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Theorem 1.

Let A be a n n matrix such that


A =
_

_
a
a
.
.
.
a
_

_
+ cI
n
where a =
_
a
1
a
2
a
n

is a 1 n row vector, c is a scalar, and I


n
is the
n n identity matrix. Then
det (A) = c
n1
(c + a
1
+ a
2
+ + a
n
) .
Proof. In the matrix A, subtract row 2 from row 1, row 3 from row 2, and so on.
The last row remains unchanged:
det (A) = det
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
a
a
.
.
.
a
_

_
+
_

_
c 0 0 0 0 0
0 c 0 0 0 0
0 0 c 0 0 0
0 0 0 c 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 c 0
0 0 0 0 0 c
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
= det
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
0
0
.
.
.
a
_

_
+
_

_
c c 0 0 0 0
0 c c 0 0 0
0 0 c c 0 0
0 0 0 c 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 c c
0 0 0 0 0 c
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
= det
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
c c 0 0 0 0
0 c c 0 0 0
0 0 c c 0 0
0 0 0 c 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 c c
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
n1
c + a
n
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
Take the transpose of the matrix and add row 2, row 3, ..., row n to row 1:
1
2
det (A) = det
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
c 0 0 0 0 a
1
c c 0 0 0 a
2
0 c c 0 0 a
3
0 0 c c 0 a
4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 c a
n1
0 0 0 0 c c + a
n
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
= det
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
0 0 0 0 0 c + a
1
+ a
2
+ + a
n
c c 0 0 0 a
2
0 c c 0 0 a
3
0 0 c c 0 a
4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 c a
n1
0 0 0 0 c c + a
n
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
Using Laplace expansion on the rst row:
det (A) = (1)
n+1
(c + a
1
+ a
2
+ + a
n
) det
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
c c 0 0 0
0 c c 0 0
0 0 c c 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 c
0 0 0 0 c
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
The resulting matrix is upper triangular, so its determinant is (c)
n1
. This
means
det (A) = (1)
n+1
(c)
n1
(c + a
1
+ a
2
+ + a
n
)
= c
n1
(c + a
1
+ a
2
+ + a
n
) .

Example 2. Compute the determinant of the matrix


_
_
y + z + 2x y z
x z + x + 2y z
x y x + y + 2z
_
_
.
The matrix can be written as
_
_
x y z
x y z
x y z
_
_
+ (x + y + z)
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
so its determinant is (x + y + z)
2
(x + y + z + x + y + z) = 2 (x + y + z)
3
.