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Scouting

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Contents
Articles
1st World Scout Jamboree American Scouting overseas Antigua and Barbuda Branch of The Scout Association Association des Guides et Scouts dEurope Association Nationale des Guides d'Hati Barbados Boy Scouts Association Boy Scouts van Suriname Boys' Brigade Caribbean Link for Guiding Caribbean Scout Jamboree Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme Conseil du Scoutisme polynsien Council of Protestants in Guiding and Scouting Eclaireurs Neutres de France Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France Ernest Thompson Seton Fleur-de-lis in Scouting Frederick Russell Burnham Fdration des Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia Girl Guides Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting Girl Scouts of the USA Girlguiding Bermuda Interamerican Scout Region (World Organization of the Scout Movement) International Catholic Conference of Scouting International Link of Orthodox Christian Scouts International Scout and Guide Fellowship International Union of Guides and Scouts of Europe International Union of Muslim Scouts List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members 1 3 12 13 15 17 18 20 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 36 38 41 47 48 64 66 68 68 71 88 89 92 99 101 106 108 109 117

Methodism Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports (France) Muslim Scouts of France Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organisations Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell Scout and Guide Graduate Association Scout method Scouting Scouting and Guiding in Anguilla Scouting and Guiding in France Scouting and Guiding in French Guiana Scouting and Guiding in Guadeloupe and Saint Martin Scouting and Guiding in Haiti Scouting and Guiding in the British Virgin Islands Scouting and Guiding in the Cayman Islands Scouting and Guiding in the Turks and Caicos Islands Scouting Antiano Scouting Aruba Scouting controversy and conflict Scouting in Puerto Rico Scoutisme Franais Scouts d'Hati Scouts et Guides de France Scouts et Guides de Martinique Scouts unitaires de France Student Scout and Guide Organisation The Girl Guides Association of Belize The Saint Lucia Scout Association The Scout Association The Scout Association of Belize The Scout Association of Bermuda The Scout Association of Dominica The Scout Association of Guyana The Scout Association of Jamaica The Scout Association of Saint Kitts and Nevis The Scout Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago William Alexander Smith (Boys' Brigade)

126 151 152 153 156 167 169 175 190 191 194 195 195 196 197 198 199 200 204 211 216 218 221 225 226 227 230 231 232 242 244 246 247 250 252 253 254 257

World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood World Organization of the Scout Movement

258 263 265

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 271 276

Article Licenses
License 280

1st World Scout Jamboree

1st World Scout Jamboree


1st World Scout Jamboree
Location Country Date Olympia, London United Kingdom July 30, 1920 to August 8, 1920

Attendance 8,000 Scouts

The 1st World Scout Jamboree was held from July 30, 1920 to August 8, 1920 and was hosted by the United Kingdom at Kensington Olympia in London. 8,000 Scouts from 34 nations attended the event, which was hosted in a glass-roofed building covering an area of 6 acres (unknown operator: u'strong' m2). It was at this event that Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, was acclaimed the Chief Scout of the World.

Olympia and camping


The Olympia arena was filled with a foot-(30cm)-deep layer of earth, which was turfed over, enabling the Scouts to pitch tents within the glass-roofed hall. However, around 5,000 of the Scouts were encamped at the Old Deer Park in nearby Richmond. The Scouts rotated in and out of Olympia to give them all the opportunity to participate in the events there. The Thames flooded the campsite one night and Scouts had to be evacuated.[1] Olympia hosted numerous exhibitions, pageants and contests during the Jamboree event.

Chief Scout of the World


In order to honour Baden-Powell's role as the founder of Scouting, it was suggested by James E. West, the Chief Scout Executive of the Boy Scouts of America that he be awarded the title of Great Indian Chief.[2] However, during the initiation ceremony, one of the young Scouts shouted out "Long live the Chief Scout of the World", and so it became Baden-Powell's official title within Scouting until his dying day. No other Scouter has held the title since Baden-Powell, as it cannot be conferred by any national sovereign or premier.

1st World Scout Jamboree

Closing speech
Baden-Powell gave a closing speech at the end of the Jamboree: "Brother Scouts. Differences exist between the peoples of the world in thought and sentiment, just as they do in language and physique. The Jamboree has taught us that if we exercise mutual forbearance and give and take, then there is sympathy and harmony. If it be your will, let us go forth fully determined that we will develop among ourselves and our boys that comradeship, through the world wide spirit of the Scout brotherhood, so that we may help to develop peace and happiness in the world and goodwill among men".[3]

Jamborees since 1920


Many lessons were learnt from the first World Scout Jamboree, including the acknowledgement that an indoor venue was too restrictive for the activities and numbers of Scouts who would attend. It was also realised that above all else, a Jamboree is a means of developing a spirit of comradeship between the boys of many nations and the more that aspect can be stressed, the more successful a Jamboree becomes.

The most previous Jamboree was held in Kristiansand in Southern Sweden in 2011, where nearly 40,000 Scouts attended, along with Chief Scout for the United Kingdom Bear Grylls and the King and Queen of Sweden.

The League of Youth War-weary World (at the Jamboree). "I was nearly losing hope, but the sight of all you boys gives it back to me."Cartoon in Punch magazine 4 August 1920, referring to the 1st World Scout Jamboree in the context of the aftermath of World War I

Exhibits
Amongst the thousands of Scouts, there was also a selection of wild animals at the Jamboree: An alligator from Florida A baby crocodile from Jamaica A lioness cub from Rhodesia Monkeys from South Africa A baby elephant A camel

References
[1] Kuiper, Deborah (2007-08-03). "Arnold, 100, commemorates first world scout jamboree" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070928092008/ http:/ / www. cumberland-news. co. uk/ news/ viewarticle. aspx?id=527775). The Cumberland News. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cumberland-news. co. uk/ news/ viewarticle. aspx?id=527775) on 2007-09-28. . Retrieved 2007-08-06. [2] 1st World Jamboree, Olympia, 1920. Home Page (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ 1920-jamboree. htm) [3] ScoutBase UK: The Library - Scouting history - World Jamborees (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ history/ inter/ jambo. htm#1920)

External links
Jamboree Histories at ScoutBase (http://www.scoutbase.org.uk/library/history/inter/jambo.htm#1920) Jamboree Histories at Scout.org (http://www.scout.org/en/information_events/events/world_events/ world_jamboree/jamborees_history) The Jamboree Book (http://www.pinetreeweb.com/1920-wj1-tjb-01.htm)

American Scouting overseas

American Scouting overseas


There have been American Scouts overseas since almost the inception of the movement, often for similar reasons as the present day. Within the Boy Scouts of America, these expatriate Scouts are now served by two overseas Councils and the Direct Service program. Within the Girl Scouts of the USA, the USAGSO serves such a purpose.

Boy Scouts of America


Direct Service
The Direct Service is a program service of the Boy Scouts of America's International Division, created in 1955 to make the Scouting program available to citizens of the United States and their dependents living in countries outside the jurisdiction of the Transatlantic Council (headquartered in Italy and serving American Scouts in much of Europe), the Aloha Council (serving youth residing in much of the eastern and Central Pacific as well as Guam, American Samoa, and several Hawaiian islands) and the Far East Council (headquartered in Japan, serving several nations in the western Pacific.) History According to BSA records and Reports to Congress, BSA overseas councils were referred to as "Extra Regional"-being outside the BSA's then-twelve Scouting regions in the states, which were consolidated in 1973 to six and again to the current four in 1993. Overseas councils were organized in the Panama Canal Zone (1923), Peking, China (1923), Philippines (1924), and Guam (1947). The "Direct Service Council" was formed in 1956, as a result of conversations within the BSA's national office in New Jersey. Several Scouting associations, on behalf of their American citizens living in those countries, wanted to have American Scouts and Scouters to serve as part of their associations while overseas. In fact, the high commissioners in Japan, Europe, and Panama invited BSA to send commissioned Scout executives to help create a program for Americans living overseas. International Scouting accords discouraged such memberships except via wartime criteria that allowed for a small number of youth to take part in local programs when no program of their own host nation existed. The BSA's response was to create within the International Division a "local Council equal" which would do many if not all of the services which the BSA provides to communities in other areas of the world and within the United States. These services include membership accounting, unit chartering and rechartering, advancement reporting and filing, insignia and badge issuance, certification of awards and advice on where to conduct Scouting-related activities (mostly camping or ways that the BSA's requirements to "visit community agencies", for instance, could be met while in Zaire or the Isle of Man or in Peru). Direct Service Council did not include Transatlantic, Far East, Aloha, or Canal Zone Councils which had BSA charters to operate as councils since the early 1950s. The Direct Service Council was headed initially by James R. Sands, the Associate National Director of the BSA's International Division and assisted by two staffers and two technicians. Key national staff officers working within the BSA's National Office wore "extra hats" as Direct Service Council "staffers"; while key volunteers served as members of the Executive Board of the Council and key BSA youth members were initially made leaders of the Council's youth programs until the Council could get on its feet. After 1974, the Council elected their own Council officers (by mail) and an election was held to elect youth representatives for their Order of the Arrow Lodge and their Explorer Presidents Association chapter. In 1989 the practice was discontinued and appointments were made directly through postal mail from the national office. In areas whereby significant numbers of American citizens lived, "District" organizations existed. These areas included Hong Kong, Guatemala and Central America, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, Kenya and the countries surrounding Lake Victoria, Mexico and the Caribbean, and Canada. Each "District" had a volunteer structure, to include District Chairs and members as well as Commissioners to assist existing and new units. Some "Districts"

American Scouting overseas even raised the funding necessary to "borrow" an executive with a multinational firm to serve as their District's professional representative; in other cases, firms like Saudi Aramco "donated" an executive to head up Scouting in that part of the world. Those individuals coordinated directly with the BSA's International offices and in the 70s and 80s had the resources to quickly get materials, training aids, awards and insignia, and uniforms to youth and adult members within their areas. While the BSA officially had no "Districts" within Direct Service Council, they did respond positively to the effort by creating special versions of the traditional Direct Service Council insignia to be worn by youth residing in those parts of the Council's "terrority" without calling them "Districts". Before Direct Service Council folded, there were ten official such "Council Shoulder Patches" or CSPs in addition to the default CSP. In many areas of the Council, individual units and parents of Lone Scouts created their own unofficial CSP emblem to wear, with flags and symbology of the local area on those patches, instead of the standard emblem. A 12th such emblem was created when Canal Zone merged with Direct Service later. In 1973, the Direct Service Council newsletter was created, to further provide information to DSC Scouts and Scouters and those serving on its Council "staff" and "leadership". Much of the information was copied from other BSA publications with specific information about registration, how to participate in BSA national and international activities/events, and new forms placed as inserts. In 1975, the first instances of the word "District" were printed in the newsletter, further acknowledging the growth of this "notional local Council". The "expansion" and "contraction" of the Direct Service Council depended heavily on the numbers of Americans living in those countries not served by active BSA Councils overseas. This explains why in some years individuals or specific countries in Europe, North Africa, and the Near and Far East were alternately parts of Aloha Council (serving many Pacific island nations), or Transatlantic Council (serving much of Europe, Northern Africa and the Near East) or the Far East Council (serving the far end of the Pacific rim) one year, and the next year part of Direct Service Council. Council territories expanded and contracted, which made it important that the small International Division staff stay in constant touch with overseas Councils and their professional staffs. With the retirement in 1986 of Jim Sands, the BSA's biggest defender and supporter of International Scouting, Margerite ("Marge") Weilexbaum was appointed as the Council's Administrator, the first time that the BSA allowed a female to serve as a local Council Scout Executive (even though that was not her title, she was in the position to affect Council policy in a similar style to other Council Executives stateside). She attempted to hold things together until her retirement in 1995. In 1987, the former Panama Canal (Zone) Council was consolidated and made a part of the Direct Service Council, in a similar way that other Councils were consolidated or merged to form larger local Councils in other areas of the world. An "official" 12th CSP issued by the former Council for its youth to wear featured the words "Direct Service" in addition to the words "Canal Zone." While not officially created by the BSA, the patch was worn by DSC youth and adults living in the Zone until the middle 90s. In 1990, a national office shakeup and reorganization slimmed down the International Division and many of its functions were sheared off to other program divisions within the National office. Many DSC Scouters state that this was the start of the end of the Council. With the retirement of its longtime Administrator five years later, several decisions were made with regard to the Council. The first was that it would no longer serve or be listed as a "local Council" but rather, in the traditions of the old Lone Scout Service, would serve as a "service element" within the National office. Scouts and Scouters would continue to receive "direct service" from the staff, but the staffing would be cut almost to the bone from five to two. It was understood that with the advent of faster communication and coordination between units and individuals in the field and the national offices, that the existing staffing support was no longer needed. The newsletter was discontinued.

American Scouting overseas The second was that all supporting elements which made Direct Service a true gem in the eyes of those members and Scouters in the field would be eliminated. This means that in some locations, the "borrowed executives" used to support "district and multi unit" activities in the Council would no longer be supported. BSA Camp inspections at several camps in the former Council would also cease, as well as most Order of the Arrow activities. The Lodge would continue, and individual units may continue to hold OA elections. The actual Ordeal, Brotherhood, and Vigil Honor ceremonies, however, would be conducted by local Councils in Europe, the Far East or Pacific or held until the Scout or Scouter could return Stateside to participate. This was further restricted by the Order of the Arrow in 1999. The biggest impact was that the Council could no longer conduct sustaining membership enrollment, or "Friends of Scouting" campaigns as a Council any longer. Units, individuals and those organizations and corporations supporting American Scouting around the world would instead be asked to donate directly to the National Office with funding no longer "earmarked" for the Direct Service Council, but placed in the general operation funds of the BSA. In 1998, the word "Council" was finally removed from the Direct Service and plans to no longer issue or sell the ten existing Council CSPs would be made. The Direct Service Council finally died although the BSA continues to this day to provide "direct service" to youth and adults living and working around the worldin those locations where there no longer exists a BSA local Council. Administration Direct Service is administered by the International Division of the Boy Scouts of America. It provides some of the same services that a local council provides: Processing registration and magazine subscriptions, maintaining records, approving advancements, processing supply orders, organizing National and World Jamboree participation, operating Gamenowinink Lodge #555, Order of the Arrow, and providing information and program resources. Membership Approximately 3,000 youth members and 1,000 adult leaders belong to Direct Service units, or are registered as Lone Scouts in isolated areas of the world. Direct Service members are the children of international businesspeople, American expat community,diplomatic corps officials, and U.S. military personnel. Direct Service serves 100 Cub Scout packs, Boy Scout troops, and Venturing crews in 47 countries on five continents. Currently, the following countries have one or more Scouting units registered through Direct Service:
Argentina Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Belarus Bolivia Bulgaria Canada Chile China Costa Rica Cuba Egypt El Salvador Ethiopia Ghana Guatemala Honduras Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jordan Kenya Kuwait Malaysia Mauritania Mexico Myanmar Nepal Nigeria Panama Peru Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Trinidad and Tobago Ukraine United Arab Emirates Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Zambia

Hong Kong

Kazakhstan

Dominican Republic

American Scouting overseas Program The meetings and activities of Direct Service units are basically the same as those in the United States. Minor modifications are sometimes necessary because of circumstances that occur when living in another country. These modifications often lead to cooperative efforts between the BSA members and Scouts of other associations who attend joint Scouting activities such as jamborees, rallies, community projects, and other events. Local groups of units (fomerely districts under the former Direct Service Council) maintain their own camps. Chartered organizations The chartered organizations of Direct Service units include American schools and churches, international schools, U.S. embassies, multinational corporations, parents' groups, veteran organizations and groups, and fraternal organizations. Order of the Arrow Gamenowinink Lodge, chartered in 1962, serves 135 Arrowmen as of 2004. The lodge totem is a globe, and the name translates to "On the Other Side of the Great Sea" in the Lenni Lenape language. Gamenowinink Lodge is under the supervision and administration of the BSA International Division in Irving, Texas. In 1971 Gamenowinink Lodge absorbed Cuauhtli Lodge #446 of the Scouts de America Council, which served American Scouts in Mexico, and in 1987 absorbed Chiriqui Lodge #391 of the Panama Canal Council, which served American Scouts in the former Panama Canal Zone. Overseas Arrowman Several alumni groups exist to support American Scout Councils and the Order of the Arrow overseas. Foremost among them is the Overseas Arrowman Association (OAA), a private organization incorporated in 1989, and the TAC (Transatlantic Council) Alumni Association.[1][2][3] Awards Scouting awards are presented as in any local council, including the Silver Beaver Award and the District Award of Merit. All nominations are reviewed by the BSA Direct Service committee. Financial support Direct Service units organize their own activities to earn money for special programs, equipment, and service projects. Communications Communication between the International Division and its Direct Service units is by mail, fax, e-mail, and telephone. Unit leaders receive periodic bulletins containing special information. Canada One of the newest BSA direct service units, Troop 511, was established in 2008 and is chartered to the Western Chapter of the American Chamber of Commerce in Canada in Calgary, Alberta.

American Scouting overseas

Far East Council

Far East Council


Owner Boy Scouts of America Headquarters Camp Zama Country Founded United States 1953 Website
http:/ / www. fareastcouncil. org/

The Far East Council of the Boy Scouts of America, headquartered at Camp Zama in Japan, was created in 1953 to make the Scouting program available to United States citizens and their dependents living in several nations in the western Pacific. Administration Far East Council is organized similar to other BSA local Councils, and follows the Status of Forces Agreements with their host nations and the U.S. military. Far East Council is a part of the Western Region, BSA Membership Far East Council members are the children of international businesspeople, American expat community, diplomatic corps officials, and U.S. military personnel. Far East serves Cub Scout packs, Boy Scout troops, and Venturing crews in five countries. Currently, the following countries have one or more Scouting units registered through Far East Council: Japan Japan District Atsugi Camp Zama Iwakuni Kobe Misawa Sasebo Tokyo Yokota Yokosuka

American Scouting overseas Great Okinawa District Camp Courtney Camp Foster Camp Kinser Futenma Gushikawa Kadena

South Korea Korea District Camp Humphries, Kunsan Osan Pusan

Far East Council American Scouting overseas map

Seoul Taegu Taejon Ulsan Yongsan

Taiwan Taiwan District Taipei Thailand Garuda District Bangkok Chiangmai The Philippines Philippines District Manila Tanay,Rizal Program The meetings and activities of Far East Council units are basically the same as those in the United States. Minor modifications are sometimes necessary because of circumstances that occur when living in another country. These modifications often lead to cooperative efforts between the BSA members and Scouts of other associations who attend joint Scouting activities such as jamborees, rallies, community projects, and other events. Chartered Organizations The chartered organizations of Far East Council units include American military bases, schools and churches, international schools, U.S. embassies, multinational corporations, parents' groups, veteran organizations and fraternal organizations.

