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Title Objective

: Detection of adulteration in food products. : To study the methods for detection of adulterant in the food materials.

Apparatus : Food samples, required chemicals, heating stove, glass wares, etc. Procedure :
Name of food Milk Adulterant Water Method for detection of adulterant The lactometer reading should not ordinarily be less than 1.026. The presence of water can be detected by putting a drop of milk on a polished vertical surface. The drop of pure milk either stops or flows slowly leaving a white trail behind it. Whereas milk adulterated with water will flow immediately without leaving a mark. Take 3 ml of the milk in a test tube. Add 10 drops of rosalic acid solution. The rosy colouration indicates the presence of sodium bicarbonate. Take 5 ml milk; add 5 ml 5 % Ferric chloride and Hydrochloric acid. Light purple colour indicates adulteration of formaldehyde. 1. Take a teaspoonful of milk in test tube. Add a teaspoon of soybean or arhar powder. Mix up the contents thoroughly by shaking the test tube. After 5 minutes, dip a red litmus paper in it. Remove the paper after half a minute. A change in colour from red to blue, indicates the presence of urea in the milk. 2. Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 2 drops of 1 % Bromothymol blue solution. Development of blue colour after 10 minutes indicates the presence of urea in milk. 3. Take 5 ml milk. Add 5 ml 24 % Acetic acid and filter it. Take 1 ml filterate; add 1 ml 2 % Caustic soda and 0.5 ml Phenol reagent. Violet or green colour indicates presence of urea Name of food Adulterant Method for detection of adulterant 1

Sodium bicarbonate Formaldehyde

Urea

Paneer

Starch

Boil a small quantity of sample with some water, cool and add a few drops of iodine solution. Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of starch.

Ghee or Butter

Vanaspathi or Margraine

Take about one teaspoonful of melted ghee or butter with equal quantity concentrated Hydrochloric acid in a stoppered test tube and add to it a pinch of cane sugar. Shake well for one minute and test it after 5 minutes. Appearance of crimson colour in lower (acidic) layer shows the presence of Vanaspathi or Margarine.

Mashed potato, other starches

The presence of mashed potatoes and sweet potatoes in a sample of ghee or butter can easily be detected by adding a few drops of iodine. When iodine, which is brownish in colour, turns to blue then mashed potatoes/sweet potatoes/other starches are presents. The colour disappears on boiling and reappears on cooling.

Ghee

Vegetable ghee

Take a 3 ml of ghee in a test tube. Add 10 drops of Hydrochloric acid or Muriatic acid and 1/4th of teaspoon of sugar. Shake the tube to mix up the contents thoroughly. Examine the test tube after 5 minutes. The red colouration will indicate the presence of Hydrogenated oil Vegetable ghee in the ghee.

Cottonseed oil

Halfans test : Take 5 ml of ghee and add 5 ml Amyl alcohol and 5 ml 1 % Sulphur in Carbon disulphide, keep it for 30 min in hot water. Crimson colour indicates presence of cottonseed oil in ghee.

Name of food Edible oils

Adulterant Argemone Oil

Method for detection of adulterant Add 5 ml concentrated Nitric acid (HNO3) to 5 ml sample and shake carefully. Red to reddish brown 2

colour in acid layer would indicate the presence of argemone oil. Mineral Oil Take 2 ml of edible oil in conical flask and add an equal quantity of alcoholic potash. Heat in boiling water for 15 minutes and add 10 ml water. Any turbidity shows the presence of mineral oil. Castor Oil 1. Take about 1 ml of the oil. Add 10 ml of acidified petroleum ether and mix well. Add a few drops of Ammonium molybdate reagent. Immediate appearance of white turbidity indicates the presence of castor oil. 2. Take about 3 ml of the oil in a test tube. Add 2 ml of petroleum ether. Shake the test tube and mix up the contents thoroughly. Keep the tube immersed in the salt-ice mixture, or in a pot of cold saline water. Examine the test tube after 5 minutes. The appearance of turbidity in the mixture indicates the presence of castor oil. Similar test may also be made to detect adultration of mustard oil with coconut oil, or hydrogenated oil (vegetable ghee). Lube oil Take 20 drops of edible oil in a test tube. Add 10 drops of alcoholic potash. Heat the tube on the flame of a spirit lamp. The mixture will decolourise. Now add 10 drops of Dichloroquinol chloride. Again heat the tube. The appearance of the blue colour indicates the presence of a compound of Triorthocrysyle phosphate (TOCP), which leads to incidence of paralysis. Traces of this compound in edible oil, point to an admixture of edible oil, with lube oil. Name of food Bajra Adulterant Ergot (a fungus containing a poisonous substance) Method for detection of adulterant Purple black longer size grains in bajra show the presence of ergots. Put some grains in a glass tumbler containing 20 % salt solution. Ergot floats 3

over the surface while sound grains settle down.

Dhatura seeds

Dhatura seeds are flat with edges and blackish brown in colour, which can be separated out by close examination.

