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Kumpulan Abstrak Tesis Semester Gasal 2008/2009 Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (ING)


Grammatical Errors in Writing Produced by the Students of Muhammadiyah University of Malang Abd. Waris Abstract
This study aims to find out the grammatical errors produced by the students of the English Department at Muhammadiyah University of Malang in writing, in terms of the most type of error that are made by the students. The population of the study was the students who took Writing II and Writing IV courses in the year 2007/2008, and the sample comprises 30 students of each course. The data were taken from Writing II and Writing IV assignments. The errors on the two writing courses were analyzed to find out whether or not there was an improvement from Writing II to Writing IV. The errors were identified by two readers reading the students written works on Writing II and Writing IV courses. The types of errors were divided into: omission, addition, misformation, and misordering, and these types of error cover articles, prepositions, adverbs, nouns, and verbs. Besides, there are various errors on linguistic categories such as agreement, parallelism, passive sentences, and some grammatical morphemes such as final -s, -ing form, etc. The data were analyzed using error analysis. The result of data analysis shows that there are 416 errors all made by the students in Writing II, but there are only 81 errors made in Writing IV. In Writing II there are 182 or 4.26% omission errors, 90 or 2.00%% addition errors, 130 or 3.35%% misformation errors, and 14 or 2.71% misordering or word order errors from all errors identified. In Writing IV there are 42 or 2.42% omission errors, 15 or 0.98% addition errors, 23 or 1.34% misformation errors, and 1 or 0.29% misordering or word order error. Omission is the most error produced by the students of all errors investigated from the two writing subjects. There are 53 or 13.28% errors of final -s in Writing II. Final -s that deals with plural marker, and the third person singular is the most type of error made. The omissions of final -s are also the most errors made by the students for addition errors of Writing IV, but not for addition errors of Writing II, because in Writing II, prepositions are the most errors made. In terms of misformation, the errors of verb are mostly produced by the students. In Writing II, there are three types of omission error categorized as having the highest frequency of occurrence. The first is omission of final -s, the number of errors is 53 or 13.28% and the second is omission of articles, 33 errors or 7.47%. Finally is the omission of auxiliary verbs which has 20 errors or 6.39% from all omission errors. In terms of addition errors, preposition has the highest frequency; it has 22 errors or 6.92% of all errors, followed by the error of noun which has11 errors or 0.88%. The last type of error is the error of auxiliary verb; This type of error has 10 or 3.19% from all errors of addition. In terms of misformation, there are 32 or 6.14% errors of verb, followed by pronoun which has 24 or 5.26% errors, and adjective which has 19 or 8.60% errors. In Writing IV, the omission of final s is 2.97% followed by the auxiliary verbs 6.15%, and 2.4% errors of preposition. In terms of addition, the errors of final -s is 1.37%, they are the most errors made, followed by the auxiliary verb and preposition; each has 2.86% and 0.49%. In terms of misformation, the errors of verb are the most errors made or 1.63%. Errors of adjective and noun are 2.65% and 0.35%. The number of errors is significantly reduced from Writing II to Writing IV. This means that the higher the level, the fewer errors they make. In other words, there is an improvement in the teaching of writing courses at the English Department in Muhammadyah University of Malang. Based of the result of this research, it is suggested that: (1) the teachers of writing courses at the English Department in Muhammadyah University of Malang should consider the errors made by the students as they still can be reduced by using certain ways. For example, it can be done by providing the students with appropriate grammar works based on the errors they make during the fluency practice in order to make the students aware of their errors, and to help them improve their writing ability, (2) the teachers should give feedback to students by returning their written works after they have been corrected, (3) the students need to have more practice in English grammar so the same errors may not occur anymore when writing a composition. This study concerns only with limited grammatical errors, so other researchers are recommended to carry out the other research comprising a large scale of grammatical errors that students can produce in writing composition. Keywords: grammatical errors, writing