American Scouting overseas Order of the Arrow The Achpateuny Lodge,[4] originally chartered in 1953 as Hinode Goya Lodge (Rising Sun), serves 278 Arrowmen as of 2004. The lodge totem is a dragon, and the name translates to "East Wind" in the Lenni Lenape language. Officially, Baluga Lodge #538 (Philippine Islands Council), merged with Hinode Goya, the lodge later changed its name to Ikunuhkatsi (reportedly translated from Filipino Tagalog as "a Gathering of the Nations") in 1975. Ikunuhkatsi was inactive near the end of its charter year in 1983, and in 1984 it was rechartered as Achpateuny Lodge. Awards Trail medals are issued for the hiking and cleanup of several World War II and historic sites, such as Task Force Smith throughout the Council territory. Taiwan has the Silver Mocassin medal for those who backpack across the island West to East (usually) on the historic Neng Gau trail (in the 1960s and 1970s) or the historic Batongguan trail (a 9-day trek taken by several Scouts in 2008). In 2005 Taiwan District re-cast the historic Golden Carabao medal, which was awarded in the 1960s and 1970s to adult volunteers for exemplary service.

Transatlantic Council
The Transatlantic Council of the Boy Scouts of America, originally created in May 1950 as EUCOM, BSA Advisory Board and later EUCOM Advisory Council, serves to make the Scouting program available to United States citizens and their dependents living in west-and-central Europe, the Near East, and North Africa. The boundaries of the Council constantly shift due to changing political alliances and circumstances in nations where servicemen are stationed. Transatlantic Council has served nations as diverse as Norway and Ethiopia. In landmass, it is the largest of the councils of the Boy Scouts of America. History There have been American Scouts overseas since almost the inception of the movement, often for similar reasons as the present day. Troops existed, sometimes chartered under the British system, sometimes not chartered until the creation of the Council. Lone Scouts were under the direct service of the Boy Scouts of America. Administration Transatlantic Council remains a council within the North East Region, BSA. Membership Transatlantic Council members are the children of international businesspeople, American expat community, diplomatic corps officials, and U.S. military personnel. Transatlantic serves Cub Scout packs, Boy Scout troops, and Venturing crews in 23 countries on three continents. Currently, the following countries have one or more Scouting units registered through Transatlantic Council[5]: Mayflower District England: London, RAF Lakenheath, RAF Mildenhall, RAF Feltwell, RAF Alconbury/Molesworth, RAF Croughton, Menwith Hill Station Scotland: Aberdeen Ireland Norway: Stavanger Charlemagne District Netherlands: The Hague, Schinnen (AFNORTH), Amsterdam Denmark: Copenhagen Sweden. Stockholm

American Scouting overseas Belgium: Brussels, Waterloo, SHAPE (Mons) Luxembourg Germany: Geilenkirchen, Dsseldorf, Bonn, Bitburg, Spangdahlem France: Paris Switzerland: Geneva Barbarossa District Germany: Kaiserslautern, Ramstein, Landstuhl, Sembach, Baumholder Rheingold District Germany: Stuttgart, Heidelberg, Wiesbaden, Frankfurt, Dexheim, Darmstadt, Oberursel Switzerland: Bern, Zurich, Basel Edelweiss District Germany: Bamberg, Munich, Garmisch, Oberammergau[6], Hanau, Schweinfurt, Kitzingen, Ansbach, Grafenwoehr, Vilseck, Illesheim, Hohenfels, Berlin, Hamburg, Dresden Austria: Vienna Czech Republic: Prague Hungary: Budapest, Ppa Lithuania: Vilnius[7] Poland: Warsaw Romania: Bucharest Slovakia: Bratislava Mediterranean District Albania: Tirana Croatia: Zagreb Cyprus: Nicosia Greece: Athens Italy: Aviano, Vicenza, Milan, Camp Darby (Livorno, Pisa) Rome, Naples, Sigonella (Sicily) Spain: Madrid, Rota Portugal: Lisbon, Lajes (Azores Islands) Morocco: Rabat Turkey: Istanbul, Incirlik, Ankara

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Program The meetings and activities of Transatlantic Council units are basically the same as those in the United States. Minor modifications are sometimes necessary because of circumstances that occur when living in another country. These modifications often lead to cooperative efforts between the BSA members and Scouts of other associations who attend joint Scouting activities such as jamborees, rallies, community projects, and other events. Chartered Organizations The chartered organizations of Transatlantic Council units include American military bases, schools and churches, international schools, U.S. embassies, multinational corporations, parents' groups, veterans' groups, and fraternal organizations.

American Scouting overseas Order of the Arrow The Black Eagle Lodge,[8][9] chartered in 1952 as Bald Eagle Lodge, serves 615 Arrowmen as of 2004. Another Bald Eagle Lodge had been previously chartered and the lodge changed the name to Black Eagle Lodge. The lodge totem is a black eagle, a stylized version of the traditional heraldic Black Eagle emblem of Germany. Its history of Neckerchiefs and Patches is at Matt Kirkland's Black Eagle Lodge 482 Patch Museum.[10] A history of documents, newsletters and programs can found at Black Eagle Lodge 482.[11] Awards Trail medals are issued for the hiking and cleanup of several World War I and World War II sites throughout the Council territory.

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Girl Scouts of the USA


Girl Scouts of the USA are serviced by way of USA Girl Scouts Overseas (USAGSO) headquartered in New York. USAGO has four offices: USA Girl Scouts OverseasNorth Atlantic serves units in Europe USA Girl Scouts OverseasWest Pacific serves units in Japan, Okinawa and Korea USA Girl Scouts OverseasU.S. Virgin Islands serves the Virgin Islands Guam Girl Scouts Council serves the island of Guam

References
[1] "TAC Alumni Connection" (http:/ / sites. google. com/ site/ tac100yearsofscouting/ home/ tac-alumni-connection). Transatlantic Council, BSA. . Retrieved 2012-04-09. [2] Ken Kittelberger. "Black Eagle Lodge History - from the pages of the Deep Water Traveler Newsletter" (http:/ / www. arrowman-oaa. com/ be_history. htm). Overseas Arrowman Association (OAA). . Retrieved 2012-04-09. [3] "Overseas Arrowmen Association" (http:/ / m. oa-bsa. org/ view?id=20). Order of the Arrow, Boy Scouts of America.. . Retrieved 2012-04-09. [4] "oa803.org" (http:/ / www. oa803. org/ ). oa803.org. . Retrieved 2011-11-13. [5] "Districts" (http:/ / www. tac-bsa. org/ Districts). Transatlantic Council, BSA. . Retrieved 2012-04-09. [6] Philipp Lehar/Phips (February 2012). "Boy Scouts in den bayrischen Bergen" (in German). Sarasani-Zeitschrift der Pfadibewegung Schweiz 11: 14-15. [7] "Thank You". TAC in Focus February 2010: 6. February 2010. [8] "Black Eagle Lodge News(Order of teh Arrow)". TAC in Focus May 2010: 12. May 2010. [9] "OA" (http:/ / www. tac-bsa. org/ OA). Transatlantic Council, BSA. . Retrieved 2012-04-09. [10] "Matt Kirkland's Black Eagle Lodge 482 Patch Museum" (http:/ / blackeagletrader. com/ sukeuwoapalanne/ museum. html). Blackeagletrader.com. . Retrieved 2011-11-13. [11] "blackeaglelodge482.com" (http:/ / www. blackeaglelodge482. com). blackeaglelodge482.com. . Retrieved 2011-11-13.

External links
Direct Service, BSA (http://www.directservicebsa.org) Far East Council (http://www.fareastcouncil.org/) Direct Service Newsletter (http://www.directservicebsa.org/newsletters/2005-04.html) Transatlantic Council (http://www.tac-bsa.org)

Antigua and Barbuda Branch of The Scout Association

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Antigua and Barbuda Branch of The Scout Association


Antigua and Barbuda Branch of The Scout Association
Country Founded Antigua and Barbuda April 1913

The Antigua and Barbuda Branch of The Scout Association is coeducational, with separate sections for boys and girls. Although Antigua and Barbuda is independent, Scouting is a section of the United Kingdom's Scout Association. Scouting is active in most of Antigua and Barbuda's villages, where Scouts learn the basic skills and practice them at an annual island-wide camp once a year. Scouts in Antigua and Barbuda have participated in many Caribbean camps and events. The Scout emblem incorporates elements of the coat of arms of Antigua and Barbuda. Scouting began in Antigua in April 1913 at Antigua Grammar School. Lead by Richmond Wheeler and Samuel Branch, there were only 25 scouts at that time.[1]

References
[1] "Scouts celebrate their beginning" (http:/ / www. antiguaobserver. com/ ?p=25412). Antigua Observer. 2010-02-24. . Retrieved 2011-05-30.

Association des Guides et Scouts dEurope

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Association des Guides et Scouts dEurope


Association des Guides et Scouts dEurope
Association of the Guides and Scouts of Europe Headquarters B.P. 17 F-77570 Chteau-Landon Country Founded Founder Membership President Affiliation France 1958 Jean-Claude Alain 26,600 Gwenal Lhuissier Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts dEurope, Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme Website
http:/ / www. scouts-europe. org/

The Association des Guides et Scouts dEurope (AGSE, Association of the Guides and Scouts of Europe) is a Roman Catholic Scouting and Guiding organization in France. It was founded in 1958 and serves about 26,600 members. The organization was a founding member of the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe and the Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme.

Program
The association is divided in three sections according to age: Louvettes et Louveteaux (Cub Scouts) - ages 8 to 12 Eclaireuses et les Eclaireurs (Guides and Scouts) - ages 12 to 17 Guides Anes et Routiers (Rangers and Rovers) - ages 17 and older All local units are single sex, despite the association as whole being mixed. The AGSE runs about 25 Sea Scout units.

Ideals
Principles
1. Le devoir du scout (de la guide) commence la maison. The duty of the Scout (the Guide) begins at home. 2. Fidle sa patrie, le scout (la guide) est pour lEurope unie et fraternelle. Loyal to his native country, the Scout (the Guide) supports the united and fraternal Europe. 3. Fils (Fille) de la Chrtient, le scout (la guide) est fier (fire) de sa foi : il (elle) travaille tablir le rgne du Christ dans toute sa vie et dans le monde qui lentoure. As a son (daughter) of the Christianity, the Scout (the Guide) is pride of his faith: He works on the creation of Christ's reign in his live and the world surrounding him .

Association des Guides et Scouts dEurope

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Law
1. Le scout (La guide) met son honneur mriter confiance. The Scout (The Guide) puts his honor in deserving confidence. 2. Le scout (La guide) est loyal(e) son pays, ses parents, ses chefs et ses subordonns. The Scout (The Guide) is loyal to his country, his parents, his principals and his subordinates. 3. Le scout (La guide) est fait pour servir et sauver son prochain. The Scout (The Guide) is ready to serve and save his next. 4. Le scout est lami de tous et le frre de tout autre scout. (La guide est bonne pour tous et la sur de toute auter guide). The Scout is the friend of everybody and a brother to evry other Scout. (The Guide is good to everybody and a sister to every other Guide.) 5. Le scout (La guide) est courtois(e) et chevaleresque (gnreuse). The Scout (The Guide) is courteous and gallant (generous). 6. Le scout (La guide) voit dans la nature luvre de Dieu : il (elle) aime les plantes et les animaux. The Scout (The Guide) sees the work of God in the nature: He loves the plants and animals. 7. Le scout (La guide) obit sans rplique et ne fait rien moiti. The Scout (The Guide) obeys without protest and finishes his tasks. 8. Le scout (La guide) est matre(sse) de soi : il (elle) sourit et chante dans les difficults. The Scout (The Guide) masters himself: He smiles and sings in all difficulties. 9. Le scout (La guide) est conome et prend soin du bien d'autrui. The Scout (The Guide) is thrifty and cares for the property of others. 10. Le scout (La guide) est pur(e) dans ses penses, ses paroles et ses actes. The Scout (The Guide) is pure in his thoughts, words and deeds.

Promise
Sur mon honneur, avec la grce de Dieu, je mengage servir de mon mieux Dieu, lglise, ma patrie et lEurope, aider mon prochain en toutes circonstances, observer la loi scoute (guide). On my honor and with the grace of God, I promise to serve God, the Church, my fatherland and Europe, to aid my next in all circumstances, and to observe the Scout (Guide) Law.

External links
Official website [1] (French) History of the movement [2] (French)

References
[1] http:/ / www. scouts-europe. org/ [2] http:/ / www. fraternite. net/ scoutisme_europeen. pdf

Association Nationale des Guides d'Hati

15

Association Nationale des Guides d'Hati


Association Nationale des Guides d'Hati
National Guide Association of Hati

Country Founded

Haiti 1942

Membership 782 Affiliation World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts

The Association Nationale des Guides d'Hati (ANGH; National Guide Association of Hati) is the national Guiding organization of Haiti. It serves 782 members (as of 2003). Founded in 1942, the girls-only organization became an associate member member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1946 and a full member in 1950.

Program
The association is divided in four sections according to age: Jeanette - ages 7 to 12 Guide - ages 12 to 15 Guide relais - ages 15 to 18 Guide ane - ages 18 to 25

2010 Haiti earthquake response


News from the Association Nationale des Guides d'Hati is sparse after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, with International Commissioner Leticia Cadet confirming that she and the Guides she is in contact with are safe and "trying to help as much as we can." Guides were noted by CNN in an article[1] to be assisting with distributing aid in Logne.[2] Neighboring Asociacin de Guas Scouts Dominicanas has set up a working group to mobilize its members and their communities and to coordinate their aid effort. Les Scouts et Guides de France has established a fund to raise money for food, infrastructure and other essential requirements. The 2010 World Thinking Day Fund, in which WAGGGS is focusing on five specific countries, Haiti, Georgia, Maldives, Sudan and Zimbabwe, supports the work of WAGGGS globally. It is not exclusively dedicated to Haiti or disaster relief, however, part of the funding raised will go to Haiti in 2010 and specific projects agreed upon by Haiti and WAGGGS. As the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts is not an expert disaster relief agency or disaster fund co-ordinator, WAGGGS is not setting up a special fund for Haiti.[3] There are also projects of national Scout organizations to support the help of the World Organization of the Scout Movement and WAGGGS, such as Austria.[4]

Association Nationale des Guides d'Hati

16

References
[1] Scout takes comfort in Haiti relief work (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2010/ WORLD/ americas/ 02/ 01/ haiti. girl. scout/ index. html), Moni Basu, CNN, February 4, 2010 [2] It's the Haitians who Will Rebuild Their Country (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ patrick-solomon/ its-the-haitians-who-will_b_439037. html), Patrick Solomon, Huffington Post, January 27, 2010 [3] World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, "Girl Guides and Girl Scouts around the world reach out to their Haitian sisters" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ news/ 2001), 19 January 2010 (accessed 02/2/10) [4] (German) Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen sterreichs, "Solidaritt mit Haiti - PfadfinderInnen in Aktion" (http:/ / www. ppoe. at/ aktionen/ haiti2010. html) (accessed 10/2/02)

External links
Club of Former Scouts and Guides of Haiti (Association des Anciens Scouts et Guides d'Hati) CASEGHA-USA (http://www.caseghausa.org)

Barbados Boy Scouts Association

17

Barbados Boy Scouts Association


Barbados Boy Scouts Association
Location Country Hazelwood, Upper Collymore Rock, St. Michael Barbados

Membership 2,738

The Barbados Boy Scouts Association is the national Scouting organization of Barbados. The Association is managed by the National Scout Council and is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. The boys only Barbados Boy Scouts Association has 2,738 members as of 2008.[1] Although the Constitution of the Association was approved on 20 February, 1969, Scouting existed in Barbados since 1912. The first Troop on the island was registered on 9 March, 1912, at Combermere School and Mr. Charles W. Springer was their first warranted Scout Leader. The program emphasis is to develop good citizenship among boys by assisting in the formation and development of character; training them in habits of observation, obedience and self-reliance; inculcating loyalty, patriotism, courage and thoughtfulness for others; teaching them services useful to the public and handicrafts useful to themselves; promoting their physical, mental, moral and spiritual development. Scouting is most active in Bridgetown, the capital city and the surrounding areas. The headquarters is located at Hazelwood, Collymore Rock, St. Michael. Scouts are active in Caribbean activities and attend many camps and jamborees in neighboring Caribbean islands and further abroad. The membership badge of the Barbados Boy Scouts Association incorporates the trident and color scheme of the flag of Barbados.

References
[1] "Triennial Report 2005-2008" (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 11615/ 94838/ file/ Triennial_Report_EN. pdf). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2008-07-13.

Boy Scouts van Suriname

18

Boy Scouts van Suriname


Boy Scouts van Suriname
Boy Scouts of Suriname

Headquarters Weidestraat 67-69 Location Country Founded Founder Membership Chief Scout Affiliation Paramaibo Suriname 1972 Jacob Rademaker 2,601 Ronald Venetiaan World Organization of the Scout Movement
[1]

Boy Scouts van Suriname is the national Scouting organization of Suriname. Scouting in Suriname officially started in 1924 and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) in 1968. The coeducational association has 2,601 members (as of 2004).

History
On September 12, 1910, the "Korps Surinamese Boy Scouts" was established in Thalia. In 1915 was the name "Surinaamsche Padvinders Organisatie". There was no more activity, after Scouting was blamed for the drowning of 16-year-old Boy Scout, Herman Sas Rmer, on March 13, 1916 in the Dominkreek near Poelepantje.[2] Scouting in Suriname officially restarted on July 29, 1924, when the Surinamese district of the Vereeniging de Nederlandsche Padvinders (NPV) was officially founded in the Thalia theatre in Paramaribo. On this occasion, 107 Boy Scouts, many Cub Scouts and some girls made their Scout Promise.[3] In 1938, the Dutch Scout movement was split after a decision of the Roman Catholic episcopate into the interreligious NPV and the Katholieke Verkenners (KV). Scouting in Suriname had to follow this despite all protests, so the Katholieke Verkenners Suriname (KVS) were founded out of the Catholic members of the groups. The logo of the KVS was the same as the KV, a Fleur-de-lis for Boy Scouts, on a cross potent for Catholic Scouts. During World War II, the Surinamese Scouts had to stand alone, since Scouting was banned in the German occupied Netherlands. So, after the war, the Suriname district of NPV decided to found an own, nearly independent association, the Surinaamse Padvinders Vereniging (SPV), which was incorporated in 1964. SPV and KVS worked close together and received recognition by WOSM in 1968, seven years before the independence of Suriname. After four years of cooperation both association merged and formed the Boy Scouts van Suriname on April 23, 1972. The first Chief Scout was Johan Ferrier. [4] In 1974, the new association hosted the 5th Caribbean Jamboree.

Boy Scouts van Suriname

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Program
The association is divided in three age-groups: Cub Scouts (ages 7 to 12) Scouts (ages 12 to 18) Rover Scouts (ages 18 to 24) The Scout Motto is Weest Paraat, Be Prepared in Dutch, and Weest Pareet in Sranan Tongo.

