition, which is determined

by pore throat size, wettability, and inter-phase tension in a pore system. The saturation

profiles of virgin hydrocarbon reservoirs exemplify the balance between the opposing

forces of gravity (buoyancy) and capillarity. The magnitude of those opposing forces is

determined by the properties of a specific pore network and the fluids it contains. These

opposing forces interact to produce a unique saturation profile that provides a core

calibrated Sw calculation to “fine-tune” log analysis parameters so that uncertainties may

be quantified and potentially mitigated. Free Water Level (FWL) is needed for

volumetric calculations, well location determination, and reservoir producibility forecast

for up-dip or down dip wells. The capillary pressure derived saturation-height function

can be used to calculate FWL. Saturation-height function is recommended for geological

model and reservoir simulation to normalize capillary pressure curves, especially for

rocks with large transition zones in heterogeneous reservoirs.

The saturation-height function has taken many forms through previous decades by

numerous authors [1-16]. Commonly used techniques are listed as follows:

Pc k

J ( Sw ) = ( ) (1)

σ cos θ Φ

J = a ( Sw ) ^ b (2)

log( Sw ) = b ∗ Pc ^ ( − c ) − a ∗ log( k ) (3)

log( Φ ∗ Sw ) = a ∗ log( h ) + b (4)

b

Sw = 1 − a ∗ exp[ − ( )^ c ] (5)

h+ d

1

Sw = a + b ^ Φ + c(d − Φ )(d − owc ) + ( )^ (−0.33) (6)

1.068 + gwc

Sw = Swirr + (1 − Swirr ) e ^ ( − gh ) (7)

Swirr = bΦ + c log(k ) (8)

a

Sw = + Swirr (9)

h ^ (b − log(h))

Sw = a + bΦ + c log(h) + dΦ ^ 2 + f log(h)^ 2 + gΦ log(h) (10)

Sw = 1 + (a + bΦ ) + [1 − e^ (c ∗ gwc * Φ (d + fΦ ))] (11)

SCA2002-41 3/12

The majority of the saturation-height equations (2 -11) are based on curve-fitting with the

observed data sets and labor intensive to implement. Equation 1 is based on both

experimental tests and theoretical derivation [8], which is based on rock property physics

and easiest to implement and apply [5].

In 1940, Leverett [8] introduced a dimensionless J-function or Equation (1) to convert all

capillary data with similar pore geometry to a universal curve. The “cos θ” term was

k

added later to include wettability effect. The term is the pore geometry factor and is

Φ

used to normalize petrophysical properties such as capillary pressure, relative

permeability, and residual saturations. The proposed approach in this paper has been

built on Equation (1). The term Pc in Equation (1) is capillary pressure that can be

expressed by:

Sw at each True Vertical Depth (TVD) can be solved by combining Equation (2) and

(12):

k

( FWL − TVD ) * 0.433 * ∆SG *

Sw =

b Φ (13)

a ∗ σ ∗ cosθ

Equation (2) does not seem to match core measurement in tight gas reservoirs. A new

equation is proposed and seems to match core measurement much better:

J = a ∗ e^ (b ∗ Sw) (14)

The proposed water saturation calculation is derived by combining Equation (12) and

(14):

k

( FWL − TVD ) ∗ 0.433 ∗ ∆SG * )

ln( Φ )

Sw = a ∗ σ ∗ cosθ (15)

b

Using Equation (15), Sw can be calculated for each TVD depth if FWL is known. If

FWL is unknown, Sw and FWL can also be calculated iteratively by integrating core

capillary pressure and log data.

SCA2002-41 4/12

PROCEDURES

An EXCEL program (JMOD) has been developed to integrate core and log data so that

uncertainty in petrophysical parameters can be reduced and reservoir properties such as

Sw and FWL can be calculated. The procedures of this integrated approach are outlined

as follows:

(σ ∗ cosθ ) res

Pcres = Pclab ∗ (16)

(σ ∗ cosθ )lab

Pcres k

Jres = (17)

(σ ∗ cosθ ) res Φ

Step.2 Fit J function from core data to obtain constants a and b in Equation (14) or

Equation (2).

Step.3 Calculate Sw and FWL using Equation (15) or Equation (13). The program has a

pull-down button for fitting function selection, which accommodate not only exponential

and power functions but also any other form of J-function that fits the core data.