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Scaffolded Reading Experience (SRE) Strategy to Improve the Eighth Grade Students Narrative Reading Skill at SMPN 2 Giligenting-Sumenep Dornawati Abstract
This study was intended to describe how the Scaffolded Reading Experience strategy was implemented in the teaching of narrative reading to improve the narrative reading skills of grade eight students at SMPN 2 Giligenting, Sumenep academic year of 2006/2007. To achieve the intention, a classroom action research was carried out. The procedure of the CAR was designed into the steps of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting through three cycles, each of which consisted of two meetings, in addition one meeting for the training session. During the implementation, the researcher acted as the practitioner whereas the classroom teacher acted as the collaborator. To observe the action, observation sheets, field notes, reading quizzes, story-map completion sheets, and questionnaire were employed. The SRE implementation brought improvement on the students involvement and achievement. The extent of their involvement reached the category of very good and the average score of the quiz increased to 78.88, which succeeded 8.88 points from the targeted score. The appropriate sequence of the SRE strategy procedure comprises the pre-, whilst-, and postreading stages. The activities in each stage should be done respectively and cannot be misplaced since one activity is a prerequisite for another. Pre-Reading stage covers the activities of (a) activating the students prior knowledge through questioning and explaining things related to the story, (b) pre-teaching related vocabulary, and (b) guiding students to formulate predictions of the upcoming story. These activities function to prepare the students, to set the reading purposes, and to stimulate the students interest for the upcoming story. Whilst-Reading stage includes the activities of facilitating the text comprehension and modeling the comprehension such as (a) assigning students to do the silent reading and (b) carrying out the story-grammar question technique. This technique comprises the activities of explaining the story-grammar questions, assigning one student to read one or two paragraphs and asking Who is the story about? and discussing the answers, assigning one more student to read the next paragraph and asking What is the main character trying to do? and discussing the answers, assigning one more student to read the next paragraph and asking What happens when the main character tries to do it? and discussing the answers, assigning the last student to read the next paragraph and asking What happens in the end? and discussing the answers, and guiding students to summarize the story. Post Reading Stage embeds the activities of deepening the students comprehension by providing the activities such as (a) justifying predictions and (b) doing the story-map technique. This technique includes the activities of explaining the text features and its rhetorical steps, providing questions on the rhetorical steps, guiding students to complete the story-map, and assigning the students to complete the story-map completion on board and discussing answers. In using the SRE strategy, the activities of the storygrammar question and &the story-map completion should be done with the shift of work formation from classical, group, pair, until individual work as the effort to withdraw the scaffold from the students; the activities of prediction formulating and of prediction justifying should be set free from tense; adequate preparation of related pictures, of copies of related vocabulary, of story-map sheets, and various colour pencils is a must to support the visualization of the story-map completion; and the time allotment for each stage should be flexibly managed and suit to the students needs and condition; Keywords: Scaffolded Reading Experience strategy, narrative reading skill, improvement

Developing English Syllabus for the Students of Information Technology Department at Kanjuruhan University in Malang Agus Sholeh Abstract
Developing English Syllabus for the Students of Information Technology Department is very crucial and urgent to do because there is no syllabus specially designed to meet the students needs and the syllabus being used has not yet fulfilled the requirements in terms of explicitness, pragmatic and pedagogical


efficiency. As a consequence, the existing syllabus that is designed differently for every semester needs revising and developing. That is why Information Technology Department needs a syllabus with a specific goal to enable the students to understand English written texts and to speak related to their fields of study that is known as English for Specific Purpose (ESP). The lack of a suitable syllabus is the significant reason for the writer to conduct this study to design syllabus that meets the needs of the students. Since the students of English in Information Technology Department need speaking and reading skills, it is necessary to develop an English syllabus for the skills. The problem of this study is There is no English syllabus that is specially designed based on the needs of the students of Information Technology Department of Kanjuruhan University of Malang. This study uses research and development with the procedure of language program development. The research was done in the Information Technology Department of Kanjuruhan University of Malang in April, May and June, 2007 in which the participation of the students, the alumni, and the English teachers were involved. The research used questionnaire and interview as the instrument to collect the data. In this study the syllabus is developed using the educational research and development (R and D) following eight stages: (1) conducting the needs survey, (2) determining the goal and objectives of the course, (3) selecting the syllabus type, (4) writing the proto syllabus, (5) writing the pedagogical syllabus, (6) verifying with the experts, (7) trying out the product, and (8) revising The product of this study is an English Syllabus for speaking and reading skill and instructional material as the models for lesson plan. The syllabus consists of standard competence, topics, basic competence (core material), indicators, teaching and learning activities, methods and media, assessment, the allotted time and sources of the materials. The proposed syllabus consists of 16 topics divided into 8 topics for speaking and 8 topics for reading. The teaching methods are selected to motivate students to speak by using question and answer, drills, role play, repetition, pair and group work and presentation. Methods for reading activities are lecturing, classroom discussion, and pair work discussion. The media used are textbook, whiteboard, projector, and multi media room. Since the teaching and learning process of English in Information Technology Department is limited to two semesters, it is suggested that the institution uses this syllabus as the guideline to develop the teaching material to meet the students need. Institution should give students more facilities to learn English, such as English language laboratory special for Information Technology Department with multi media, more books written in English, more dictionaries. The institution gives addition time semester and weekly meeting. Kanjuruhan University has to pay attention to the quality of incoming students in selection test, that is, the learners achievement and passing grade have to be standardized for all subjects tested including English subject so that there would be a balance to bring points of teaching and learning. Keywords: developing syllabus, syllabus, information technology department