References
World Scout Bureau (1979), Scouting 'Round the World. 1979 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0 World Organization of the Scout Movement (1990), Scouting 'Round the World. 1990 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0
[1] NIBA Suri Magazine no. 92. (http:/ / www. suriname. nu/ 0niba/ niba92a. html) [2] Suriname : koloniaal nieuws- en advertentieblad, Een treurig ongeval. (http:/ / kranten. kb. nl/ view/ article/ id/ ddd:010341438:mpeg21:p002:a0035) [3] Dagblad Suriname, Boy Scouts 84 jaar (http:/ / www. dbsuriname. com/ archief/ nat/ 2008/ jul08/ 28-07-08/ Nat_Boy Scouts 84 jaar . asp) [4] (Dutch) Johan Ferrier, eerste Chief Scout Suriname (http:/ / www. dbsuriname. com/ archief/ nat/ 2010/ jan10/ 11-01-10/ Nat_Johan Ferrier, eerste Chief Scout Suriname. asp)

External links
History of Scouting in Suriname (http://www.kelpin.nl/fred/padvinderskroniek.htm) (Dutch)

Boys' Brigade

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Boys' Brigade
For the 80s New Wave band from Canada, see Boys Brigade (band).

Boys' Brigade
Founder(s) Founded Sir William Alexander Smith 1883

Area served International Website www.boys-brigade.org.uk [1]

The Boys' Brigade (BB) is an interdenominational Christian youth organisation, conceived by William Alexander Smith to combine drill and fun activities with Christian values.[2] Following its inception in Glasgow in 1883, the BB quickly spread across the United Kingdom and became a worldwide organisation by the early 1890s.[3] As of 2003, there were 500,000Boys' Brigade members in 60countries.[4]

Object, motto and emblem


The stated object of the Boys' Brigade is "The advancement of Christ's kingdom among Boys and the promotion of habits of Obedience, Reverence, Discipline, Self-respect and all that tends towards a true Christian manliness." Except for the addition of the word "obedience" in 1893, the contents of the object has remained unchanged from the beginning.[5] However, some countries, particularly those which permit girls on their membership roll, have re-worded the object for gender neutrality. For example, in Malaysia, the word "manliness" has been changed to "character". When designing the Brigade's motto and crest, William Smith referred directly to Hebrews6:19 in the King James Version of the Bible, "Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and stedfast...".[2] From this verse came the BB motto, "Sure and Stedfast", retaining the old spelling of the latter word.[5] Today, some parts of the movement have adopted the modern spelling of "steadfast", whilst others continue to use the original spelling.[3][6] The crest was originally a plain anchor, bearing the BB motto with a capital 'B' on either side. Upon the merger between the Boys' Brigade and the Boys' Life Brigade in 1926, the red Greek cross was placed behind the anchor to form the current emblem.[3] The cross originally formed part of emblem of the Boys' Life Brigade.

History

Boys' Brigade The first Boys' Brigade company was set up by William Alexander Smith (later Sir William Alexander Smith) on 4 October 1883, at Free Church Mission Hall, North Woodside Road, Glasgow, Scotland, to develop "Christian manliness" by the use of a semi-military discipline and order, gymnastics, summer camps, and religious services and classes. In the years following the establishment of the 1st Glasgow company, others were rapidly formed throughout Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom leading to a movement comprising thousands of boys. The Boys Brigade movement in Wales was founded by George Phillip Reynolds in 1887 at Havelock Sreet Presbyterian Church, Newport, Monmouthshire.

21

A headboard on 60163 Tornado celebrates the 125th anniversary of the Boys' Brigade on 4 October 2008

By the early 20th century there were about 2,200companies connected with different churches throughout the United Kingdom, the British Empire, and the United States, with 10,000officers and 160,000boys. Each company is normally affiliated to a battalion encompassing several nearby companies, which in turn are organized at a district and then national level, although in Scotland each company is attached to a local district, which is attached to a battalion. Companies are named in the form "2nd Springfield", indicating the second company to have been established in or around Springfield. Where companies have closed, numbers are not normally reallocated, so it is quite normal to find a "2nd" but no "1st" company. Initially, a simple rosette was worn as an identifying uniform, shortly being replaced by the simple use of a belt, haversack, and pillbox cap (a popular military cap of the day) worn over the boys' everyday clothing. The pillbox cap was used into the 1960s, long after it had fallen out of use in the British Army, when it was replaced with a field cap. The movement also pioneered camping for leisure in Britain, previously rarely used outside the military. Early admirers of the Brigade included Robert Baden-Powell who as Vice President of the Boys' Brigade used it alongside initiatives in schools, particularly Eton, to promote the idea of scouting and outdoor pursuits based on those of the military for boys. At the time, he did not originally intend that any individual organization would later arise from this aim in the form of the various Boy Scouts movements. Early examples of Scouting were seen in Boys' Brigade Scouting awards and even specialised Boys' Brigade Scout sections who wore a blue uniform with shorts and the distinctive Smokey Bear hat traditionally identified with Scouts, and still worn today by drill sergeants in the United States Army. However, nowadays there is a certain friendly rivalry between the two groups. The Boys' Life Brigade was one of many similar movements formed by the Boys' Brigade's influence, sometimes along denominational or religious lines, including the Church Lads' Brigade, the Jewish Lads' Brigade, or the Catholic Boys' Brigade. The merger also prompted the abandonment of dummy drill rifles that had been used in The Boys' Brigade, due to the Life Brigade's objection to use of weapons or their representations. For some time afterwards, the section covering members aged 812 years was known as Life Boys, before being restyled as the Junior section (see below). A popular hymn in the BB containing its motto and obvious reference to its emblem is "Will Your Anchor Hold"[7] by Priscilla Owens, usually sung at displays and church services. However, the official song for the Boy's Brigade is "Underneath the Banner".

Boys' Brigade

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Establishment of recreational camping


Drawing from his military experience, Sir William Smith introduced the concept of camping into the Brigade to allow boys and officers to remain in contact when other activities ceased for the summer break.[8] The notion was initially ill-received due to concerns for the boys' safety.[8][9] A mother has been quoted saying, "Camp! My children have always had a roof over their heads, and as long as I live, always will!".[8] Nevertheless, Sir William Smith proceeded with the idea and 1st Glasgow Company held its inaugural one-week camp beginning on Friday, 16 July 1886, at Auchinloan Hall, Tighnabruaich before moving in later years to a site at Portavadie in the Kyles of Bute.[8] The First Glasgow continued to attend summer camp at the same location until the summer of 1974 when Portavadie was selected as the location of a proposed yard for the construction of oil production platforms. However the new camp is located only 100 yards away at Stilliag farm. This camp site is now used by many Boys' Brigades every summer for their camping trip. The initial reservations towards camping did not last. A tradition developed, where the boys who were marching home on the last day of camp would be greeted by cheers from residents and were each presented with a bouquet of flowers.[8] Camps soon became one of the most anticipated events in the year[9] and early publications of the Boys' Brigade Gazette contained many accounts of camping experiences.[8] Sir William Smith's plans and notes for his first camps have been preserved, and have been used by many other campers.[8]

Sections in the BB
There are five different age groups, known as "sections", within the organisation for the UK: Anchors - 4 to 8 years (companies need special permission to accept boys younger than 5 years old) Juniors - 8 to 11 years Company - 11 to 15 years Seniors - 15 to 18 years Amicus - 15 to 22 years

(Companies may choose to run a Girls' Association alongside or in combination with these sections) Within Australia there are three sections known as: Anchors - 5 to 7 years Juniors - 8 to 11 years Seniors - 12 to 18 years Seniors is divided into 2 groups based on age. 12-14 Alpha and 15 - 18 Omega Age groups are typically based on school years, so boys in the same year group would be promoted to the next section together, regardless of the dates of individual boys' birthdays. In some companies, sections may merge or there may be minor variations to the normal age boundaries, to accommodate excessively large or small groups of boys or a lack of leaders. Boys might also move to their next section before the end of the year to allow a smoother transition. Amicus was launched in 1994, and is intended to either run as an alternative to the Seniors programme or even without any other Boys' or Girls' Brigade sections operating. The Amicus concept emphasises involvement of all its members in decision-making concerning the running of the section, such as the content and whether a uniform is to be worn. The section will be overseen and supervised by leaders aged over 18, who receive training from the Boys' Brigade and may deliver parts of the programme.[10] Malaysia has three age group which are Pre-Juniors - 5 to 7 years Juniors - 8 to 11 years

Boys' Brigade Seniors - 12 to 18 years

23

Leadership
Officers (adult leaders)
Leaders in training are Warrant Officers, attaining the rank of Lieutenant only when having completed additional formal training in youth leadership. To avoid unnecessary leader hierarchy, all qualified officers are Lieutenants. The post of Captain of a company is a brevet rank with those in the position reverting to Lieutenant when they cease to be in the position; similarly other positions such as the company Adjutant (second to the captain) are considered appointments rather than substantive ranks. Boys bearing the rank of Staff-Sergeant are non-commissioned officers but act within the company as Officers.

Boys as Non-Commissioned Officers


An older boy can gain promotion from Private to become a Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO). There are four NCO ranks available, each being awarded when a boy is of a certain minimum age and reaches a high enough standard of leadership: Lance Corporal (minimum age 14) Corporal (minimum age 15) Sergeant (minimum age 16) Staff Sergeant (minimum age 17)

NCOs often play an important role in the Boys' Brigade, helping the officers and other adult helpers with organising activities and awards classes, particular in the Anchors and Juniors sections. NCOs wear chevrons on their upper right arm. Staff Sergeants act within the company as officers and do not stand in the ranks; however as Staff Sergeants are boys of the Brigade, they can still partake in company activities and computations, and still earn awards and badges. The uniform of Staff Sergeants is slightly different from that of the normal boy or NCO, they wear still wear a blue shirt. If caps are worn, the BB Anchor is used with no coloured surround. Their rank is denoted with an armband on the right forearm with four inverted chevrons (similar to the rank badge historically worn by senior grades of sergeant in the British Army).

Awards
Each section within the Boys' Brigade has awards that can be gained by fulfilling achievements.

Anchor Section
The Anchors can gain awards for Project, Sports, and Scrapbook, among others.

Junior Section
The Juniors award scheme was revised in 2004 and members of the section can now gain the Junior Target Award, followed by Bronze, Silver and Gold awards, by completing a variety of activities in the areas of Body, Mind, Spirit, Community, and Creativity.

Boys' Brigade

24

Company Section
Get the Credit Under the 'Get the Credit' Scheme, Company Section members can gain one Target badge first (reduced from the required two in an award reorganisation a few years ago, though Target Two can still be completed as an optional extra), then five other badges (Interests, Adventure, Leadership, Physical and Community) with red and blue flashes around them. After about three years, the boys should have gained all five badges with both red and blue flashes. This enables the boys to attend a Leadership Training Course and potentially attain the President's Badge. This is a necessary prerequisite for the Brigade's highest award - the Queen's Badge. Discover A new award scheme for 11- to 15-year-olds, called Discover, was launched in August 2007. The award scheme is built around three 'zones': Community; Recreation; and Skills. Badges may be gained at four Levels in each zone, 1 through 4. Having spent 2 hours working on topics relevant to each of the three zones (a total of 6 hours), the member is awarded the Compass Badge. The badge for a zone is gained when the required number of hours have been spent working on topics relevant to that zone (Community - 7 hours; Recreation - 10 hours; Skills - 7 hours). A maximum of one badge per zone can be gained in a 12 month period (min 24 hours work). Any additional hours may not be carried over into the next 12-month period. In subsequent 12 month periods, members will work to gain Levels 2, 3, and 4 of each badge. During a member's second year in Company Section they may gain the Discovery Badge, provided they have: gained a badge in all three zones within the last 12 months; completed an additional 6 hours work in any of the zones; taken part in a residential experience; played an active role in a Company, Battalion, or Church event; and had good attendance for the session. The Discover programme includes the President's Badge, the requirements for which remain the same as laid out in the 'Get the Credit' scheme. See images and logos at BB UK Resources [11] Challenge Plus A new award scheme for Seniors (16- to 18-year-olds), called Challenge Plus, is due to be launched in time for the start for the 2008/09 Session, and will include the Queen's Badge. Founder's Badge In non-Commonwealth countries, the Founder's Badge is used in place of the Queen's Badge.[12] However, the Boys' Brigade in Malaysia and the Boys' Brigade in Singapore have chosen to use the Founder's Badge, although these countries are members of the Commonwealth.

Other countries
Australia The first BB company was formed at the St. Marks Church of England, Fitzroy, Melbourne in 1890. The Boy's Brigade Australia has since formed an Australian council and has spread throughout the country ever since. The main award boys aim for is the Queen's Badge, that recognises a Boy who has demonstrated the high principles that The Boys' Brigade promotes. It can be gained by consistent effort within the curriculum of the award program. Bermuda

Boys' Brigade Boys' Brigade was established at St. Paul's Anglican Church in 1960 and continues to be active, stating its aim in 2008 is "the advancement of Christ's Kingdom among boys and the promotion of habits of obedience, reverence, discipline, self-respect and all that tends towards a true Christian manliness".[2] Canada The Boys' Brigade was prominent in Canada up until the mid-1980s. The Boys' Brigade owned a camp north of Toronto at Gravenhurst, Ontario. The last of the "Toronto companies" were the 11th and 9th. In addition, there were several companies in Montreal Quebec (6th, 8th Montreal and others), Winnipeg Manitoba, and Calgary Alberta. Hong Kong The Boys' Brigade in Hong Kong has more than 200 companies. Malaysia The Boys' Brigade in Malaysia was first organised in 1946. It has continued a steady growth ever since and now has 6,713 members in 101 Companies.[13] New Zealand The Boys Brigade began in New Zealand 1889 and continued until World War I in 1914, when insufficient leaders were available. Reactivated in 1926, by the 1960s there were 12,000members in New Zealand in 220companies. In 2003 a partial rebranding of Boys Brigade took place. The new sub-organisation is called ICONZ, is less formal than the parent organisation and currently consists of 36 units throughout New Zealand. There were also 3,618members on various Pacific islands.[14] Singapore The Boys' Brigade in Singapore was organised in 1930 by former BB members of the South China Battalion who escaped from Swatow, China during the occupation of the region by the Chinese Communist Party. It currently has more than 7,000 members in 117 Companies.[13][15] St Kitts The Boys' Brigade was established at the Wesley Methodist Church (located in Basseterre) and was only founded for the boys who went to the Methodist churches around the island. However, over the years we have incooperated boys from all denominations. Today, the Boys' Brigade moves forward as a very active part of St Kitts pushing its motto: "Sure and Steadfast" United States Boys' Brigade companies were established by the early 20th century in several major U.S. cities in the northeast such as Baltimore and Boston, the midwest, and California. As of 2003, there were 2,000 members in American companies.[4]

25

References
[1] http:/ / www. boys-brigade. org. uk/ [2] Raynor, Tauria (2008-10-30). "Boys' Brigade want alumni to return for a special anniversary" (http:/ / www. royalgazette. com/ siftology. royalgazette/ Article/ article. jsp?articleId=7d8af2f30030024& sectionId=60). The Royal Gazette. . Retrieved 2008-10-30. [3] Senior Section Handbook, Fifth Edition. Malaysia: The Boys' Brigade in Malaysia. 2003. [4] Peterson, Robert (October 2003). Marching to a Different Drummer (http:/ / www. scoutingmagazine. org/ issues/ 0310/ d-wwas. html). Scouting magazine. . Retrieved 2008-11-17. [5] McFarlan, Donald M. (1983). "Sure and Stedfast" (http:/ / www. boys-brigade. org. uk/ aboutus/ ffb-motto. htm). First for Boys (Collins). . Retrieved 2007-03-18. [6] "The Boys' Brigade UK: About Us" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060926000556/ http:/ / www. boys-brigade. org. uk/ aboutus/ ). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. boys-brigade. org. uk/ aboutus/ ) on September 26, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-03-18. [7] Gospel Music (http:/ / www. gospelmusic. org. uk/ v-z/ will_your_anchor_hold. htm) - 'Will Your Anchor Hold' [8] McFarlan, Donald M. (1983). "Summer Camp" (http:/ / www. boys-brigade. org. uk/ aboutus/ ffb-camp. htm). First for Boys (Collins). . Retrieved 2007-02-12.

Boys' Brigade
[9] "Boys' Brigade Uniforms: History" (http:/ / histclo. com/ youth/ youth/ org/ bri/ bri-hist. htm). 2003-09-11. . Retrieved 2007-02-12. [10] "The Boys' Brigade UK: Amicus" (http:/ / www. boys-brigade. org. uk/ leaders/ projects/ amicus. htm). . Retrieved 2007-09-22. [11] http:/ / www. boys-brigade. org. uk/ leaders/ resources/ discover/ resources. htm [12] See Boys' Brigade Badges (http:/ / badges. boys-brigade. org. uk/ Advanced. html) [13] BB Asia: Member Countries (http:/ / www. bbasia. org/ MemberCountries. htm) (URL last accessed on May 6, 2007) [14] Dornan, Alford. "An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand 1966" (http:/ / www. teara. govt. nz/ 1966/ Y/ YouthOrganisations/ BoysBrigade/ en). . Retrieved 2008-10-30. [15] BB Singapore: Factsheet (http:/ / www. bb. org. sg/ aboutus/ bbfact. htm) (URL last accessed on May 6, 2007)

26

Sources
This articleincorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.

External links
The Boys' Brigade in Australia (http://boys.brigadeaustralia.org/) The Boys' Brigade in Hong Kong (http://www.bbhk.org.hk/) The Boys' Brigade in Ireland (http://www.boysbrigade.ie/) The Boys' Brigade in Malaysia (http://www.bbmalaysia.org/) The Boys' Brigade in Malaysia - Official Webzine (http://www.mybbkul.org/) The Boys' Brigade in New Zealand (http://www.bb.org.nz/) The Boys' Brigade in Nigeria (http://bbnigeria.org/) The Boys' Brigade in Singapore (http://www.bb.org.sg/) The Boys' Brigade in UK (http://www.boys-brigade.org.uk/) FDF; Boys' Brigade's partner organisation in Denmark (http://www.fdf.dk/) PTK; Boys' Brigade's partner organisation in Finland (http://www.ptk.fi/) Boys' and Girls' Brigade of the Fox Valley (USA) (http://www.bgbrigade.com/) Boys' Brigade camp photographs c.1900 (http://www.cyber-heritage.co.uk/renney_camp/) London Stedfast Association for former Boys' Brigade members (http://www.londonstedfastassociation.org)

Caribbean Link for Guiding

27

Caribbean Link for Guiding


The Caribbean Link for Guiding is a consortium of 21 Girl Guide Associations from throughout the Caribbean. These include associations from independent countries as well as from British Overseas Territories, coordinated by Girlguiding UK. It was created in 1958.