Rice, parched rice

Marble or other stones

A simple test is to place a small quantity of rice on the palm of the hand and gradually immerse the same in water. The stone chips will sink.

Urea

Take 30 numbers of parched rice in a test tube. Add 5 ml of distilled water in it. Mix up the contents thoroughly, by shaking the test tube. After 5 minutes, filter the water contents and add teaspoon of powder of Arhar of Soybean in it. Leave it for 5 minutes, and then dip a red Litmus paper in the mixture. Take out the Litmus paper after 30 seconds and examine it. A blue colouration indicates the presence of urea in the parched rice.

Pulses (green peas)

Colour dye (Metanill yellow)

Add concentrated Hydrochloric acid to a small quantity of dhal in a little amount of water. Immediate development of pink colour indicates the presence of metanil yellow and similar colour dyes.

Lead chromate

Shake 5 g of pulses with 5 ml of water and add a few drops of Hydrochloric acid. Pink colour indicates lead chromate.

Rawa

Iron filings

By moving a magnet through it, iron fillings can be separated.

Name of food Wheat flour (Atta)

Adulterant Chalk powder

Method for detection of adulterant Shake sample with diluted Hydrochloric acid. Effervescence indicates chalk.

Sand and dirt

Shake a little quantity of sample with about 10 ml of Carbon tetrachloride and allow to stand. Grit and 4

sandy matter will collect at the bottom. Gram powder (Besan) Khesari powder 1. Take teaspoon of the gram powder in a test tube and add 3 ml of distilled water in it. Then pour 3 ml of Muriatic acid in the test tube. Immerse the test tube in water. Check the test tube after 15 minutes. A violet colouration indicates that khesari powder is present in the gram powder. 2. Add 50 ml of diluted Hydrochloric acid to 10 g of sample and keep on simmering for about 15 minutes. The pink colour, if developed, indicates the presence of khesari powder. Metanil yeallow colour Take teaspoon of the gram powder in a test tube. Pour 3 ml of alcohol in the test tube. Mix up the contents thoroughly by shaking the test tube. Add 10 drops of Hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicated presence of metanil yeallow in the gram powder. Dhals Khesari dhal Add 50 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid to dhal and keep on simmering water for about 15 minutes. The pink colour, if developed, indicates the presence of kesari dhal. Metanil colour yellow Take 5 g of the sample with 5 ml of water in a test tube and add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid. A pink colour shows the presence of metanil yellow. Name of food Cumin seed Adulterant Grass seeds coloured with charcoal dust Argemone Seeds Method for detection of adulterant Rub the cumin seeds on palms. If palms turn black, adulteration in indicated. Mustard seeds have a smooth surface. The argemone seed have grainy and rough surface and are blacker hence can be separated out by close 5

Mustard Seeds

examination. Black pepper Papaya seeds, light black pepper berries 1. Papaya seeds can be separated out from pepper as they are shrunken, oval in shape and greenish brown or brownish black in colour. 2. Float the sample of black pepper in alcohol (rectified spirit). The mature black pepper berries sink while the papaya seeds and light black pepper float. 3. Press the black pepper berries with the help of fingers. Light berries will break easily while matured black pepper will not break. Minreal oil coating Cloves Exhausted cloves (Volatile oil extracted cloves). Black pepper coated with mineral oil gives kerosene like smell. 1. Exhausted cloves can be identified by its small size and shrunken appearance. The characteristic pungent taste of genuine cloves is less pronounced in exhausted cloves. 2. Take some water in beaker/glass and add cloves. Genuine cloves will settle down at bottom while exhausted cloves will float on surface. Cinnamon Cassia bark Cinnamon barks are very thin. Cassia barks are thick and stiff. Cinnamon barks can be rolled. Name of food Turmeric powder Adulterant Metanil yellow colour, Coloured saw dust Method for detection of adulterant Take a teaspoon full of turmeric powder in a test tube. Add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid. Instant appearance of violet colour which disappears on dilution with water. If the colour persists metanil yellow (an artificial dye) non permitted coal tar dye is indicated. This test is only for metanil yellow. Chalk powder Take a small quantity of turmeric powder in a test 6

tube containing small quantity of water. Add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid, effervescence (give off bubbles) will indicate the presence of chalk powder or yellow soap stone powder. Chilli Powder Brick powder, grit, sand, soapstone, dirt, filth, etc. Pour the sample in a beaker containing a mixture of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Brick powder and grit will settle at the bottom. Smooth white residue at the bottom indicates the presence of soapstone. Artificial colour (Rhodamine B colour) Water soluble artificial colour can be detected by sprinkling a small quantity of chilli or turmeric powder on the surface of water contained in a glass tumbler. The water soluble colour will immediately start descending in colour streaks. Oil soluble coal tar Take 2 g of the sample in a test tube, add few ml of solvent ether and shake. Decant ether layer into a test tube containing 2 ml of diluted Hydrochloric acid (1:1 HCL:water) and shake it. The lower acid layer will be coloured distint pink to red indicating presence of oil soluble colour. Name of food Asafoetida (Heeng) Adulterant Soap stone and other earthy matter Chalk powder Method for detection of adulterant Shake a little quantity of powdered sample with water. Soap stone or other earthy matter will settle at the bottom. Shake sample with Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Asafoetida will settle down. Decant the top layer and add diluted Hydrochloric acid to the residue. Effervescence shows presence of chalk powder. Saffron Coloured dried tendrils of maze cob Genuine saffron will not break easily like artificial. Artificial saffron is prepared by soaking maize cob in sugar and colouring it with coal tar colour. The colour dissolves in water, if artificially coloured. A bit 7