Step.4 Compare the calculated Sw using Equation (15) or (13) with that from log

analysis.

Step.5 Predict Sw profile at different depth assuming constant porosity and permeability.

Once a good match is achieved through Step.4, Sw profile can be predicted for drilling

well location selection or producibility determination for up and down dip wells.

Step.6 Plot Sw versus depth to investigate Sw changes for up-dip and down-dip wells.

RESULTS

Case 1 – Estimate FWL and Calculate Sw for Reservoir Simulation Initialization

Case 1 is an example of using the integration of log and core data to calculate FWL and

Sw for reservoir simulation initialization. Capillary pressure curves are available in wells

W2, W11, and W6. Through J-function curve fitting with the core data, the constants a

and b in Equation (14) and (15) were obtained. Using Equation (15), the FWL was

calculated by iteratively matching the calculated Sw with log-derived Sw. Once FWL, a,

and b are determined, water saturation is calculated using Equation (15) for all the wells

that do not have capillary pressure data. The matches between calculated and log derived

water saturation are reasonably good (Fig.1 and 2). The porosity and Sw were predicted

for well W4 where there is neither log nor core data (Fig.2). Fig.3 is a water gas ratio

map derived from Equation (15), which has been used for well location selection for infill

SCA2002-41 5/12

drilling. Fig.4 effectively explain the reason that wells W6 and W7 are water producers,

since they have poor rock quality and high water saturation.

Case 2 is an application of JMOD to a tight gas exploration wildcat for porosity

calibration and up-dip well Sw prediction. Fig.5 shows that the density porosity is up to

8% higher than core porosity. Sw calculated by JMOD does not match that estimated

from density log (Fig.6) even after numerous FWL iterations. Thin section analysis also

indicates that the density log derived porosity is too high (Fig.7). Since shear velocity

tool is less borehole-fluid sensitive than density tool, porosity is calculated from shear

DT. The porosity from shear DT matches very well with that from core measurement

(Fig.8). The Sw derived from JMOD using shear DT derived porosity matches reasonably

well with that from log analysis using the same porosity (Fig.9). The integrated approach

resulted in a consistent story, which greatly reduces the uncertainty introduced by any

single source of data. The reserve was re-calculated using the core calibrated shear DT

porosity and the well result was not economical, so the well was abandoned.

The next issue to address was that if moving up-dip 200 feet (structure limitation), how

much lower would Sw be? Sw profile was predicted by JMOD using the parameters such

as a, b, and FWL obtained in the Wildcat well. The results show that there is only

approximately 5% Sw improvement (Fig.10). The economics with 5% Sw improvement

still could not save the project.

Vsh and Rw for Exploration Wells

There were some uncertainties of FWL and petrophysical properties such as Vsh and Rw

in tight gas exploration wells. After applying the proposed approach (JMOD), the

predicted FWL matches very well with that from the crossover depth by gas and water

gradient lines determined by RFT pressures. The Sw predicted for up-dip well and that

for down-dip well in the same sand falls nicely in the same predicted Sw profile (Fig.11).

The down-dip well tested water with some gas, which fits very well with the predicted

Sw profile in Fig.11. When inconsistent Vsh was applied in log analysis, there was no

match between log derived Sw and JMOD predicted Sw (Fig.12). After correcting Vsh,

the Sw from log analysis seems to match reasonably well with that from JMOD (Fig.13).

When the incorrect Rw was used, there seemed to be no match between Sw from log

analysis and that predicted by JMOD (Fig.14). After the right Rw was applied, the match

is reasonably good (Fig.15). The Rw was later confirmed by water analysis results from

the same well.

DISCUSSION

This proposed approach (JMOD) is similar to the previous work [2,8], but it distinguishes

itself in being capable of accommodating different J-Sw fitting functions and being able

SCA2002-41 6/12

to integrate/reconcile log and core data in an efficient manner. JMOD can be easily

applied to FWL calculation, Sw profile prediction, and log analysis parameter calibration.

FWL is recommended rather than GWC, because FWL unifies fluid contact determined

from logs, RFT pressure gradients, and capillary pressure data [2]. In addition, GWC is

often unclear and needs agreed Sw convention, since gas column may be considered to be

a continuous transition zone [2].

The limitation of this approach is that it is only applicable to similar pore geometry,

although more than one saturation-height functions may be determined for different pore

geometries.