Members
Anguilla - Girlguiding Anguilla, a branch association of Girlguiding UK Antigua and Barbuda - The Girl Guides Association of Antigua and Barbuda Aruba - Het Arubaanse Padvindsters Gilde Bahamas - The Bahamas Girl Guides Association Barbados - The Girl Guide Association of Barbados Belize - The Girl Guides Association of Belize Bermuda - Girlguiding Bermuda, a branch association of Girlguiding UK British Virgin Islands - The British Virgin Islands Girl Guide Association, a branch association of Girlguiding UK Cayman Islands - Girlguiding Cayman Islands, a branch association of Girlguiding UK Dominica - The Girl Guides Association of Dominica Grenada - The Girl Guides Association of Grenada Guyana - Guyana Girl Guides Association Jamaica - The Girl Guides Association of Jamaica Montserrat - Girlguiding Montserrat, a branch association of Girlguiding UK Netherlands Antilles - Padvindstersvereniging van de Nederlandse Antillen Saint Kitts and Nevis - The Girl Guides Association of Saint Christopher and Nevis Saint Lucia - Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - Girl Guides Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago - The Girl Guides Association of Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos - Turks and Caicos Islands branch of Girlguiding UK

History
The Federal Link of the Girl Guides Associations of the West Indies was formed in April 1958 in Trinidad, in the context of the West Indies Federation.[1] Although the West Indies Federation was dissolved, it was decided at a Commissioners conference in 1962 in Dominica to continue the group. The name was changed to the Caribbean Link for Guiding.

Fiftieth Anniversary
The Caribbean Link's fiftieth anniversary celebrations culminated on 22 April 2009. An anniversary song was composed by Girl Guide Caryl Edwards of Antigua.[2]

Caribbean Link for Guiding

28

References
[1] "The Caribbean Link of Guiding has passed the test of time" (http:/ / www. stabroeknews. com/ 2009/ letters/ 04/ 23/ the-caribbean-link-of-guiding-has-passed-the-test-of-time/ ). Stabroek News. 2009-04-23. . Retrieved 2009-12-09. [2] "Caribbean Link is 50" (http:/ / western. wagggsworld. org/ en/ news/ 1002). 2009-07-29. . Retrieved 2009-12-09.

Caribbean Scout Jamboree


The Caribbean Scout Jamboree is a periodic gathering for Boy Scouts in the Caribbean, held at intervals since 1952, when the First Caribbean Jamboree was held at Briggs Park, in Kingston, Jamaica. Past Jamborees include: 1st Caribbean Jamboree-Kingston, Jamaica-1952 2nd Caribbean Jamboree-Trinidad and Tobago 1961 3rd Caribbean Jamboree-Guyana 1969 4th Caribbean Jamboree-Combermere School, Barbados 1972 5th Caribbean Jamboree-Suriname 1974 6th Caribbean Jamboree-Jamaica 27 September 1977 7th Caribbean Jamboree-Trinidad and Tobago 1980 8th Caribbean Jamboree-Suriname (cancelled) 1984 9th Caribbean Jamboree-Barbados 1987 10th Caribbean Jamboree-Dominica 1994 11th Caribbean Jamboree-Trinidad and Tobago 1997 12th Caribbean Jamboree-Saint Lucia 2000 13th Caribbean Jamboree-Guyana (cancelled) 2003 13th Caribbean Jamboree-Jamaica 2006 14th Caribbean Jamboree-Guyana 2009

Caribbean Cuboree
The Caribbean Cuboree is an event for Cub Scouts living in the Caribbean. It is held every three years and lasts for several days.

Dates, locations and themes


4th - 1985 - Grenada 9th - 2001 - Barbados 10th - 2004 - Grenada - Cubs in Spice, Expanding Horizons[1] 11th - 2007 - Trinidad and Tobago 12th - 2010 - Curaao - The Incredible Supercub in the Jungle City [2]

References
[1] "Grenada prepares for Cuboree" (http:/ / www. belgrafix. com/ gtoday/ 2004news/ March/ Mar13/ Grenada prepares for cuboree. htm). Grenada Today Ltd. 2004-03-13. . Retrieved 2007-07-27. [2] http:/ / www. caribbeancuboree2010. com/ Caribbeancuboree2010.com

Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme

29

Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme


Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme
French Conference of the Scout Movement

Headquarters Country Founded Membership

Paris France 2000 35,000 Website

http:/ / www. scoutisme. org

The Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme (French Conference of the Scout Movement, CFS) is a French Scouting federation, founded in 2000 and serving about 35,000 members of both genders. The CFS is not a member of either the World Organization of the Scout Movement or the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. Aims of the federation are the common use of its members' possibilities, the preservation of necessary public space for Scouting and the defense of Traditional Scouting developed by Robert Baden-Powell.[1]

Members
The organization consists of three coeducational associations: Association des Guides et Scouts d'Europe (founded in 1958, Catholic, 25,000 members). The association is affiliated to the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe Eclaireurs Neutres de France (founded in 1947, interreligious, 3,000 to 4,000 members). Affiliated are a number of smaller associations, some of them Catholic: Europa Scouts Scouts Saint Louis Scouts et Guides de Riaumont (Traditionalist Catholic, with connections to the Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter) Fdration des Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs (founded in 1989 as split-off of the Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France, interreligious, 2,000 members). This federation groups about 15 to 20 independent local associations, some of them Protestant or Orthodox. The Scouts unitaires de France are not a member of the CFS, but support its message aux familles (messages to the families) issued in 1999 and predating the foundation of the CFS.

References
[1] CFS Bylaws 2 (http:/ / www. scoutisme. org/ 03-statuts/ art-02-buts. shtml)

External links
Official website (http://www.scoutisme.org) (French)

Conseil du Scoutisme polynsien

30

Conseil du Scoutisme polynsien


Conseil du Scoutisme polynsien
Country Founded French Polynesia 1986

Membership 793 Affiliation Asia-Pacific Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement

Scouting in French Polynesia is represented by the Conseil du Scoutisme polynsien (Polynesian Scout Council), founded in 1986. The first Scout unit in French Polynesia was founded in 1947. French Polynesia became an Associate Member of the Asia-Pacific Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 2001. Membership as of 2001 stood at 793.

Members
The council is an umbrella federation with five members: Scouts et Guides de France via the Scouts et Guides de Polynsie franaise (SGPF; Catholic; 150 members) Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs unionistes de France via the Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses unionistes de Polynsie franaise (EEUPF; Protestant) Association des Scouts Liahona-Saints des Derniers Jours (ADSL-SDJ; Mormon; 752 members) Scouts Adventiste de Polynsie franaise (Seventh-day Adventist, affiliated to Pathfinders International) Scouts Sanito (Sanito Church) Scouts Te ahi nui (Pentecostal)

Program
Major activities include Scout camping, celebration of Scouts' Day, leader training, observation of international days, fund-raising for handicapped children, operation of camps for neighborhood children through introduction of neighborhood Scouting, and Scout involvement in environmental education programs. The Conseil du Scoutisme polynsien has procured a campsite from the French Polynesian government on a 60 year lease. Polynesian Scouts have been participating in international events since 1987, attending World Scout Jamborees and Asia-Pacific Region Scout Conferences. 204 Scouts from Tahiti attended the 19th World Scout Jamboree in Chile in 1998. Noelline Parker is the International Commissioner of French Polynesia. The Scout Motto is Sois Prt (Be Prepared) or Toujours Prt (Always Prepared) in French, depending on the organization. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or "Mormon" Church, sponsors many Scout groups. Mormon Scouts are a majority of the membership in Tahiti.

Emblems

Council of Protestants in Guiding and Scouting

31

Council of Protestants in Guiding and Scouting


Council of Protestants in Guiding and Scouting
Country Chairman International Ms. Inka Hopsu, Finland

The Council of Protestants in Guiding and Scouting (CPGS) is an autonomous, international body committed to promoting and supporting Protestant Scout and Guide associations and to be a link between the Scout movement and Protestant churches based on the definition of the World Council of Churches (WCC). It enjoys consultative status with the World Scout Committee and forms the World Scout Inter-religious Forum (WSIF)[1] together with the International Link of Orthodox Christian Scouts, International Catholic Conference of Scouting, International Union of Muslim Scouts, International Forum of Jewish Scouts, Won-Buddhism Scout and World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood.

History
The CPGS was founded as Conference on Christianity in Guiding and Scouting (CCGS) in the 1980s. In 2006 it was renamed to Council of Protestants in Guiding and Scouting reflecting a change of policy within the World Organization of the Scout Movement.

Members
Among its members are: Denmark: KFUM-Spejderne i Danmark[2] France: Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France Germany: Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Madagascar: Mpanazava sy Tily eto Madagasikara Finland: Suomen Partiolaiset - Finlands Scouter

References
[1] "World Scout Inter-religious Forum (WSIF)" (http:/ / wsis2009. org/ scouting_wsif. php). . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [2] "Reprsentationer og eksterne relationer" (http:/ / www. spejdernet. dk/ Ledere/ Korpset/ hfk/ Reprsentationer. aspx). KFUM-Spejderne i Danmark. . Retrieved 2010-09-07.

External links
Presentation on scout.org (http://scout.org/en/about_scouting/partners/interreligious/cpsg)

Eclaireurs Neutres de France

32

Eclaireurs Neutres de France


claireurs Neutres de France
Neutral Scouts of France

Headquarters Country Founded Membership

Paris France 1947 4,000

Website
http:/ / www. eclaireurs. org

The claireurs Neutres de France (Neutral (= interreligious) Scouts of France, ENF) is a non-aligned French Scouting association, founded in 1947 by Marcel Lepage and serving 3,000 to 4,000 members of both genders. The association has no political or religious involvement and is open to all without distinction of religion or race and respects the convictions of everyone. ENF is not a coeducational or mixed organisation although coeducation is accepted for the Cub Scouts, it has two distinct sections for girls and boys.

History
Some sources argue that the ENF is a spinoff from another French Scouting association, the claireurs de France. The ENF claims on their website that this would be a statement in contradiction with its founding principles of openness and mutual respect. Although, initially a traditional Scouting association, it has evolved to adapt itself to modern life and standards of health and safety imposed by French Ministry of Youth and Sports, from which it has an official approval.

Memberships and affiliations


On the national level, the association is a member of the Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme. Since 2000 a number of smaller associations joined the ENF for official approval, some of them religious: Europa Scouts (Catholic) Scouts et Guides Saint Louis (Catholic) Scouts et Guides de Riaumont (Traditionalist Catholic, with connections to the Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter).
Emblem of the Scouts et Guides Saint Louis

Thus the association has changed from a single organization to a kind of federation of differing Scouting organizations with different spiritual backgrounds which is unique for French Scouting.

Eclaireurs Neutres de France

33

Sections
The association is organised in three age branches: ages 8 to 11: The pack (Cubs), light blue shirt, dark blue short and beret with the cub insignia ages 12 to 16: The troop (Scouts), khaki shirt, dark blue short or trousers and brown smokey-bear hat for boys, white shirt and dark blue smokey-bear hat for girls ages 17 and onwards: The clan (Rovers), dark blue shirt for boys and same as Scouts for girls, the tie is a tartan

External links
Official website [1] (French)

References
[1] http:/ / www. eclaireurs. org

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France

34

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France


claireuses et claireurs de France
Guides and Scouts of France

Headquarters Country Founded Membership President

Noisy-le-Grand France 1964 35,000 Gilles Ybert Website

http:/ / www. eedf. asso. fr

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (Guides and Scouts of France, EEdF) is an interreligious and coeducational Scouting and Guiding association in France. The first interreligious Scouting groups in France were founded in 1911, and interreligious Guiding started in 1914; both movements merged in 1964 forming the EEdF. The association serves today about 35,000 members of both genders. EEdF is a member of Scoutisme Franais and via this federation it is a member of both the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts.

Emblem
Bow and arrow were chosen as emblem by the founders of the Eclaireurs de France in 1911. The trefoil is for the girls and women. The Four colours (orange, green, red, blue) represent the four age groups.[1]

History
In 1911, two interreligious Scouting organizations were founded in France: the Eclaireurs de France (EdF) by Nicolas Benoit and the Eclaireurs Franais (EF) by Pierre de Coubertin. Three years later, the first Guide groups emerged. They formed the Fdration des Eclaireuses (FEE) in 1921. In the same year the EdF started the Cub Scout section; Rovering followed in 1926. In the 1930s, Andr Lefvre, chief of the Eclaireurs de France, set up a training camp for 60 Scoutmasters from all over French Indochina.

Emblem of the Eclaireurs de France from 1911 until 1940

During World War II, the EdF was among the founding members of the Fdration du Scoutisme Franais in 1941. In 1947 some leaders left the EdF for its laical attitude and founded the Eclaireurs Neutres de France with a more positive position to religion. Despite this the membership of the EdF reached 50,000 Scouts in 1948. The Eclaireurs de France and the Fdration des Eclaireuses started a process of mutual approach in 1949. This led to joint national jamborees and finally led to the merger of the EdF, the EF and the FEE in 1964 under the name Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France.

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France In 1989, five local groups left the EEdF forming the Fdration des Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs.

35

Program
Values
The EEdF has formulated five core values that are fundamental for the whole association:[2] Lacit: The association and its members respect the diversity of mankind and fight against all types of discrimination and intolerance. Coeducation means to educate both girls and boys in the same groups for mutual understanding and acceptance. Democracy means to have the choice between equal opportunities, to allow everybody her or his rights and duties to participate in common projects and to take responsibilities. Openness and solidarity help to be open to the world and to others and to develop a spirit of exchange and working together. Engagement for the environment means to know and understand the world, to act for its protection and to respect its balance and harmony.

Sections
The association is divided in four sections, distinguished by ages, and a fifth one for leaders:[3] Les lutins et lutines (Pixies) - ages 6 to 8 Les louveteaux et louvettes (Cub Scouts) - ages 8 to 12 Les claireuses et claireurs (Guides and Scouts) - ages 12 to 15 Les ans ("Elders" - Rover Scouts) - ages 15 to 19 Les responsables d'animation (Leaders) - ages 17 and older

Scout Promise
The EdF were one of the few Scouting associations who were allowed to use the Alternative Promise by Robert Baden-Powell. This led to grave turbulences in the 1950s[4] and finally to the introduction of a religious formula which may be used by the Scouts and Guides but is not an integral part of the Scout Promise.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] EEdF, Presentation (http:/ / www. scoutisme-francais. org/ Presentation) http:/ / www. eedf. asso. fr/ eedf/ mouvement/ engagement. html http:/ / www. eedf. asso. fr/ eedf/ propositions/ index. html Pierre Franois: les valeurs spirituelles chez les E.D.F. de 1911 1951 (http:/ / www. aaee-anciens-eclaireurs. fr/ ?/ 2-Notre-histoire/ spiritualite-et-laicite2)

External links
Official website (http://www.eedf.asso.fr) (French)

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France

36

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France


Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France
Jewish Guides and Scouts of France Headquarters Location Country Founded Membership Prsident Commisaire gnrale Affiliation Centre National EEIF 27 Avenue de Sgur 75007 Paris France 1923 4,000 Franck Chekroun Karen Allali Fdration du Scoutisme Franais Website
http:/ / www. eeif. org/

The Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France (EEIF, Jewish Guides and Scouts of France) is a Jewish Scouting and Guiding organization in France. It was founded in 1923 and serves about 4,000 members. The EEIF is a member of the Fdration du Scoutisme Franais and of the International Forum of Jewish Scouts.

History
The first Jewish Scout units in France were founded in 1923 in Versailles and in 1924 in Paris; the association Eclaireurs isralites de France (EIF) was founded in 1924. Jewish Guide units emerged also in the 1920s and were integrated in the Fdration Franaise des Eclaireuses (FFE; French Guides Federation) in 1928. In 1939, the EIF were admitted to the Bureau inter-fdral du scoutisme which coordinated the membership of the different French Scouting associations within the World Organization of the Scout Movement; the Guides within the FEE were members of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts through the Comit de liaison of the FFE and the Guides de France. In 1940, these two bodies reorganized and formed the Fdration du Scoutisme Franais. Despite the German occupation of France during World War II and the banning of all Jewish youth organizations in the occupied zone in August 1940, the EIF maintained their activities. When the Vichy regime requested the dissolution of the EIF in November 1941, the groups could continue their work under the aegis of Scoutisme Franais until January 1943. Many older members of EIF joined the French resistance forming own units; they joined the Organisation juive de Combat in 1944. About 110 leaders of the EIF were killed in action or deported to the concentration camps. The EIF and the Guides within the FFE resumed their public activities after World War II. In 1948, a group of leaders emigrated to Israel founding a kibbutz and supporting the foundation of the country. In 1969, the Jewish Guides left the FFE joining the EIF. Thus, the association was renamed to Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France.

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France

37

Emblem
The two lions defend and protect the Torah. They traditionally symbolize the Jewish people. The Torah is symbolized by the Tables of the Law (the Ten Commandments). The fleur de lys, a symbol of Scouting and the membership in WOSM. The trefoil, the membership in WAGGGS, added when the association became mixed.[1]

Structure
The association runs about 50 local groups in France, served by six regional councils, and one group in Montreal, Canada. Typically, a local group has at least one unit of each of the three younger branches.

Program
The EEIdF works in four branches; all activities are coeducational: Branche cadette: Btisettes et Btisseurs - ages 8 to 11 Branche moyenne: Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs (Guides and Scouts) - ages 11 to 15 Branche Perspectives: Pifettes et Pifs - ages 15 to 17 Branche ane: Compagnons (Rovers) - ages 18 to 25

External links
Official website [2]

Further reading
Alain Michel, Scouts, Juifs et Franais: l'histoire des E.I. de 1923 aux annes 80; Editions Elkana, Jerusalem 2003; ISBN 965-90579-0-3

References
[1] Presentation (http:/ / www. scoutisme-francais. org/ Presentation,22) [2] http:/ / www. eeif. org/

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France

38

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France


claireuses et claireurs unionistes de France
approximate translation Headquarters Location Country Founded Founders Membership President Affiliation Unionist Guides and Scouts of France Secrtariat National 15 rue Klock 92110 Clichy France January 18, 1970 claireurs unionistes de France, Fdration franaise des eclaireuses unionistes 4,725 Marion Veziant-Rolland Fdration du Scoutisme Franais, Protestant Federation of France Website
http:/ / www. eeudf. org/

The claireuses et claireurs unionistes de France (EEUdF, approximate translation Unionist Guides and Scouts of France) are a Protestant Scouting and Guiding organization in France. The association serves 4,275 members[1] and is affiliated to the Fdration du Scoutisme Franais; it is also a member of the Protestant Federation of France.