Improving the Writing Ability of the Students of SMAN I Banjarbaru through Modified Dialogue Journal Kusumaningsih Abstract
This study is conducted in order to answer the research problem, How can Modified Dialogue Journal improve students motivation and ability in writing recount at the eleventh year language program of SMAN I Banjarbaru. This strategy is chosen due to its strength in encouraging students to be more actively involved in the teaching and learning process and in helping students to destroy, or at least to reduce the worry to write in English, which is finally able to improve their motivation and ability to write. To answer the research problem, Collaborative Action Research is conducted following four stages, planning, implementing, observing and reflecting. This study was implemented in two cycles. The first cycle consisted of six meetings and the second cycle consisted of two meetings. The subjects of this study are the students of class XI Language Program SMAN I Banjarbaru 2007- 2008 which consists of 26 students. In this study, the students are assigned to write once a week in their journal. The instrument used to collect data are observation sheet, questionnaire, field notes and students journal entries. The procedures of using Modified Dialogue Journal strategy / technique in teaching writing are as follow. First, the teacher explores the students schemata about recount by asking questions. Second, the

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teacher assigns students to identify the characteristics of a modelled recount text. Third, the teacher asks the students to discuss the function, the generic structure of recount and the language features. Fourth, the teacher introduces the concept of the original Dialogue Journal and Modified Dialogue Journal to the students. Fifth, the teacher models the Dialogue Journal by giving some samples of journal writings. Sixth, the teacher lets the students observe the model of journal writing. Seventh, the teacher checks the students understanding by asking questions related to the samples of journal writing. Eighth, the teacher explains how to write a recount in a journal. Ninth, the teacher assigns students to write their personal experience by adapting the modelled text. Tenth, the teacher gives response and implicit correction to students writing both content and language. Eleventh, the teacher asks the students to answer the teachers response in their next writing. Twelfth, the teacher selects and picks up the incorrect sentences from the students journal entries to be corrected and discussed in class. Thirteenth, the teacher lets the students discuss and correct the wrong sentences in groups and guides them to do the correction. Fourteenth, the teacher asks the students to conclude what they learned. Based on the results of the study, modified dialogue journal is able to improve the students motivation and ability in writing a recount text. In terms of motivation, the students are active, highly motivated and become more confident in writing using Modified Dialogue Journal Strategy. The improvement of the students ability in writing is shown by the decreasing number of the students in the lowest level (level 1) from time to time since they manage to move to the higher level (level 2). To determine the level of the students writing, the researcher uses the writing rubric adapted from E.M White, 1985( see Appendix 3) . In the beginning of the action in cycle 1, there are 20 students in level 1, and at the end of Cycle 1 there are 10 students or 50% of students remaining in this level. In Cycle 2, the number of them in level 1 go on decreasing, and by the end of the action, there are only 8 out of 20 students remaining in level 1. This means 60% of students improve to level 2 and it has achieved the criteria of success. Finally, on the basis of the findings, some suggestions for the English teachers and the future researchers are made. First, since there is a correction on students grammar and vocabulary error in Modified Dialogue Journal, students should be well informed that they do not have to be afraid of making mistakes because there will be no direct correction in their writing. Second, error correction should be done implicitly in two ways, (1) by language modeling through teachers responses. The teachers feedback can serve as a model of correct English usage by rewriting correctly the students incorrect sentences, (2) by picking up some of students incorrect sentences from their previous journals, type them on papers and let them correct the error they made by themselves in groups or in pairs. It is important to keep the confidentiality by not mentioning/writing down the name of the mistake makers. The teacher can provide hints to help them or guide them to find the correct answer. Keywords: modified dialogue journal, writing ability

Implementing OKRR (Overview, Key Ideas, Read, Review) Strategy in Teaching Reading to Improve the Students Reading Comprehension at SMPN 2 Giligenting- Sumenep Eva Kartika Nurfadiah Abstract
Based on the result of the preliminary study, it was found out that the Grade VIII students at SMPN 2 Giligenting-Sumenep were not interested in the reading class. The students were not active. Their reading comprehension mastery was low and they needed a long time to understand a reading text, even short text. The research problem of the study was how the implementation of the OKRR strategy in teaching reading can improve the students reading comprehension at SMPN 2 Giligenting-Sumenep. The objective of this study was to improve the students reading comprehension in order to understand the text efficiently and effectively. It was done by implementing the OKRR (Overview, Key Ideas, Read, Review) strategy. The research method of the study was collaborative classroom action research with the researcher as the teacher and the collaborator as the observer. The action research was implemented in four cycles, each of which took one meeting to finish. The subject of the study was the Grade VIII students of SMPN 2 Giligenting-Sumenep, academic year 2006/2007 with the total number of 22 students. During the implementation of the strategy, the students did certain tasks as the steps of the OKRR strategy to improve their reading comprehension. The students