CONCLUSIONS

An EXCEL-based integrated saturation-height approach (JMOD) has been developed and

applied to tight gas formations for exploration and development decisions. Case studies

of FWL determination and log analysis parameter calibration have been presented. The

application of this proposed approach have greatly reduced the uncertainty in

hydrocarbon in place estimation, avoided some failures, and captured opportunities in

exploration and development processes.

NOMENCLATURE

Sw: Water saturation, frac.

Swirr: Irreducible water saturation, frac.

Φ: Porosity, frac.

k: Permeability, md

h: Height above FWL, ft.

gwc: Gas water contact, ft

a,b,c,d,f,g: Constants

Pc: Capillary pressure, psi

J (Sw): Leverett’s J-function, dimensionless

σ: Interfacial tension, dyn/cm

θ: Contact angle

∆SG: Specific gravity difference between wetting and non-wetting phases

TVD: True vertical depth, ft

DT: Acoustic transit time, us/ft

ACKNOWLEGEMENT

The authors would like to thank Applied Computing Engineering for the valuable input.

Additionally, we would like to thank El Paso Production Company for permission to

publish this paper.

SCA2002-41 7/12

REFERENCES

1. Brown, H.W., Capillary pressure investigations petroleum transactions of AIME

(1951); 192; 67-74.

2. Cuddy, S. Allinson; G. & Steele, R.:”A simple, convincing model of calculating water

saturations in South-North Sea gas fields,” Paper H; SPWLA 34th Annual Logging

Symposium; June 13th-16th; 1993.

3. Ibrahim Bassiouni; Z. Desbrandes; Determination of relative permeability curves in

tight gas sands using log data. The Transactions of the Society of Professional Well Log

Analysts 33rd; June 14-17.

4. Heseldine, G.M.; A method of averaging capillary pressure curves; The Transactions

of the Society of Professional Well Log Analyst 15th Annual Logging Symposium; 1974;

June 2-5

5. Harrison, B., and Jing, X.D.: “Saturation Height Methods and Their Impact on

Volumetric Hydrocarbon in Place Estimates,” 2001, SPE71326.

6. Johnson, A.:“Permeability averaged capillary data; a supplement to log analysis in

field studies,” Paper EE; SPWLA 28th Annual Logging Symposium, June 29th-July2;

1987.

7. Lee, S.T.:”Capillary-gravity equilibria for hydrocarbon fluids in porous media,” 64th

Annual SPE Technology Conference; 1989; SPE-19650.

8. Leverett, M. C.; Capillary behavior in porous solids; Petroleum Transactions of AIME

(1941); 142; 152-169.

9. Ma, S. Jiang; M.X. Morrow:”Correlation of capillary pressure relationship and

calculation of Permeability,” 66th Annual SPE Technical Conference SPE-22685.

10. McCardell, W.M.; Review of the physical basis for the use of the J-function; The

Eighth Oil Recovery Transactions; 1955.

11. Prickett, H.D.; Bremer, R.E.:”Improved Water saturation distribution for a three-

dimensional model,” 6th SPE Middle East Oil Show; 1989; SPE-17958.

12. Skelt, C. & Harrison, R.:”An integrated approach to saturation height analysis,” Paper

NNN, SPWLA 36th Annual Logging Symposium; 1995.

13. Steele, R.P., Allan, R.M., Booth, A.J. 1993. in press.Hyde:Aproposed field

development in the Southern North Sea using horizontal wells. Proceedings of the 4th

Conference on the Geology of Northwest Europe.

14. Swanson, B.G.:”A Simple Correlation Between Permeability & Mercury Capillary

Pressure” Journal of Petroleum Technology; 1981; pp 2498-2504.

15. Thomeer, J.H.:”Introduction of a Pore Geometrical Factor Defined by the Capillary

Pressure Curve,” Journal of Petroleum Technology; 1960; pp 73-77.

16. Xie, X.:”A formulation for the capillary pressure relationship and a statistical

description of pore size distribution,” 1991, Academia SPE-21890.