History
The adjective "unioniste" in the association's name refers to the Unions chrtiennes de jeunes gens, the French YMCA, and the Unions Chrtiennes des Jeunes Filles, the YWCA, where the first Protestant Scout and Guide units were started in the years 1910 to 1912. The Protestant Scout association Eclaireurs unionistes de France was founded in 1912; the Guides joined the Fdration Franaise des Eclaireuses (French Guides Federation) on its foundation in 1921. Both organizations were among the founders of the Fdration du Scoutisme Franais (Federation of French Scouting) in 1941. The Fdration franaise des eclaireuses, which rejoined non-denominational, Jewish and Protestant units, became the Fdration franaise des eclaireuses unionistes in 1964, when the non-denominational groups merged with the Eclaireurs de France and the Jewish with the Eclaireurs isralites de France. In 1970, the Eclaireurs unionistes de France and the Fdration franaise des claireuses unionistes merged, forming the Fdration des claireuses et claireurs unionistes de France (FEEUF). This federation was renamed to claireuses et claireurs unionistes de France in 1995. Since 2008, the EEUdF cooperates with the other Protestant Scouting organizations within the Protestant Federation of France: Fdration du Scoutisme evanglique franais(with claireurs Evangliques de France, Les Porteurs de Flambeau (Salvation Army), Flambeaux et Claires Flammes, and Royal Rangers) and Jeunesse Adventiste (Pathfinders).[2]

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France

39

Emblem
The emblem mirrors the evolution of the association. It is the old EUdF emblem enriched with a trefoil in the center to symbolize the merger with part of the PFF (girls) in 1970, lily flowers symbolizing the presence of boys. Until 1995, the logo included the word "federation" (again because of the merger with the FFE).[3]

Program
The association is divided in three age-groups called "branches"; local units should work in all three branches: Branche cadette: Louvetaux/louvettes (Cub Scouts) - ages 8 to 12 Branche moyenne: Eclaireurs/Eclaireuses (Boy Scouts/Girl Guides) - ages 12 to 16 Branche ane: Ans/Anes (Rover Scouts/Ranger Guides) - ages 16 to 19 The EEUdF runs an active Sea Scout section.

Ideals
Promise
Cub Scouts Avec l'aide de toute la Meute, je promets de faire de mon mieux pour: respecter la Loi et la Charte de la Meute connatre Jsus aider les autres et ... Je promets de faire tout mon possible pour: couter la parole de Dieu me mettre au service des autres vivre la loi de l'claireur et ... Je promets de faire tout mon possible pour : vivre lidal de la Loi donner du sens ma vie mengager au service des autres couter la parole de Dieu et ...

Scouts and Guides

Rovers Scouts and Ranger Guides

Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France

40

Law
Cub Scouts Chaque Louveteau, chaque Louvette dans la bonne humeur, fait de son mieux, respecte les autres, et vit l'Aventure de la Meute. Scouts and Guides Une Eclaireuse, un Eclaireur: tient parole et ne fait rien moiti, on pent lui faire confiance, rflchit avant d'agir, est responsable de ses actes, vit en quipe, apprend couter et partager, dveloppe ses comptences et les met an service des autres, respecte, connat et protge la nature, prend soin de son corps et de sa sant, conserve bonne humeur et matrise de soi, mme dans les difficults. Chaque Ane, Chaque An respecte et entretient son corps, et connat ses limites dveloppe des comptences pour tre autonome fait des choix exigeants et va au bout de ses engagements reste volontaire dans ladversit est solidaire et attentif(ve) aux autres fait preuve douverture desprit tmoigne de son cheminement spirituel est conscient(e) de ce quimpliquent ses actes et les assume veille sur son environnement et en protge les quilibres.

Rovers Scouts and Ranger Guides

Motto
Cub Scouts De notre mieux. Scouts and Guides Sois prt(e)! Rovers Scouts and Ranger Guides En route!

References
[1] Plan de dveloppement 2008-2011 (http:/ / www. eeudf. org/ outils_developpement/ plan_developpement_site. pdf) [2] Fdration Protestante de France: Rapport de Gestion du Conseil (http:/ / www. protestants. org/ fpf/ documen/ conseil_2008/ jeunesse. htm), p. 38 [3] Le Scoutisme Franais, EEUdF, Presentation (http:/ / www. scoutisme-francais. org/ Presentation,25)

External links
Official website (http://www.eeudf.org/)

Ernest Thompson Seton

41

Ernest Thompson Seton


Ernest Thompson Seton

Born

August 14, 1860 South Shields, England October 23, 1946 (aged86) Seton Village, New Mexico, U.S.

Died

Occupation author, wildlife artist Knownfor Awards founder of the Woodcraft Indians and founding pioneer of the Boy Scouts of America Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal (1928) Silver Buffalo Award John Burroughs Medal

Ernest Thompson Seton (August 14, 1860 October 23, 1946) was a Scots-Canadian (and naturalized U.S. citizen) who became a noted author, wildlife artist, founder of the Woodcraft Indians, and one of the founding pioneers of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Seton also influenced Lord Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting. His notable books related to Scouting include The Birch Bark Roll and The Boy Scout Handbook. He is responsible for the appropriation and incorporation of what he believed to be American Indian elements into the traditions of the BSA.

Early life
Born Ernest Evan Thompson in South Shields, County Durham (now part of South Tyneside, Tyne and Wear), England of Scottish parents, Seton's family migrated to Canada in 1866. Most of his childhood was spent in Toronto. As a youth, he retreated to the woods to draw and study animals as a way of avoiding his abusive father. He won a scholarship in art to the Royal Academy in London, England.[1] He later rejected his father and changed his name to Ernest Thompson Seton. He believed that Seton had been an important name in his paternal line. He developed a fascination with wolves while working as a naturalist for Manitoba. He became successful as a writer, artist and naturalist, and moved to New York City to further his career. Seton later lived at Wyndygoul, an estate that he built in Cos Cob, a section of Greenwich, Connecticut. After experiencing vandalism by the local youth, Seton invited them to his estate for a weekend where he told them what he claimed were stories of the American Indians and of nature.[2] He formed the Woodcraft Indians in 1902 and invited the local youth to join. Despite the name, the group was made up of non-Indian boys and girls. The stories became a series of articles written for the Ladies Home Journal and were

Ernest Thompson Seton eventually collected in the The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians in 1906.

42

Scouting
Seton met Scouting's founder, Lord Baden-Powell, in 1906. Baden-Powell had read Seton's book, The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians, and was greatly intrigued by it. The pair met and shared ideas. Baden-Powell went on to found the Scouting movement worldwide, and Seton became vital in the foundation of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) and was its first Chief Scout. His Woodcraft Indians (a youth organization), combined with the early attempts at Scouting from the YMCA and other organizations, and Daniel Carter Beard's Sons of Daniel Boone, to form the BSA.[3] The work of Seton and Beard is in large part the basis of the Traditional Scouting movement.[4]
Ernest Thompson Seton with Baden-Powell (seated) and Dan Beard (right)

Seton was Chief Scout of the BSA from 19151934 and his work is in large part responsible for the appropriation and incorporation of what he believed to be American Indian elements into the traditions of the BSA. However, he had significant personality and philosophical clashes with Beard and James E. West.

In addition to disputes about the content of Seton's contributions to the Boy Scout Handbook, conflicts also arose about the suffrage activities of his wife, Grace, and his British citizenship. The citizenship issue arose partly because of his high position within BSA, and the federal charter West was attempting to obtain for the BSA required its board members to be United States citizens. Seton drafted his written resignation on January 29, 1915, but he did not send it to BSA until May.[5]

Personal life
Seton married twice. His first marriage was to Grace Gallatin in 1896. Their only daughter, Ann, was born in 1904 and died in 1990. Ann, who later changed her first name, became a best-selling author of historical and biographical novels as Anya Seton. According to Ann's introduction to the novel Green Darkness, Grace was a practicing Theosophist. Ernest and Grace divorced in 1935, and Ernest soon married Julia M. Buttree. Julia would write works by herself and with Ernest. They did not have any biological children, but did adopt an infant daughter, Beulah (Dee) Seton (later Dee Seton Barber), in 1938. Dee Seton Barber died in 2006.

Ernest Thompson Seton

43

Writing and later life


Seton was an early pioneer of the modern school of animal fiction writing, his most popular work being Wild Animals I Have Known (1898), which contains the story of his killing of the wolf Lobo. He later became involved in a literary debate known as the nature fakers controversy, after John Burroughs published an article in 1903 in the Atlantic Monthly attacking writers of sentimental animal stories. The controversy lasted for four years and included important American environmental and political figures of the day, including President Theodore Roosevelt.[6] In 1907, Seton and the naturalist Edward Alexander Preble verified a claim from ten years earlier by the frontiersman Charles "Buffalo" Jones that Jones and his hunting party of musk oxen had shot and fended off a hungry wolf pack near the Great Slave Lake in Canada. Seton and Preble discovered the remains of the animals near Jones's long abandoned cabin.[7] For his work, Lives of Game Animals, Volume 4, Seton was awarded the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal from the National Academy of Sciences in 1928 .[8] In 1931, he became a United States citizen. Seton was associated with the Santa Fe arts and literary community during the mid 1930s and early 1940s, which comprised a group of artists and authors including author and artist Alfred Morang, sculptor and potter Clem Hull, painter Georgia O'Keeffe, painter Randall Davey, painter Raymond Jonson, leader of the Transcendental Painters Group, and artist Eliseo Rodriguez.[9]

Seton early in his writing career

He died in Seton Village in northern New Mexico at the age of eighty-six. Seton was cremated in Albuquerque. In 1960, in honor of his 100th birthday and the 350th anniversary of Santa Fe, his daughter Dee and his grandson, Seton Cottier (son of Anya), scattered the ashes over Seton Village from an airplane.[10]

Legacy
The Philmont Scout Ranch houses the Seton Memorial Library and Museum. Seton Castle in Santa Fe, built by Seton as his last residence, housed many of his other items. Seton Castle burned down in 2005; fortunately all the artwork, manuscripts, books, etc., had been removed to storage before renovation was to have begun.[11] The Academy for the Love of Learning, an educational organization in Santa Fe, acquired Seton Castle and its contents in 2003. The new Academy Center, opening in 2010, will include a gallery and archives featuring artwork and other materials as part of its Seton Legacy Project. The Seton Legacy Project has organized a major exhibition on Seton opening at the New Mexico History Museum on May 23, 2010, the catalog published as Ernest Thompson Seton: The Life and Legacy of an Artist and Conservationist by David L. Witt. Several of Seton's works are written from the perspective of a predator and were an influence upon Robert T. Bakker's Raptor Red.[12] Seton is honoured in Canada with the E.T. Seton Park in Toronto. Obtained in the early 1960s as the site of future Metro Toronto Zoo, the land was later used to establish parkland and home to the Ontario Science Centre.

Ernest Thompson Seton

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Works
Mammals Of Manitoba (1886) Birds of Manitoba, Foster (1891) How to Catch Wolves (1894) Studies in the Art Anatomy of Animals (1896) Wild Animals I Have Known (1898) The Trail of The Sandhill Stag (1899) The Wild Animal Play For Children (Musical) (1900) The Biography of A Grizzly (1900) Lives of the Hunted (1901) Twelve Pictures of Wild Animals (1901) Krag and Johnny Bear (1902) How to Play Indian (1903) Two Little Savages (1903) How to Make A Real Indian Teepee (1903) How Boys Can Form A Band of Indians (1903) The Red Book (1904) Monarch, The Big Bear of Tallac (1904) Woodmyth and Fable, Century (1905) Animal Heroes (1905) The Birchbark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians (1906) The Natural History of the Ten Commandments (1907) Fauna of Manitoba, British Assoc. Handbook (1909) Biography of A Silver Fox (1909) Life-Histories of Northern Animals (2 volumes) (1909) Boy Scouts of America: Official Handbook, with General Sir Baden-Powell (1910) The Forester's Manual (1910) The Arctic Prairies (1911) Rolf In The Woods (1911) The Book of Woodcraft and Indian Lore (1912) The Red Lodge (1912) Wild Animals At Home (1913) The Slum Cat (1915) Legend of the White Reindeer (1915) The Manual of the Woodcraft Indians (1915) Wild Animal Ways (1916) Woodcraft Manual for Girls (1916) The Preacher of Cedar Mountain (1917) Woodcraft Manual for Boys; the Sixteenth Birch Bark Roll (1917)
drawing from Two Little Savages, Doubleday (1903) drawing from Wild Animals I Have Known, Scribners (1898)

The Woodcraft Manual for Boys; the Seventeenth Birch Bark Roll (1918) The Woodcraft Manual for Girls; the Eighteenth Birch Bark Roll (1918)

Ernest Thompson Seton Sign Talk of the Indians (1918) The Laws and Honors of the Little Lodge of Woodcraft (1919) The Brownie Wigwam; The Rules of the Brownies (1921) The Buffalo Wind (1921) Woodland Tales (1921) The Book of Woodcraft (1921) The Book of Woodcraft and Indian Lore (1922) Bannertail: The Story of A Gray Squirrel (1922) Manual of the Brownies; Manual of the Brownies 6th edition (1922) The Ten Commandments in the Animal World (1923) Animals (1926) Animals Worth Knowing (1928) Lives of Game Animals (4 volumes) (19251928) Blazes on The Trail (1928) Krag, The Kootenay Ram and Other Stories (1929) Billy the Dog That Made Good (1930) Cute Coyote and Other Stories (1930) Lobo, Bingo, The Pacing Mustang (1930) Famous Animal Stories (1932) Animals Worth Knowing (1934) Johnny Bear, Lobo and Other Stories (1935) The Gospel of the Redman, with Julia Seton (1936) Biography of An Arctic Fox (1937) Great Historic Animals (1937) Mainly About Wolves (1937) Pictographs of the Old Southwest (1937) Buffalo Wind (1938) Trail and Camp-Fire Stories (1940) Trail of an Artist-Naturalist: The Autobiography of Ernest Thompson Seton (1940) Santanna, The Hero Dog of France (1945) The Best of Ernest Thompson Seton (1949) Ernest Thompson Seton's America (1954) Animal Tracks and Hunter Signs (1958)
drawing from The Book of Woodcraft and Indian Lore, Doubleday (1912)

45

page from Sign Talk of the Indians, Doubleday (1918)

The Worlds of Ernest Thompson Seton (1976)

Ernest Thompson Seton

46

In Film
In 1979 an anime based on Seton's 1922 book Bannertail: The Story of Gray Squirrel was produced in Japan. Shton Dbutsuki Risu no Ban (Japanese: , English: "Bannertail: The Story of Gray Squirrel") is a 26-episode animation produced by Nippon Animation. In 1989-1990, Eiken Animation of Japan released Seton Doubutsuki (Japanese: , English: "Seton Animal Chronicles") a 45-episode anime TV series that depicts the different literary works of Seton including his 1898 "Wild animals I have Known". Notable episodes include: "Lobo, the king of Currumpaw" (Episode 17 & 18", which many viewers later came to know when the storyline was plotted into a popular 2009 TV documentary entitled, "The Wolf that Changed America". The anime was dubbed in German and Arabic and saw an emerging popularity among Arabs in the early 1990s (Arabic: "Mokles Sadik ul Hawaan"). The anime was an adaptation from its precursor manga entitled Seton's Wild Animals (Japanese: ) by Sanpei Sirato published between 1961 and 1965 and consisting of a total of Five volumes. Kenji Uchiyama translated Seton's Work for the manga From English into Japanese.

References
[1] Rowan, Edward L (2005). To Do My Best: James E. West and the History of the Boy Scouts of America. Las Vegas International Scouting Museum. ISBN0-9746479-1-8. [2] "Woodcraft League Histories" (http:/ / www. etsetoninstitute. org/ WOODCRFT. HTM). Ernest Thompson Seton Institute. . Retrieved 11 July 2006. [3] Scott, David C. (2006). "The Origins of BSA's 1910 Handbook". International Scouting Collectors Association Journal (ISCA Journal) 6 (4): 613. [4] "Traditional Scouting" (http:/ / www. inquiry. net/ traditional/ index. htm). American Traditional Scouting. . Retrieved 2007-07-18. [5] Scott, David C. (June 2006). "Ernest Thompson Seton and BSA The Partnership Collapse of 1915". International Scouting Collectors Association 6 (2): 1016. [6] Carson, Gerald. February 1971. " T.R. and the 'nature fakers' (http:/ / www. americanheritage. com/ articles/ magazine/ ah/ 1971/ 2/ 1971_2_60. shtml)". American Heritage Magazine. Volume 22, Issue 2. [7] "Buffalo Jones" (http:/ / h-net. msu. edu/ cgi-bin/ logbrowse. pl?trx=vx& list=h-shgape& month=0008& week=c& msg=4ZaC2nPza053qdx7jtInAg& user=& pw=). h-net.msu.edu. . Retrieved September 4, 2010. [8] "Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal" (http:/ / www. nasonline. org/ site/ PageServer?pagename=AWARDS_elliot). National Academy of Sciences. . Retrieved 16 February 2011. [9] 1938-1942 Santa Fe (http:/ / clemhull. com/ Clement Marot Hull. html)". Retrieved on December 29, 2008. [10] Pamela Cottier Forcey, daughter of Anya. The Chief: Ernest Thompson Seton and the Changing West, H. Allen Anderson [11] Grimm, Julie Ann (2005). "Seton Castle destroyed by fire" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070930015159/ http:/ / www. freenewmexican. com/ news/ 35086. html). Santa Fe New Mexican.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. freenewmexican. com/ news/ 35086. html) on 2007-09-30. . Retrieved 2007-07-18. [12] Jones, Steve (1995-08-17). "Robert Bakker digs the dinosaurs; scientist has prehistoric tales to tell.". USA Today. p.D1.

Further reading
Anderson, Hugh Allen (June 2, 2000). The Chief: Ernest Thompson Seton and the Changing West. TAMU Press. ISBN0-89096-982-5. Morris, Brian (2008). Ernest Thompson Seton, Founder of the Woodcraft Movement 1860-1946. Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN0-7734-5474-8. Witt, David (2010). Ernest Thompson Seton, The Life and Legacy of an Artist and Conservationist. Gibbs Smith. ISBN1-4236-0391-5.

Ernest Thompson Seton

47

External links
Ernest Thompson Seton Institute (http://www.etsetoninstitute.org/) Ernest Thompson Seton's scientific collections at Philmont (http://www.etsetoninstitute.org/PHILMONT. HTM) Seton Village site at the NPS (http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=350& ResourceType=District) On-line Seton art exhibition and collections (http://www.aloveoflearning.org/) The Birchbark Roll (http://www.inquiry.net/traditional/seton/birch/index.htm) (full text) Works by Ernest Thompson Seton (http://www.gutenberg.org/author/Ernest+Thompson+Seton) at Project Gutenberg Works of Ernest Thompson Seton at Internet Archive (http://www.archive.org/search. php?query=creator:"Seton,+Ernest+Thompson,+1860-1946") Ernest Thompson Seton in Upasika (http://upasika.com/ernestthompsonseton.html) Academy for the Love of Learning (http://www.aloveoflearning.org/) Woodcraft Rangers (http://www.woodcraftrangers.org/)

Fleur-de-lis in Scouting
The fleur-de-lis is the main element in the logo of most Scouting organizations, representing a major theme in Scouting: the outdoors and wilderness.[1] The three petals or leaves represent the threefold Scout Promise (Duty to God and Country, Duty to Self, Duty to Others) in much the same way as the three leaves of the trefoil represent the threefold promise for the Guides. Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of the Scouting movement, explained[2] that the Scouts adopted the fleur-de-lis symbol from its use in the compass rose because it "points in the right direction (and upwards) turning neither to the right nor left, since these lead backward again." The two small five-point stars stand for truth and knowledge. Together their ten points represent the ten original Scout laws. The reef knot or square knot represents the strength of World Scouting. The rope is for the unity of Scouts throughout the world. The ring holding the petals together represents the bond of brotherhood.