were assigned to overview the text to find the key ideas, read the text to find explicit information, and review the text to get detailed and implicit information. The source of data was based on the implementation of the OKRR strategy. For collecting data, the researcher did certain activities, namely: doing observation, having field-notes, and analyzing the result of the quizzes. Based on the observation during the teaching and learning process, it was found that the use of suitable text for students competence and the use of interesting and varied pictures were the important aspects in teaching of reading to improve the students: (1) skill, (2) activeness, and (3) reading speed in comprehending the text. From this study, some conclusions were drawn. The OKRR strategy to be followed was: (1) overviewing the text (to find key ideas), (2) finding key ideas, (3) read the text (to make three questions based on the text), and (4) reviewing the text (to answer the questions from other groups). The result of the implementing of the OKRR strategy identified that the students were more active. About 91% of the students reading comprehension is improved. The average of the student reading speed also improved twice as high as before the implementation of the OKRR strategy, that was from 60 w.p.m in the first cycle to 121 w.p.m in the fourth cycle. It was suggested to other English teachers to apply the OKRR strategy as an alternative or a model of teaching reading. It is also suggested to other researchers to conduct similar studies in the different English skill, grade, and education level (such as SMA) to improve the students reading comprehension. Keywords: improve, reading comprehension, OKRR strategy

Developing English Instructional Materials for the First Year Beauty Skill Program Students of SMK Negeri 3 Malang Ratna Suita Abstract
The primary goal of teaching English at vocational schools is to provide students with the ability to master basic English knowledge and skills that will support the attainment of skill program competencies and to apply the mastery of English ability and skills in oral and written communication in the intermediate level (PerMenDiknas no 22, 2006). The learning and teaching of English at SMK Negeri 3 Malang especially at Beauty Skill Program is considered unsatisfactory. The main problem is that there is not any appropriate supporting English instructional material for students, especially for the students who take Beauty skill program. The existing materials do not match with the characteristics and the needs of the students. Concerning the problem above, a set of suitable supporting instructional materials for the students of Beauty Skill Program of SMK Negeri 3 Malang needs to be developed. The procedures employed in this study are doing needs analysis, developing the materials, conducting expert validation, revising the materials, trying out the materials, and revising the materials. In doing needs analysis, questionnaires are distributed to the students and the English teacher, while expert validation is done by giving questionnaire to the expert. Questionnaires are also given to the students and the teacher after the materials are tried out. The data from the result of the needs analysis shows that most of the students need English instructional materials that are relevant to their major content subject, Beauty Skill Program. Meanwhile, the data gathered from expert validation indicates that there are some good and weak points of the developed materials which need to be revised. From the try-out of the developed materials in the first year students of Beauty Skill Program of SMK Negeri 3 Malang, the data that shows the effectiveness of the developed materials in helping the students to achieve the mastery of the language skills can be collected. This is reflected from the data taken from the observation showing that students are actively involved in the learning and teaching process for some reasons. The first is that the topics being discussed are interesting and related to their major content subject. Besides, the tasks the students have to do can activate their knowledge of the topics as well as their language skills. Finally, the language they have to use in discussing the topics is at the right level of the students. Based on the result of the try-out, some revisions are made in order that the materials become better and they can finally match the needs of the students.

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To sum up, the success in using the developed materials as shown in the try-out should be continued by other English teachers, the school/institution, material developers, and other researchers. The English teachers can make use the develop materials as an alternative source of materials. The developed materials should be socialized to other English teachers of SMK Negeri 3 Malang and to English teachers group (Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran/MGMP) of Vocational Schools in Malang. In addition, the school, in this case school principal, can facilitate the teacher to publish the developed materials to the internal use. For materials developers, the result of this study can be used as a model to develop the other materials by considering the students context. Meanwhile, for researchers who are interested in English instruction and want to do the same study can use the result of this study as reference for further study. Since this study only focused on one school, the future researcher is suggested to do the study in a wider range. For example, he or she can do the study in some other Vocational High Schools majoring tourism in Malang. As a result, it is expected that the result of the study can be used not only at SMK Negeri 3 Malang but also at the other Vocational High Schools, either state or private schools. Besides, she can do study for the second and the third year students and adjust the level of difficulty and complexity of the language as well as the activities covered in materials. Finally, it is suggested to do a site observation in students workplace to give accurate and valid data about the needs in the target situation. Keywords: english instructional materials, materials development, beauty skill program of SMK Negeri 3 Malang