SCA2002-41 8/12

W2 W9 W10 W6

Porosity Sw Porosity Sw Porosity Sw Porosity Sw

-13900

Subsea (ft)

-14250

-14600

-14950

Log Derived

X JMOD Predicted

-15300 0 800 1800 2800 3800

Distance between wells (ft)

Fig.1- Porosity and Permeability Match and Prediction

W11 W3 W4 W2

Porosity Sw Porosity Sw Porosity Sw Porosity Sw

-13400

Subsea (ft)

-13700

-14000

-14300

Log Derived

X JMOD Predicted

-14600 0 800 1800 2800 3800

Distance between wells (ft)

Fig.2 - Porosity and Permeability Match and Prediction

424000 W8

W8

421250 W6

W6

W7 WGR

Northing

W10 100000

W9 W5

W5 1000

418500 W2

W2

W14 W15

50

W4 W1

W1

W105 W4

W13

5

W3

W3

0

415750 W11

Easting

Fig.3 – Water Gas Ratio (STB/MMCF)

SCA2002-41 9/12

-13000

W11 W3 W1 W5

Subsea (ft)

-14000 W9

W2 W7

W10

Porosity = 25% W6

-15000

Note: JMOD derived Sw profiles Porosity = 14%

effectively explain the relationship

-16000 between rock quality and the distance

to the free water level.

-17000 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Sw

Fig.4 – JMOD Derived Sw Profile for Different Porosity

0

GR 100 0.2

Resistivity 20 0.3

Porosity 0

Core Phi

60 DTCO 110

0 SWEdw 1 0 xxxx NPHI xxxx .2

1 xxxx SgJF185 xxxx 0 0 PHIE .2

-15200

SWEdw: Log Derived Sw DTCO: Acoustic Transit

SgJF185: JMOD Derived Sw Time

NPHI: Neutron Porosity

-15250

PHIE: Density Porosity

-15300

-15350

-15400

Subsea

-15450

-15500

-15550

-15600

SCA2002-41 10/12

0 SW_C 1 0 PHI_C .15

-15200

SW_C: Sw calculated using PHI_C PHI_C: Porosity calculated from shear sonic

CorePor: Stressed porosity from core

-15250

-15300

-15350

Subsea Depth

-15400

-15450

Fractured Core

-15500

-15550

-15600

0 Sg 1

.15 PHI_C 0 0 xxxx SgJF xxxx 1

-15200

PHI_C: Porosity calculated from shear sonic Sg: Log Calculated Gas Saturation

using PHI_C

SgJF: JMOD Predicted Gas Saturation

-15250

-15300

-15350

Subsea Depth

-15400

-15450

-15500

-15550

-15600

Fig.9 – JMOD Predicted Gas Saturation Matches that calculated by Log

SCA2002-41 11/12

-15000

-15200

-15400

Subsea Depth

Porosity = 9.5%

-15600

SgJMOD at 10.5% Porosity

-15800 Porosity = 10.5%

Free Water Level @ SgJMOD: Gas Saturation Profile Predicted

-16000 or 16234 by JMOD

-16000

Up-dip well

Up-dip well

Fig.11 – The Log Sw from Both Up and Down-dip Falls in Predicted Sw Profile

TVD vs Sw

13400

Sw Profile

From JMOD

13500

13600

TVD (ft)

13700

Log Sw Does not Match

13800

Sw_J

Sw_JMOD

13900

Sw_Log

14000

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Sw

Fig.12 - Cap. Derived Sw Does NOT Match with Log Sw using too low Vsh

SCA2002-41 12/12

TVD vs Sw

13300

Sw Profile from JMOD

13400

13500

TVD (ft)

13600

13700 Sw Derived from Logs Sw_JMOD

Sw_J

13800 Sw_Log

13900

14000

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Sw

Fig.13 - Cap. Derived Sw Matches Reasonably Well with Log Sw using Consistent Vsh

TVD vs Sw

12200

12250 Sw Derived from Logs

Sw Profile from JMOD

12300

12350

TVD (ft)

12400

12450 Sw_J

Sw_JMOD

12500 Sw_Log

12550

12600

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Sw

Fig.14 - Cap. Derived Sw Does NOT Match with Log Sw using Rw = 0.05 ohmm

TVD vs Sw

12200

Sw Profile from JMOD Matches That from Logs

12250

12300

12350

TVD (ft)

Sw Derived

12400 from logs

12450 Sw_J

Sw_JMOD

12500 Sw_Log

12550

12600

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Sw

Fig.15 - Cap. Derived Sw Matches Reasonably Well with Log Sw using Rw=0.02ohmm

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