of pure saffron when allowed to dissolve in water will continue to give its saffron colour so long as it lasts. Sugar Chalk powder Dissolve 10 g of sample in a glass of water, chalk will settle down at the bottom. Washing soda Add few drops of Hydrochloric acid, effervescence (give off bubbles) will indicate the presence of washing soda. Saccharin Take two spoons of liquid sample or about 5 to 10 g of solid sample with little quantity of water in a test tube, add few drops of Hydrochloric acid and 10 ml of solvent ether and shake well. Decant the ether layer in a test tube or beaker and wash the ether layer with small quantity of water. Evaporate the ether spontaneously. Add one drop of water (warm) to the residue and taste. Sweet taste will indicate the presence of saccharin. Common Salt White powdered stone, chalk powder Adulterant Common salt Stir a spoonful of sample of salt in a glass of water. The presence of chalk will make the solution white and other insoluble impurities will settle down. Method for detection of adulterant Cut a piece of potato, add salt and wait for a minute. Add 2 drops of lemon juice. If salt is iodized one, blue colour will develop. In case of common salt, there will be no blue colour. Jaggery Sodium bicarbonate Take 1/4th of a teaspoon of the jaggery in a test tube. Add 3 ml of Muriatic acid. The presence of Sodium bicarbonate effects effervescence. Ice cream, Sherbhat Metanil yellow Extract colour with luke warm water from food (a non permitted article. Add few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric coal tar dye) acid. If magenta red colour develops, the presence of metanil yellow is indicated. Honey Water A cotton wick dipped in pure honey when lighted 8

Name of food Iodized salt

with a matchstick burns. If adulterated, the presence of water will not allow the honey to burn and it will produce a crackling sound. Sugar or jaggery There are two tests to find out whether the honey pure or adulterated with invert sugar or jaggery. Fiehes Test: Add 5 ml of solvent ether to 5 ml of honey. Shake well and decant the ether layer in a petridish. Evaporate completely by blowing the ether layer. Add 2 to 3 ml of resorcinol (1 g of resorcinol resublimed in 5 ml of concentrated HCL). Appearance of cherry red colour indicates presence of sugar/jaggery. Aniline chloride Test: Take 5 ml of honey in a porcelain dish. Add aniline chloride solution (3 ml of aniline and 7 ml of 1:3 HCL) and stir well. Orange red colour indicates presence of sugar. Name of food Tea leaves Adulterant Exhausted tea, tur ot gram dhal husk with colour Method for detection of adulterant 1. Take a filter paper and spares a few tea leaves sprinkled with water to wet the filter paper. If coal tar is present, it would immediately stain the filter paper. Wash the filter paper under tap water and observe the stain against light. 2. Spread a little slaked lime on white proclaim tile or glass plate, sprinkle a little tea dust on the lime. Red, orange or other shades of colour spreading on the lime will show the presence of coal tar colour. In case of genuine tea, there will be only a slight greenish yellow colour due to chlorophyll, which will appear after some time. Coffee powder Chicory Gently sprinkle the coffee powder sample on the surface of water in a glass. The coffee floats over the water but chicory begins to sink down within a few seconds. The falling chicory powder particles leave behind them a trail of colour due to large 9

amount of caramel they contain. Tamarind and date-seed powder 1. Take the solution of Sodium hydroxide in a test tube and add coffee powder. Development of red colour indicates presence of tamarind seeds. 2. Sprinkle the suspected coffee powder on white blotting paper and spray over it 1% Sodium carbonate solution. Tamarind and date-seed powder will, if present, stain blotting paper red /filter paper red. Cereal starch Take 1/4th of a teaspoon of coffee powder in a test tube and add 3 ml of distilled water in it. Light a spirit lamp and heat the contents to colourize. Add about 33 ml of Potassium permanganate solution and Muriatic acid (1:1) to decolourize the mixture. The formation of blue colour in the mixture, when adding a drop of 1 % aqueous solution of Iodine indicates adulteration with starch. Method for detection of adulterant Take a cotton piece soaked in Liquid Paraffin and rub the outer green surface of a small part of the green vegetable. If the cotton turns green, we can say that the vegetable is adulterated with malachite green colour. Sweet potato Rhodamine B colour Take a cotton piece soaked in Liquid paraffin and rub the outer red surface of sweet potato. If the cotton absorbs colour and turns to red, it indicates the use of Rhodamine B colour on outer surface of the sweet potato.

Name of food Green vegetable

Adulterant Malachite green colour

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