References
[1] Walton, Mike The World Crest Badge...(and why do we *all* wear it?) (http:/ / www. mninter. net/ ~blkeagle/ crest. htm). 1999. [2] B-P, Lessons from the Varsity of Life. Chapter IX. Life Number Two. Part One (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ bp-varsity10-1. htm)

Frederick Russell Burnham

48

Frederick Russell Burnham


Frederick Russell Burnham

Nickname

The King of Scouts; [2] He-who-sees-in-the-dark

[1]

Born Died Allegiance Yearsof service Rank Commands held Battles/wars

May 11, 1861 Tivoli, Minnesota (Sioux Indian territory; near Mankato, MN) September 1, 1947 (aged86) Santa Barbara, California, buried at Three Rivers, California Scout for the British Army in Southern Africa; U.S. citizen. 18931897, 19001901 Major Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts

Pleasant Valley War Indian Wars Apache Wars Cheyenne War Geronimo campaign First Matabele War Shangani Patrol Second Matabele War Assassination of Mlimo Second Boer War Battle of Paardeberg Driefontein (March 10, 1900) Johannesburg (May 31, 1900) March on Pretoria (June 25, 1900)

Frederick Russell Burnham


Awards

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Distinguished Service Order Queen's South Africa Medal British South Africa Company Medal Victoria Cross (declined) Boy Scouts Silver Buffalo Award Mount Burnham (California). Rev. Edwin Burnham, (father) Howard Burnham, (brother) Charles Edward Russell, (first cousin) Russell Adam Burnham, (great-grandson)

Relations

Otherwork

messenger, Indian tracker, gold miner, wealthy oil man, American spy. Father of the international Scouting movement and a close friend of Robert Baden-Powell.

Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (May 11, 1861 September 1, 1947) was an American scout and world traveling adventurer known for his service to the British Army in colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft to Robert Baden-Powell, thus becoming one of the inspirations for the founding of the international Scouting Movement. Burnham had only a little formal education, attending high school but never graduating. He began his career at 14 in the American Southwest as a scout and tracker for the U.S. Army in the Apache Wars and Cheyenne Wars. Sensing the Old West was getting too tame, as an adult Burnham went to Africa where his background proved useful. He soon became an officer in the British Army, serving in several battles there. During this time, Burnham became friends with Baden-Powell, and passed on to him both his outdoor skills and his spirit for what would later become known as Scouting. Burnham eventually moved on to become involved in espionage, oil, conservation, writing and business. His descendants are still active in the Scout Movement.

Early life
Burnham was born to a missionary family on an Indian Reservation in Tivoli, Minnesota. His father Edwin Otway Burnham was from Kentucky whilst his mother had immigrated to [3] America from England. As a toddler, he witnessed the burning of New Ulm, Minnesota, by Taoyateduta (Little Crow) and his Sioux warriors in the Dakota War of 1862. During the uprising, his mother, Rebecca (Elizabeth) Russell Burnham, hid the not-quite-two-year-old boy in a basket of green corn husks and fled for her life. Once the Sioux had been driven away the mother returned to find the house burned down. Her young son was safe, fast asleep in the basket and protected only by the corn husks.[1][4] The young Burnham attended schools in Iowa and there he met Blanche Blick, who would later become his wife. His family moved to Los Angeles, in 1870. Two years later his father, the Rev. Edwin Otway Burnham of Kentucky, himself a long time Frederick Burnham in Arizona Territory during 1881. pioneer and missionary along the border of the Ho Chunk (Winnebago) Indian reservation in Minnesota, died. Burnham was only 12. While his mother and his then 3 year old baby brother Howard Burnham returned to Iowa, the young Burnham stayed in California to make his own way.[5]

Frederick Russell Burnham For the next three years, Burnham worked as a mounted messenger for the Western Union Telegraph Company in California and Arizona. On one occasion his horse was stolen from him by Tiburcio Vasquez, a famous Californio bandit.[6] At 14, he began his life as a scout and Indian tracker in the Apache Wars. He traveled in northern Mexico and the American Southwest, including Texas and Oklahoma, earning a living as a buffalo hunter, cowboy, and prospector, and he continued working as a scout while tracking Indians in the Cheyenne War. The young Burnham eventually went on to attend high school in California but never graduated.[5] In 1882, Burnham returned to Arizona and was appointed Deputy Sheriff of Pinal County, but he soon went back to cattle and mining interests. He joined the losing side of the Tonto Basin Feud before mass killing started, and only narrowly escaped death in Arizona.[4][7] He returned to Prescott, Iowa, to visit his childhood sweetheart, Blanche, and the two were married on February 6, 1884.[8] That same year, he and Blanche settled down to tend to an orange grove in Pasadena, California, but within a year he was back prospecting and scouting. In the 1880s the American press had been popularizing the notion that the West had been won and there was nothing left to conquer in the United States. This idea changed Burnham's life. Ever the soldier of fortune, he began to look elsewhere for the next undeveloped frontier. When he heard of the work of Cecil Rhodes and his pioneers in building the Cape to Cairo railway in Africa, Burnham sold what little he owned and, in 1893, set sail to Cape Town, South Africa, with his wife and young son. He soon joined the British South Africa Company as a scout and headed north.[2] Burnham is the brother of Mather Howard Burnham, a mining engineer and spy, and second cousin of Lt. Howard Mather Burnham, killed in the American Civil War.

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Military career
First Matabele War
Burnham's first major test in Africa came in 1893 when the British South Africa Company went to war with the Matabele King Lobengula. Leander Starr Jameson had hoped to defeat the Matabele quickly by capturing Lobengula at his royal city of Bulawayo. Burnham and a small group of scouts were sent ahead to report on the situation in Bulawayo. While on the outskirts of town they watched as the Matabele burned down and destroyed everything in sight. By the time the white troops had arrived in force, Lobengula and his warriors had fled and there was little left of old Bulawayo.[9]

Burnham in Africa (middle) holding his Remington Model 1875 No. 3 Army in .44WCF rifle

Shangani Patrol After he found that Bulawayo had been abandoned, Jameson dispatched a column of soldiers to locate and capture Lobengula. The column, led by Maj. Patrick Forbes, camped on the south bank of the Shangani River about 25 miles (unknown operator: u'strong'km) north-east of the village of Lupane on the evening of December 3, 1893. The next day, late in the afternoon, a dozen men under the command of Maj. Allan Wilson were sent across the river to patrol the area. The Wilson Patrol came across a group of Matabele women and children who claimed to know Lobengula's whereabouts. Burnham, who served as the lead scout of the Wilson patrol, sensed a trap and advised Wilson to withdraw, but Wilson ordered his patrol to advance.[10] Soon afterwards, the patrol found the king and Wilson sent a message back to the laager requesting reinforcements. Forbes, however, was unwilling to set off across the river in the dark, so he sent only 20 more men, under the command of Henry Borrow, to reinforce Wilson's patrol. Forbes intended to send the main body of troops and

Frederick Russell Burnham artillery across the river the following morning; however, the main column was ambushed by Matabele warriors and delayed. Wilson's patrol too came under attack, but the Shangani River had swollen and there was now no possibility of retreat. In desperation, Wilson sent Burnham and two other scouts, Pearl "Pete" Ingram (a Montana cowboy) and William Gooding (an Australian), to cross the Shangani River, find Forbes, and bring reinforcements. In spite of a shower of bullets and spears, the three made it to Forbes, but the battle raging there was just as intense as the one they had left, and there was no hope of anyone reaching Wilson in time. As Burnham loaded his rifle to beat back the Matabele warriors, he quietly said to Forbes, "I think I may say that we are the sole survivors of that party." Wilson, Borrow, and their men were indeed surrounded by hundreds of Matabele warriors; escape was impossible, and all were killed.[10][11] Rhodesian colonial histories called this the Shangani Patrol, and hailed Wilson and Borrow as national heroes.[12] For his service in the war, Burnham was presented the British South Africa Company Medal, a gold watch, and a share of a 300acre (120ha) tract of land in Matabeleland. It was here that Burnham uncovered many artifacts in the huge granite ruins of the ancient civilization of Great Zimbabwe.[1]

51

Northern Rhodesia Exploration


In 1895, Burnham went on to oversee and lead the massive Northern Territories (BSA) Exploration Co. expedition which first established for the British South Africa Company that major copper deposits existed in North-Eastern Rhodesia.[13][14][15] Along the Kafue River in then North-Eastern Rhodesia, Burnham saw many similarities to copper deposits he had worked in the United States, and he encountered native peoples wearing copper bracelets.[4] His expeditions in Rhodesia were so important that the Royal Geographical Society elected him a Fellow.[16] Later, the British South Africa Company built the mining towns of the Copperbelt and a railroad to transport the copper through Mozambique.[17]

Second Matabele War


In March 1896, the Matabele again revolted against the authority of the British South Africa Company in what is now celebrated in Zimbabwe as the First War of Independence. Mlimo, the Matabele spiritual leader, is credited with fomenting much of the anger that led to this confrontation. Matabeleland defenses were in disarray due to the ill-fated Jameson Raid, and in the first few months of the war alone hundreds of white settlers were killed. With few troops to support them, the settlers quickly built a laager in the centre of Bulawayo on their own and mounted patrols under such figures as Burnham, Baden-Powell, and Selous. An estimated 50,000 Matabele retreated into their stronghold of the Matobo Hills near Bulawayo, a region that became the scene of the fiercest fighting against the white settler patrols.[18] Assassination of Mlimo

The turning point in the war came when Burnham and a young scout named Bonar Armstrong found their way through Matobo Hills to the sacred cave where Mlimo had been hiding. Not far from the cave was a village of about 100 huts filled with many warriors. The two scouts tethered their horses to a thicket and crawled on their bellies, screening their slow, cautious movements by means of branches held before them. Once inside the cave, they waited until Mlimo entered.[19]

Burnham & Armstrong after the assassination of Mlimo. Matabele warriors in hot pursuit.

Frederick Russell Burnham Mlimo was said to be about 60 years old, with very dark skin, sharp-featured; American news reports of the time described him as having a cruel, crafty look. Burnham and Armstrong waited until Mlimo entered the cave and started his dance of immunity, at which point Burnham shot Mlimo just below the heart.[19]
Burnham is the finest scout who ever scouted in Africa. He was my Chief of Scouts in '96 in Matabeleland and he was the eyes and ears of my force. Gen. Carrington, British Army commander during the Second Matabele War.
[3]

52

The two scouts then leapt over the dead Mlimo and ran down a trail toward their horses. Hundreds of warriors, encamped nearby, picked up their arms and searched for the attackers. To distract the Matabele, Burnham set fire to the village. The two men got on their horses and rode back to Bulawayo. Shortly after learning of the assassination of Mlimo, Cecil Rhodes boldly walked unarmed into the Ndebele stronghold in Matobo Hills and persuaded the impi to lay down their arms, thus ending the Second Matabele War.[20][21]

Klondike Gold Rush


With the Matabele war over, Burnham decided it was time to leave Africa and move on to other adventures. The family returned to California where Burnham left his wife and young son Bruce with his mother. Soon after, he and his eldest son Roderick, then 12 years old, traveled to Alaska and the Yukon to prospect in the Klondike Gold Rush.[4] Upon hearing of the Spanish-American War, Burnham rushed home to volunteer his services, but before he could get to the fighting the war was already over. Burnham then returned to the Klondike. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt regretted this as much as Burnham and paid him a great tribute in his book.[5]

Second Boer War


In January 1900, while prospecting in Skagway, Alaska, Burnham received the following telegram: Lord Roberts appoints you on his personal staff as Chief of Scouts. If you accept, come at once the quickest way possible. Although Cape Town is at the opposite end of the globe from the Klondike, he left within the hour.[22] He would arrive at the front just before the Battle of Paardeberg. During the war, Burnham spent much time behind the Boer lines gathering information and blowing up railway bridges and tracks. He was twice captured and twice escaped, but he was also disabled for a time by his near-fatal wounds. In a step that was unusual for a foreigner, Burnham was given a commission by Lord Roberts and the rank of captain.[22] Burnham was first captured while trying to warn a British column approaching Thaba' Nchu.[23][24] He came upon a group of Boers hiding on the banks of the river, toward which the British were even then advancing. Cut off from his own side, Burnham chose to signal the approaching Burnham after his investiture with the cross of the soldiers even though it would expose him to capture. With a red Distinguished Service Order by King Edward VII. The black armband was worn in mourning kerchief, Burnham signaled the soldiers to turn back, but the column for the recent death of Queen Victoria. London, paid no attention and plodded steadily on into the ambush, while [1][3] 1901. Burnham was at once taken prisoner. In the fight that followed, Burnham pretended to receive a wound in the knee. Limping heavily and groaning with pain, he was placed in a wagon with the officers who really were wounded, and who, in consequence, were not closely guarded. Later that evening, Burnham slipped over the driver's seat, dropped between the two wheels of the wagon, lowered himself and fell between the legs of the oxen on his back in the road. In an

Frederick Russell Burnham instant the wagon had passed over him safely, and while the dust still hung above the trail he rolled rapidly over into the ditch at the side of the road and lay motionless. It was four days before he was able to re-enter the British lines, during which time he had been lying in the open veldt. He had subsisted on one biscuit and two handfuls of "mealies" (i.e., maize).[4][25]
I take this opportunity of thanking you for the valuable services you have rendered since you joined my headquarters at Paardeberg last February. I doubt if any other man in the force could have successfully carried out the thrilling enterprises in demanding as they did the training of a lifetime, combined with exceptional courage, caution, and powers of endurance. Lord Roberts, Commander of all British troops fighting in the Second Boer War (1900).
[26]

53

On June 2, 1900, during the British March on Pretoria, Burnham was wounded, almost fatally. He had been scouting alone far to the east behind enemy lines looking for a critical choke point along the Pretoria-Delagoa Bay railway line. His objective was to cut-off the flow of Boer gold and supplies to and from the sea and to halt the transportation of British prisoners of war out of the Pretoria. He came upon an underpass of a railway bridge, an ideal location to disrupt the trains, but was immediately surrounded by a party of Boers. Burnham instantly fled and he had all but gotten away when his horse was shot and fell, knocking him senseless and pinning him under its dead body. When he awoke hours later, Burnham was alone and in a dazed state having sustained serious injuries. In spite of his acute agony, Burnham heroically proceeded to creep back to the railway, placed his charges, and blew up the line in two places. He then crept on his hands and knees to an empty animal enclosure to avoid capture and stayed there for two days and nights insensible. The next day, Burnham heard fighting in the distance so he crawled in that direction. By this time he was indifferent as to the source of the gunshots and by chance it was a British patrol that found him. Once in Pretoria the surgeons discovered that Burnham had torn apart his stomach muscles and burst a blood-vessel. His very survival was due only to the fact that he had been without food or water for three days.[27] Burnham's injuries were so serious that he was ordered to England by Lord Roberts. Two days before leaving for London, he was promoted to the rank of major.[4][29][30] On his arrival in England, Burnham was commanded to dine with Queen Victoria and to spend the night at Osborne House.[31] A few months later, after the Queen's death, King Edward VII personally presented Burnham with the Queen's South Africa Medal with four bars for the battles at Driefontein (Mar 10, 1900), Johannesburg (May 31, Burnham and a young Churchill returning from the Boer War on the [28] 1900), Paardeberg (February 1726, 1900), and Cape Dunottar Castle, July 1900. Colony (October 11, 1899 May 31, 1902), in addition [30][32] to the cross of the Distinguished Service Order, the second highest decoration in the British Army, for his heroism during the "victorious" March to Pretoria (June 25, 1900). Nevertheless, Burnham received the highest awards of any American who served in the Second Boer War.[22] Burnham's most accomplished soldiers during the Second Boer War were Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment, whom he described as "half wolf and half jackrabbit."[33] These scouts were well practiced in the arts of marksmanship, field craft, and tactics. After the war, this regiment went on to become the British army's first sniper unit.[33]

Frederick Russell Burnham

54

"Father of Scouting"
Frederick Russell Burnham: Explorer, discoverer, cowboy, and Scout. Native American, he served as chief of scouts in the Boer War, an intimate friend of Lord Baden-Powell. It was on some of his exploits demanding great courage, alertness, skill in surmounting the perils of the out-of-doors, that the founder of Scouting based some of the activities of the Boy Scout program. As an honorary Scout of the Boy Scouts of America, he has served as an inspiration to the youth of the Nation and is the embodiment of the qualities of the ideal Scout. 27th Annual Report of the Boy Scouts of America (1936).
[34]

Burnham was already a celebrated scout when he first befriended Burnham (standing) & Baden-Powell (right) at a Baden-Powell during the Second Matabele War. Himself a brilliant Boy Scout event, ca. 1910 outdoorsman, Baden-Powell was a distinguished cavalry officer, and reportedly the finest pig sticker in India. During the siege of Bulawayo, the two men rode many times into the Matobo Hills on patrol, and it was in these African hills that Burnham first introduced Baden-Powell to the ways and methods of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, and taught him woodcraft (better known today as scoutcraft).[35] So impressed was Baden-Powell by Burnham's Scouting spirit that he fondly told people he "sucked him dry" of all he could possibly tell.[36] It was here that Baden-Powell began to wear his signature Stetson campaign hat and neckerchief for the first time.[37] Both men recognized that wars were changing markedly and the British Army needed to adapt; so during their joint scouting missions, Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training program in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, fieldcraft, and self-reliance. In Africa, no scout embodied these traits more than Burnham.[38] While Baden-Powell went on to refine the concept of Scouting and become the founder of the international Scouting movement, Burnham has been called the movement's father.[39]
Burnham is the sufficient and heroic figure, model and living example, who inspired and gave Baden-Powell the plan for the program and the code of honor of Scouting for Boys. E.B. DeGroot, BSA Executive (1944).
[40]

Burnham later became close friends with others involved in the Scouting movement in the United States, such as Theodore Roosevelt, the Chief Scout Citizen, and Gifford Pinchot, the Chief Scout Forester.[41] The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) made Burnham an Honorary Scout in 1927,[42] and for his noteworthy and extraordinary service to the Scouting movement, Burnham was bestowed the highest commendation given by the Boy Scouts of America, the Silver Buffalo Award, in 1936.[43] Throughout his life he remained active in Scouting at both the regional and the national level in the United States and he corresponded regularly with Baden-Powell on Scouting topics.

Park service trail connecting Mt. Burnham to Mt. Baden-Powell

The low-key Burnham and Baden-Powell remained close friends for their long lives. The seal on the Burnham Baden-Powell letters at Yale and Stanford expired in 2000 and the true depth of their friendship and love of Scouting has again been revealed.[44] In 1931, Burnham read the speech dedicating Mount Baden-Powell in California,[45][46] to his old Scouting friend.[47] Their friendship, and equal status in the world of Scouting and conservation, is honored with the dedication of the adjoining peak, Mount Burnham,[48][49] in his honor. Burnham's descendants followed in his footsteps and are active in Scouting and in the military. His son Roderick enlisted in the U.S. Army and fought in World War I France. His grandson, Frederick Russell Burnham II, was a leader in the BSA and a Vietnam War veteran. His great-grandson, Russell Adam Burnham is an Eagle Scout and was United States Army's Soldier of the Year in 2003.[50][51]

Frederick Russell Burnham

55

Later in life
Post war
After recovering from his wounds, Burnham served as the London office manager for the Wa Syndicate. In 1901, while still employed by the Wa Syndicate, he left London to lead an expedition through Ghana and Upper Volta to look for minerals and ways to improve river navigation in the region.[52] In 19021904, Burnham was employed by the East Africa Syndicate. He led a mineral prospecting expedition which traveled extensively in the area around Lake Rudolph (now Lake Turkana), and he discovered a lake of carbonate of soda in Tanzania.[31][53]

Fred and Rod Burnham ca. 1930

Yaqui
Burnham returned to North America and for the next few years became associated with the Yaqui River irrigation project in Mexico. While investigating the Yaqui valley for mineral and agricultural resources, Burnham reasoned that a dam could provide year-round water to rich alluvial soil in the valley; turning the region into one of the garden spots of the world and generate much needed electricity. He purchased water rights and some 300 acres (unknown operator: u'strong'km2) of land in this region and contacted an old friend from Africa, John Hays Hammond, who conducted his own studies and then purchased an additional 900000 acres (unknown operator: u'strong'km2) of The Esperanza Stone. Found by Major Frederick this landan area the size of Rhode Island. Burnham together with Russell Burnham in Mexico (1910) Charles Frederick Holder, in 1908, made important archeological discoveries of Mayan civilization in this region, including the Esperanza Stone.[54][55] He became a close business associate of Hammond and led a team of 500 men in guarding mining properties owned by Hammond, J.P. Morgan, and the Guggenheims in the Mexican state of Sonora.[56] Just as the irrigation and mining projects were nearing completion in 1912, a long series of Mexican revolutions began. The final blow to these efforts came in 1917 when Mexico passed laws prohibiting the sale of land to foreigners. Burnham and Hammond carried their properties until 1930 and then sold them to the Mexican government.[57]

Espionage
To my friendly enemy, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the greatest scout of the world, whose eyes were that of an Empire. I once craved the honour of killing him, but failing that, I extend my heartiest admiration. Fritz Joubert Duquesne, 1933, One warrior to another.
[58]

During World War I, Burnham was living in California and was active in counterespionage for Britain.[59] Much of it involved a famous Boer spy, Capt. Fritz Joubert Duquesne, who became a German spy in both World Wars and claimed to have killed Field Marshal Kitchener while en route to meet with the Russians.[60] During the Second Boer War, Burnham and Duquesne were each under orders to assassinate the other, but it was not until 1910 that the two men first met while both were in Washington, D.C., separately lobbying Congress to pass a bill in favor of the importation of African game animals into the United States (H.R. 23621).[58] Duquesne was twice arrested by the FBI and in 1942 he, along with the 32 other Nazi agents who made up the Duquesne Spy Ring, was sent to prison for espionage in the largest spy ring conviction in U.S. history.[61]

Frederick Russell Burnham


I know Burnham. He is a scout and a hunter of courage and ability, a man totally without fear, a sure shot, and a fighter. He is the ideal scout, and when enlisted in the military service of any country he is bound to be of the greatest benefit. President Theodore Roosevelt, 1901.
[1]

56

During this period, Burnham was one of the eighteen officers selected by former U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt to raise a volunteer infantry division for service in France in 1917 shortly after the United States entered the war.[62] A plan to raise volunteer soldiers from the Western U.S. came out of a meeting of the New York based Rocky Mountain Club and Burnham was put in charge of both the general organization and recruitment from the Southwest.[63] Congress gave Roosevelt the authority to raise up to four divisions similar to the Rough Riders of 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment and to the British Army 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers; however, as Commander-in-chief, President Woodrow Wilson refused to make use of Roosevelt's volunteers and the unit disbanded.[64][65]

Oil wealth
Although Burnham had lived all over the world, he never had a great deal of wealth to show for his efforts. It was not until he returned to California, the place of his youth, that he struck it rich. In 1923, Burnham struck oil at Dominguez Hill, California. In the first 10 years of operation, the Burnham Exploration Company paid out $10.2 million in dividends.[66]

Conservation
An avid conservationist and hunter, Burnham supported the early conservation programs of his friends Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot. He and his associate John Hayes Hammond led novel game expeditions to Africa with the goal of finding large animals such as Giant Eland, hippopotamus, zebra, and various bird species that might be bred in the United States and become game for future American sportsmen. Burnham, Hammond, and Duquesne appeared several times before the Committee on Agriculture to ask for help in importing large African animals.[67][68] In 1914, he helped establish the Wild Life Protective League of American, Department of Southern California, and served as its first Secretary.[69] In his later years, Burnham filled various public offices and also served as a member of the Boone and Crockett Club of New York,[70][71] and as a founding member of the American Committee for International Wildlife Protection (now a committee of the World Conservation Union).[72] He was a founding member of the Save-the-Redwoods League, he helped lobby for and create the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge and the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge for Desert Bighorn Sheep in Arizona, and he campaigned for state parks in California.[73][74] He was one of the original members of the first California State Parks Commission, serving from 1927 to 1934,[75] and late in his life he was president of the Southwest Museum of Los Angeles from 1938 until 1940.[76]

Personal life
Appearance
At 5ft 4in (1.62m), Burnham was slight, but he was also muscular and bronzed, with a finely formed square jaw. He had a boyish appearance which he used to his advantage on numerous occasions. His most noticeable feature was his steady, grey-blue eyes. Contemporary reports had it that Burnham's gaze appeared to never leave those of the person he was looking at, and yet somehow could simultaneously monitor all the details of the physical surroundings. It was also said that Burnham's eyes possessed a far-away look such as those acquired by people whose occupation has caused them to watch continually at sea or on great plains.[1][4][77]

Frederick Russell Burnham

57

Mannerisms
Burnham would not smoke and seldom drank alcohol, fearing these habits would injure the acuteness of his sense of smell. He found ways to train himself in mental patience, took power naps instead of indulging in periods of long sleep, and drank very little liquid. He trained himself to accept these abstinences in order to endure the most appalling fatigues, hunger, thirst, and wounds, so that when scouting or traveling where there was no water, he might still be able to exist. On more than one occasion he survived in environments where others would have died, or were in fact dying, of exhaustion. To him scouting was as exact a study as is the piano, and it was said that he could read the face of nature as easily as most could read their morning newspaper. He was quiet-mannered and courteous, according to contemporaries. Their reports describe a man who was neither shy nor self-conscious, who was extremely modest, and who seldom spoke of his many adventures.[1][4][77]

Family
Burnham's wife of 55 years, Blanche Blick Burnham (February 25, 1862 December 22, 1939) of Nevada, Iowa, accompanied him in very primitive conditions through many travels in both the Southwest United States and Southern Africa. They had three children together, but only one survived into adulthood. In the early years, she watched over the children and the pack animals, always careful to keep a rifle within arms length. In the dark of night, she used her rifle many times against lions and hyena and, during the Siege of Bulawayo, against Ndebele warriors. Several members of the Blick family joined the Burnhams in Rhodesia, moved with them to England, and returned to the United States with the Burnhams to live near Three Rivers, California. When Burnham Exploration Company struck it rich in 1923, the Burnhams moved to a mansion in a new housing development then known as Hollywoodland (a name later shortened to "Hollywood") and took many trips around the world in high style. In 1939, Blanche suffered a stroke. She died a month later and was buried in the Three Rivers Cemetery.[78][79]

Blanche Blick Burnham in Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 1896

Burnham's first son, Roderick (August 22, 1886 July 2, 1976), was born in Pasadena, California, but accompanied the family to Africa and learned the Northern Ndebele language.[80] He went to Skagway, Alaska with his father, and then to a military school in France in 1900. In 1904, he attended the University of California, Berkeley, joined the football team, but left Berkeley after a dispute with his coach. In 190508, he went to the University of Arizona, joined the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, played the position of running back, and became the captain of the football team. He attended the Michigan School of Mines (now Michigan Technological University) in 1910, became a geologist, and worked for Union Oil as Manager of Lands and Foreign Exploration helping to develop the Rod Burnham, 1921 first wells in Mexico and Venezuela.[81] He took time off from his job to serve in the U.S. Army in World War I and fought in France.[79] He and his father became minority owners of the Burnham Exploration Company, incorporated in 1919 by Harris Hays Hammond (the son of John Hays Hammond, Sr). In 1930, he and Paramount Pictures founder W. W. Hodkinson started the Central American Aviation Corporation, the first airline in Guatemala.[82][83]
Dedication To the Memory of the Child: Nada Burnham, who "bound all to her" and, while her father cut his way through the hordes of the Ingobo Regiment, perished of the hardships of war at Buluwayo on 19 May 1896, I dedicate these talesand more particularly the

Frederick Russell Burnham


last, that of a Faith which triumphed over savagery and death. H. Rider Haggard, from his book: The Wizard (1896)
[84]

58

Nada (May 1894 May 19, 1896), Burnham's daughter who was the first white child born in Bulawayo, died of fever and starvation during the Siege of Bulawayo. She was buried three days later in the Pioneer Cemetery, plot No. 144, in Bulawayo, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Nada is the Zulu word for lily and she was named after the heroine in Sir H. Rider Haggard's Zulu tale, Nada the Lily (1892). Three of Haggard's books are dedicated to Burnham's daughter, Nada: The Wizard (1896), Elissa: The Doom of Zimbabwe (1899), and Black Heart and White Heart: A Zulu Idyll (1900).[77][85] Burnham's youngest son, Bruce B. Burnham (18971902), was staying with family in London when he accidentally drowned in the River Thames.[86] His brother Howard (18701918), born shortly before the family moved to Los Angeles, lost one leg at the age of 14 and suffered from tuburculosis. As a teen he lived with Fred in California and learned from his brother the art of Scoutcraft, how to shoot, and how to ride the range, all in spite of his wooden leg.[87] Howard went to Africa and became a mining engineer in the gold mines of Johannesburg, South Africa and later wrote a text book on Modern Mine Valuation.[88] He traveled the world and for a time teamed up with Fred on Yaqui River irrigation project in Mexico.[57] During World War I, Howard worked as a spy for the French government, operating behind enemy lines in southwest Germany.[87] Throughout the war he used his wooden leg to conceal tools he needed for spying.[87] From his death bed, Howard returned to France via Switzerland and shared his vital data and secrets with the French government: the Germans were not opening a new front in the Alps and there was no need to move allied troops away from the Western Howard Burnham, brother Front.[87] Howard was buried at Cannes, France, leaving behind his wife and four children.[87] He had been named after his second cousin, LT Howard Mather Burnham who was killed in action in the American Civil War.[4] His first cousin Charles Edward Russell (18601941) was a journalist and politician and also a founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The author of a number of books of biography and social commentary Russell won a Pulitzer Prize in 1928 for his biography: The American Orchestra and Theodore Thomas. In 1943, at 83 years of age, Burnham married his young typist, Ilo K. Willetts Burnham (19141958). The couple sold their mansion and moved to Santa Barbara in 1946.[79][89] Burnham was a descendant of Thomas Burnham (16171688) of Hartford, Connecticut, the first American ancestor of a large number of Burnhams.[78] The descendants of Thomas Burnham have been noted in every American war, including the French and Indian war.[5]

Death
Burnham died when he was 86 on September 1, 1947 of heart failure at his home in Santa Barbara, California. At a private ceremony he was buried at Three Rivers, California, near his old cattle ranch, La Cuesta. His memorial stone was designed by his only surviving child, Roderick. Also buried at Three Rivers cemetery are his first wife, Blanche Blick Burnham, several members of the Blick family who had also pioneered in 19th century Rhodesia with Burnham for a time, his son Roderick, his granddaughter Martha Burnham Burleigh, and the Montana cowboy "Pete" Ingram who survived the Shangani Patrol massacre along with Burnham.[90]

Frederick Russell Burnham

59

Legacy
"Burnham in real life is more interesting than any of my heroes of romance!" Sir H. Rider Haggard
[4]

In 1933, the newly discovered Serbelodon burnhami (now Amebelodon burnhami), an extinct gomphothere (Shovel-Tusker elephant) from North America, was officially named after Burnham.[91] Ernest Hemingway acquired the rights to produce a film version of Scouting on Two Continents in late 1958. CBS immediately contracted Hemingway to produce the film for television, with Gary Cooper expressing an interest in playing the part of Burnham. Hemingway was already behind schedule in his other commitments and never started on the film when he committed suicide in July 1961.[92] On My Honor, an epic film conceived and begun by Cecil B. DeMille, was to document the founding of the Scouting movement but was left unfinished because of the legendary producer's untimely death in January 1959. In the screenplay started by Jesse Lasky, Jr., the film would have focused on Baden-Powell and the Scouting pioneers who were a major influence on Baden-Powell, including Burnham. Even after DeMille's death, associate producer Henry Wilcoxon continued to invest substantial work on the film until 1962, and Sydney Box was hired to assist with the script. Starting in 2001, producers Jerry Molen and Robert Starling began work to finish DeMille's project, including an updated screenplay by Starling based on the earlier work of Lasky and Box.[93][94] Burnham was portrayed by Will Hutchins in Shangani Patrol (1970), a feature film by David Millin.[95] Filmed on location in Bulawayo, Rhodesia by RPM Film Studios, 35mm copies of the film are now preserved by the National Film, Video and Sound Archives, Pretoria, South Africa. Union Oil was the official sponsor of the Major Burnham Bowling Trophy, an annual bowling event supported by the Boy Scouts of America and held in California.[96][97]

Notes
[1] Davis, Richard Harding (1906). Real Soldiers of Fortune. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN978-0-87364-239-2. [2] West, James E.; Peter O. Lamb; illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell (1932). He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the Boys' Story of Frederick Burnham, the American Scout. Brewer, Warren and Putnam. [3] Lott, Jack (1981). "Chapter 8. The Making of a Hero: Burnham in the Tonto Basin". In Boddington, Craig. America The Men and Their Guns That Made Her Great. Petersen Publishing Co. p.90. ISBN978-0-8227-3022-4. [4] Burnham, Frederick Russell (1926). Scouting on Two Continents. Doubleday, Page & company. pp.2; Chapters 3 & 4. ISBN978-0-86920-126-8. OCLC407686. [5] Press Reference Library: Notables of the West. New York: International News Service. 1915. OCLC5532411. [6] Carr, Harry (September 6 1931). "They Knew the Old California Bandits". Los Angeles Times: K10. [7] Money, R. R (April 1962). "Tonto Basin Feud". Blackwood's Magazine 291. ISSN0006-436X. [8] Press Reference Library: Notables of the West. New York: International News Service. 1915. p.241. OCLC5532411. [9] Donovan, Charles Henry Wynne (1894). With Wilson in Matabeleland, Or, Sport and War in Zambesia. London: Henry. p.271. ISBN978-0-86920-180-0. [10] Forbes, Archibald; Griffiths, Arthur; Henty, George Alfred; Knight, E. F. (1896). Battles of the Nineteenth Century. London, Paris, Melbourne: Castle and Company Ltd. pp.110119. [11] Hensman, Howard (1900) (PDF). A History of Rhodesia, Compiled from Official Sources (http:/ / www. rhodesia. nl/ hensman. pdf). Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood and sons. . Retrieved 2012-06-08. [12] Wills, W. A.; Collingridge, L. T. (1894). The Downfall of Lobengula: the cause, history, and effect of the Matabeli war. London: The African Review. pp.153172. ISBN978-0-8371-1653-2. [13] Burnham, Frederick Russell (1899). "Northern Rhodesia". In Wills, Walter H. Bulawayo Up-to-date; Being a General Sketch of Rhodesia. Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co. pp.177180. [14] Baxter, T.W.; E.E. Burke (1970). Guide to the Historical Manuscripts in the National Archives of Rhodesia. p.67. [15] "Railway And Other Companies: Northern Territories (B.S.A.) Exploring Company Limited". The Times (35824): 3. May 9 1899. [16] Hough, Harold (January 2010). "The Arizona Miner and Indiana Jones" (http:/ / www. minersnews. com/ Dec09Jan10/ AZMiner. html). Miner News. . [17] Juang, Richard M (2008). Africa and the Americas: culture, politics, and history : a multidisciplinary encyclopedia, Volume 2 Transatlantic relations series. ABC-CLIO. p.1157. ISBN978-1-85109-441-7.

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[18] Selous, Frederick Courteney (1896). Sunshine and Storm in Rhodesia (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=GjNfildy5fsC& pg=PA1). London: R. Ward. ISBN978-1-60355-059-8. . Retrieved 2012-06-08. [19] "Killed the Matabele God: Burnham, the American Scout, May End Uprising" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9E06E7DF123BEE33A25756C2A9609C94679ED7CF) (PDF). The New York Times. June 25, 1896. ISSN0093-1179. . Retrieved September 28, 2007. [20] Farwell, Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View. W. W. Norton. p.539. ISBN978-0-393-04770-7. [21] Leebaert, Derek (2006). To Dare and to Conquer: Special Operations and the Destiny of Nations. Little, Brown. p.379. ISBN978-0-316-14384-4. [22] Farwell, Byron (March 1976). "Taking Sides in the Boer War" (http:/ / www. americanheritage. com/ content/ taking-sides-boer-war). American Heritage Magazine 20 (3). ISSN0002-8738. . Retrieved February 9, 2012. [23] "American Scout Escapes". The Atlanta Constitution. April 8, 1900. [24] Unger, Frederic William (1901). With "Bobs" and Krger: Experiences and Observations of an American War Correspondent in the Field with both Armies. H.T. Coates. Chapter XXV. [25] "England's American Scout" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9A01E0DD1139E733A25756C0A9639C946097D6CF) (PDF). The New York Times. May 5, 1901. ISSN0362-4331. . Retrieved September 28, 2007. [26] Hales, A.G (November 13, 1900). "Anglo-African Writers: Letter to Major Burnham from Lord Roberts". Daily News (17048). [27] Albdert, Britt (1923). "Chapter 3. The Last of the Scouts". The Boys' own Book of Adventurers. New York: The Macmillan Co. p.75. OCLC4585632. [28] "FinestHour" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20110722023114/ http:/ / www. winstonchurchill. org/ files/ public/ FinestHour127. pdf) (PDF). Journal of the Churchill Center and Societies, Summer 2005. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. winstonchurchill. org/ files/ public/ FinestHour127. pdf) on 2011-07-22. . Retrieved August 2, 2007. [29] "Southern California by Towns and Counties: Fred Burnham now a Major in British Army; Recovering from His Injuries". Los Angeles Times. August 4, 1900. ISSN0458-3035. [30] "Burnham's Services Brought to the Attention of Parliament: He Maintains His Well-known Modesty. His Injuries Received in Africa. Now Living in a London Suburb". The Los Angeles Times. March 2, 1902. ISSN0458-3035. [31] Shippey, Lee (February 2, 1930). "Lee Side o' L.A.: Personal Glimpses of Famous Southlanders". The Los Angeles Times. ISSN0458-3035. [32] "More South African Honors: Lady Sarah Wilson and Major Burnham, the American Scout, among those decorated" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9E06E2DB1130E132A2575BC2A96F9C946097D6CF) (PDF). New York Times. September 28, 1901. ISSN0362-4331. . [33] Plaster, John (2006). The Ultimate Sniper: An Advanced Training Manual for Military and Police Snipers. Paladin Press. p.5. ISBN978-0-87364-704-5. [34] West, James E (1937). 10108 H.doc.18. U.S. Congress, House Committee on Education. p.472. [35] Baden-Powell, Robert (1908). Scouting for Boys: A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship. London: H. Cox. xxiv. ISBN978-0-486-45719-2. [36] "Great Canadian Heritage Discoveries" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070312021810/ http:/ / www. goldiproductions. com/ BoerWar_Museum/ Boer90i_pastdis_burnham. html). Biographical sketch. The Canadian Anglo-Boer War Museum. 200. Archived from the original (http:/ / goldiproductions. com/ BoerWar_Museum/ Boer90i_pastdis_burnham. html) on March 12, 2007. . Retrieved March 31, 2007. [37] Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN978-0-09-170670-8. [38] Prichard, Hesketh Vernon Hesketh (2004). Sniping in France, 191418: With Notes on the Scientific Training of Scouts, Observers, and Snipers. 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Burnham: King of Scouts (http:/ / www. burnhamkingofscouts. com/ ). Trafford Publishing. ISBN978-1-4122-0028-8. . Retrieved March 30, 2007. [45] "GNIS: Mount Baden-Powell" (http:/ / geonames. usgs. gov/ pls/ gnispublic/ f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:255344). USGS. . Retrieved April 17, 2006. [46] Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Haynes. pp.xxvxxix. ISBN978-1-879356-32-0. [47] "Dedication of Mount Baden-Powell" (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ dedication. htm). The Pine Tree Web. . Retrieved April 23, 2006. [48] Everett, Mary Nixon (JulyAugust 1952). "Dedication of Mount Burnham". The Masterkey (Southwest Museum) 26 (4): 117119.

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LCCN17025965. [65] "Roosevelt's Army Has Not Lost Hope; Colonel's Aids from All over the Country Meet and Leave the Future in His Hands" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9F02E3DA123AE433A25753C2A9639C946696D6CF) (PDF). The New York Times. May 20, 1917. ISSN0362-4331. . [66] Hammond, John Hays (1935). The Autobiography of John Hays Hammond. Farrar & Rinehart. p.754. ISBN0-405-05913-2. [67] "May Import African Animals to Solve Meat Problem" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9B02E6D71539E433A25754C1A9629C946196D6CF) (PDF). The New York Times. April 17, 1910. . Retrieved September 28, 2007. [68] "Animals from Africa: Maj Burnham Will Import Wild Beasts for Western Plains". The Washington Post (reprint from New York Herald). March 3, 1911. ISSN0148-2076. [69] Bryant, H. C (April 1915). "Organizations Defending Wild Life". California Fish and Game: 123. ISSN0008-1078. [70] "The Fauna of the British Empire". Science 71 (1838): 308. March 21, 1930. doi:10.1126/science.71.1838.308. [71] "Maj. Burnham and Family Depart for Africa: Angelenos to Tour World". The Los Angeles Times. May 14, 1929. ISSN0458-3035. [72] "Scientific Notes and News". Science 71 (1847): 536. May 23, 1930. doi:10.1126/science.71.1847.533. ISSN0036-8075. [73] Arizona Department of Transportation (1941). "Arizona National Wildlife Refuges". Arizona Highways (magazine) 17. ISSN0004-1521. [74] Coates, Peter A (2007). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive Species: Strangers on the Land. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN978-0-520-24930-1. [75] Colby, William E.; Olmsted, Frederick Law (April 1933). "Borrego Desert Park" (http:/ / www. sandiegohistory. org/ journal/ 73fall/ anza. htm). Sierra Club Bulletin XVIII: 144. . Retrieved July 29, 2007. [76] Thrapp, Dan L. (1991). Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography. University of Nebraska Press. p.195. ISBN978-0-8032-9418-9. [77] Haggard, H. Rider (1926). The Days of My Life Volume II (http:/ / gutenberg. net. au/ ebooks03/ 0300141. txt). . Retrieved 2012-06-08. [78] Bradford, Mary E.; Bradford, Richard H. (1993). An American Family on the African Frontier: The Burnham Family Letters, 18931896. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart Publishers. ISBN978-1-879373-66-2. [79] van Wyke, Peter (2003). Burnham: Chief of Scouts. Victoria, Canada: Trafford Publishing. ISBN978-1-879373-66-2. [80] "A Young South African". The Los Angeles Times. June 6, 1896. ISSN0458-3035. [81] "Californians Develop Venezuela Oil Fields". The Los Angeles Times. June 19, 1927. ISSN0458-3035. [82] "Plane Line Saves Weeks: American Air Service in Guatemala Carries Odd Passenger List over Hard Country". The New York Times. January 17, 1932. ISSN0362-4331. [83] Cub, Caroline. "Finding Aid for the W.W. Hodkinson Papers, 18811971" (http:/ / content. cdlib. org/ view?docId=kt429020hc& doc. view=entire_text& brand=oac). University of California Los Angeles, Special Collections, Young Research Library. . Retrieved October 15, 2007. [84] Haggard, H. Rider (1896). The Wizard. New York, London: Longmans, Green. ISBN978-1-84677-796-7.

61

Frederick Russell Burnham


[85] "Rider Haggard's Tribute". The Atlanta Constitution. November 21, 1896. ISSN0093-1179. [86] Montgomery, Ruth (1967). A Search for the Truth. New York: Fawcett Crest. ISBN978-0-449-21085-7. [87] Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Haynes. ISBN978-1-879356-32-0. [88] Burnham, M. Howard (1912). Modern Mine Valuation. London, C. Griffin and Company, limited. ISBN978-1-151-74631-3. [89] Weideman, Christine. "Guide to the Frederick Russell Burnham Papers" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060910101923/ http:/ / mssa. library. yale. edu/ findaids/ stream. php?xmlfile=mssa. ms. 0115. xml). Yale University Library. Archived from the original (http:/ / mssa. library. yale. edu/ findaids/ stream. php?xmlfile=mssa. ms. 0115. xml) on Septemebr 06, 2006. . Retrieved September 11, 2007. [90] Elliott, John (2004). "King of Scouts Honored at Gravesite" (http:/ / www. kaweahcommonwealth. com/ 8-27-04features. htm). The Kaweah Commonwealth Online. . Retrieved August 27, 2004. [91] Osborn, Henry Fairfield (June 29 1933). "Serbelodon Burnhami, a new Shovel-Tusker from California" (http:/ / digitallibrary. amnh. org/ dspace/ bitstream/ 2246/ 2061/ 1/ N0639. pdf) (PDF). American Museum Novitates (639): 15. . Retrieved November 1, 2007. [92] Hemingway, Ernest; Hotchner, A. E (2005). Dear Papa, Dear Hotch: The Correspondence of Ernest Hemingway And A. E. Hotchner. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. ISBN978-0-8262-1605-2. [93] Birchard, Robert S (2004). Cecil B. DeMille's Hollywood. University Press of Kentucky. p.372. ISBN978-0-8018-6275-5. [94] "On My Honor" (http:/ / www. ldsfilm. com/ announced/ OnMyHonor. html). LDSfilm. August 18, 2004. . Retrieved May 5, 2009. [95] Shangani Patrol (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0367031/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [96] Davis, Clark (2001). Company Men: White-Collar Life and Corporate Cultures in Los Angeles, 18921941. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp.111, 219. ISBN978-0-8018-6275-5. [97] Ehrenclou, V. L (MayJune 1925). "Major Burnham The Scout". Union Oil Bulletin: 111, 19. OCLC12064434.

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This article incorporates public domain material from a 1906 biography of Major Burnham: Davis, Richard Harding (1906). Real Soldiers of Fortune. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN0-87364-239-2.

Bibliography
Works
Burnham, Frederick Russell (1926). Scouting on Two Continents. Doubleday, Page. ISBN978-1-879356-31-3. Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Haynes. ISBN978-1-879356-32-0. Bradford, Mary E.; Richard H Bradford (1993). An American family on the African frontier: the Burnham family letters, 18931896. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart. ISBN978-1-879373-66-2. Burnham, Frederick R. (1927). "The remarks of Major Frederick R. Burnham". Historical Society of Southern California 13 (4): 334352. Frederick Russell Burnham Papers. Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University. (http://web.archive.org/web/20060910101923/http://mssa. library.yale.edu/findaids/stream.php?xmlfile=mssa.ms.0115.xml) A large collection of Burnham's documents: Correspondence, 18641947. Subject Files, 18901947. Writings, 18931946. Personal and Family Papers, 18791951. Photographs, ca. 18931924.
Baden-Powell's sketch of Chief of Scouts Burnham, Matobo Hills, 1896. Also used on the dust cover of Scouting on Two Continents. (1934 edition).

Frederick Russell Burnham Papers, 18791979, Hoover Institution Library and Archives, Stanford University. (http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf6n39n86s) Another large collection of Burnham's documents: Correspondence, speeches and writings, clippings, other printed matter, photographs, and memorabilia, relating to the Matabele Wars of 1893 and 1896 in Rhodesia, the Second Boer War, exploration expeditions in Africa, and gold mining in Alaska during the Klondike gold rush. Burnham Footage of Southern and Eastern Africa (http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/guide/hsfa_africa.htm), 35 min. silent b&w video. Footage shot in South Africa, Rhodesia, Zimbabwe, Zambia and eastern Africa during a family trip. Smithsonian Institution archives. call# 85.4.1; AF-85.4.1 (1929)

Frederick Russell Burnham

63

Biographies
Brown, Curtis (November 1901). "Burnham, the Scout" (http://hdl.handle.net/2027/nyp. 33433081664249?urlappend=;seq=568). Pearson's Magazine (London, England): 546553. OCLC1645313. Davis, Richard Harding (1906). Real Soldiers of Fortune. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN978-0-87364-239-2. Real Soldiers of Fortune (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/3029) at Project Gutenberg West, James E.; Lamb, Peter O. (1932). He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the Boys' Story of Frederick Burnham, the American Scout. illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell. Brewer, Warren and Putnam. OCLC1710834. van Wyk, Peter (2003). Burnham: King of Scouts (http://www.burnhamkingofscouts.com/). Trafford Publishing. ISBN978-1-4122-0028-8. Retrieved March 30, 2007. Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John (1900). Appletons' Cyclopdia of American Biography. New York: Gale Research. p.249. ISBN978-1-85506-957-2. James E. Homans, ed. (1918). " Burnham, Fredereick Russell ". The Cyclopdia of American Biography. New York: The Press Association Compilers, Inc. pp.249251. OCLC81277904. Hammond, John Hays (JanuaryJune 1921). "South African Memories: Rhodes Barnato Burnham". Scribner's Magazine LXIX: 257277. Britt, Albert (1923). "Burnham, the Last of the Scouts". The Boys' Own Book of Adventurers. New York: The Macmillan company. OCLC4585632. Ehrenclou, V. L (MayJune 1925). "Major Burnham The Scout". Union Oil Bulletin: 111, 19. OCLC12064434. Haggard, H. Rider (1926). The Days of My Life Volume II (http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300141.txt). London, New York: Longmans, Green and Co. Chapter XVII is on Major Burnham; Letters in chapter XIII dedicated to Burnham's daughter, Nada. OCLC476006. Retrieved 2012-06-08. Banning, William; George Hugh Banning (1930). Six Horses. New York: Century. Foreword by Frederick Russell Burnham. OCLC1744707. Shippey, Lee; A. L. Ewing (1930). Folks Ushud Know; Interspersed with Songs of Courage. Sierra Madre, Calif: Sierra Madre Press. p.23; Chapter on Major Burnham. OCLC2846678. Grant, Madison; Davison, Charles Stewart (1930). The Alien in Our Midst; Or, "Selling Our Birthright for a Mess of Pottage"; the Written Views of a Number of Americans (Present and Former) on Immigration and Its Results. New York: Galton Publishing. pp.4448. OCLC3040493. Burnham, Frederick (1931). "Scouting Against the Apache". In West, James E. The Boy Scout's Book of True Adventure: their own story of famous exploits and adventures told by honorary scouts. New York: Putman. OCLC8484128. Grinnell, George Bird; Rppsevelt, Kermit; Cross, W. Redmond et al., eds. (1933). "Taps for the Great Selous". Hunting Trails on Three Continents; a Book of the Boone and Crockett Club. New York: The Derrydale Press. OCLC1624738. "In My Fathers House Are Many Mansions". Sunset Club Yearbook. MayJune 1951. EPH.061.9494.11. American Council of Learned Societies (1928-58). Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Scribner. ISBN0-684-80631-2. OCLC4171403. Money, R. R. (January 1962). "Greatest Scout". Blackwood's Magazine v291: 4252. ISSN0006-436X. Lott, J. P. "Jack" (September 1976). "Major Burnham of the Shangani Patrol". Rhodesiana Magazine. ISSN0006-436X. Bradford, Richard H. (1984). "Frederick Russell Burnham, the British Empire's American Scout". American Historical Society Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C.

Frederick Russell Burnham

64

External links
Major Burnham on Pine Tree Web scouting site (http://www.pinetreeweb.com/burnham.htm). Frederick Howard Russell Burnham (great grand nephew) (http://www.howardburnham.com/)

Fdration des Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs


Fdration des claireuses et claireurs
Guides and Scouts Federation Country Founded France 1989

Membership 2000 Affiliation Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme Website


http:/ / www. scout-fee. org/

The Fdration des claireuses et claireurs (FEE, Guides and Scouts Federation) is an umbrella federation of about 15 regional Scouting and Guiding associations in France. It was founded in 1989 and serves about 2000 members. The FEE is a member of the Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme.

History
The FEE was founded by five local groups in 1989, all of them former members of the Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (EEdF); the following year, they were joint by four formerly independent associations. In 1992, it received the public agreement which is necessary in France for all youth organizations. The FEE was among the founding members of the Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme in 2000.

Component associations
The sources on the component associations differ and name between 12 and 19 member associations.[1][2][3] Among the associations named are: Association de Scoutisme unioniste Association vairoise de Scoutisme laque[2] Eclaireurs du Midi[1][3] Eclaireurs et Louvetaux orthodoxes[4] Eclaireurs neutres du Limousin[2][3] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs alpins[1][2][3] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Baden-Powell[1][2][3] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Cte d'Opale[2][3] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs d'Armor[1][2][3] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de Cognac[1][2][3] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de Melun[2][3] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de Vichy[2][3] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de Seine-Saint-Denis[1][2][3] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs laques[2]

Fdration des Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Groupe Pierre Dejean[1][2][3] Groupe Pierre Franois[1][2][3] Scoutisme en Dombes[3] Scoutisme unioniste Montalbanais[1][3] Scoutisme unioniste Toulousain[1][3] Scoutisme unitaire chrtien[2] Scouts orthodoxes de France[1][2][3] Scouts pluralistes de France[2][3]

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Former members Association franaise de Scoutisme unioniste[2][3]; its components Scoutisme unioniste Montalbanais, Scoutisme unioniste Toulousain and Association de Scoutisme unioniste remained in the FEE as separate members after the disbandment of the AFSU. Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Bois-Colombes (founding member of the FEE; returned to the EEdF in 2000)[5] Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de Gascogne Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Sud Seine-et-Marne

Program
The FEE as a whole is a non-denominational Scouting organization, but its component associations a free to choose a confessional sponsor. The associations works in three age-groups: Louvetaux/Louvettes (Cub Scouts) - ages 8 to 11 Eclaireurs/Eclaireuse (Scouts/Guides) - ages 12 to 16 Routiers/Anes (Rover Scouts/Ranger Guides) - ages 17 and older

References
[1] "Fdration des claireuses et claireurs - Scoutopedia" (http:/ / fr. scoutwiki. org/ Fdration_des_claireuses_et_claireurs). 2008-11-05. . Retrieved 2008-11-13. [2] "documents FEE" (http:/ / musee-scout-virtuel2. neuf. fr/ page17. html). 2001. . Retrieved 2008-11-13. [3] "La carte du scoutisme" (http:/ / www. latoilescoute. net/ images/ opinel/ Image/ tauper/ Carte_scoutisme. png). 2005-03-21. . Retrieved 2008-11-13. [4] "Liste des organisateurs de scoutisme en Ardche" (http:/ / www. ardeche. pref. gouv. fr/ sections/ actions_de_letat/ jeunesse_sports/ accueil_des_mineu/ adresses_accueils_co/ les_adresses_des_acc/ downloadFile/ attachedFile_4/ Liste_des_organisateurs_de_scoutisme. pdf). June 2008. . Retrieved 2008-11-13. [5] "Notre histoire" (http:/ / jb. charcot. free. fr/ groupe/ Notre_histoire. htm). . Retrieved 2008-11-13.

External links
Official website (http://www.scout-fee.org/) (French)

Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia

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Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia


Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia
Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia

Country Founded Membership Patron President Chief Commissioner Affiliation

Saint Lucia 1925 2,181 Dame Pearlette Louisy Raymonde Joseph Mary Joseph World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Website [1] stluciaguides.com

The Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia is the national Guiding organisation of Saint Lucia. It serves 2,181 members (as of 2003). Founded in 1925, the girls-only organisation became a full member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1984. It is a member organisation of the Caribbean Link for Guiding. The island is divided into two Divisions, Northern and Southern. Each Division is subdivided into Districts. The Northern Division has four districts. The Southern Division has five districts. Each district has a District Commissioner. In 2000, the Guides celebrated their 75th anniversary. There was a five day hike around the entire island.[2]

Martha Francis-Biscette
Martha Francis Biscette was awarded in 2009 a British Empire Medal, for her contribution to Guiding.[3] She has been involved in Guiding for over thirty years, holding positions such as District Commissioner and Camp Advisor. She also was presented with the Girl Guides Award for most outstanding Commissioner for Highest Performance to Duty in 2002 while serving as a District Commissioner. During the period 2001 to 2003, she managed five units.

Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles Training Program


The Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles Training Program aimed to provide an opportunity for young women to develop and exercise their leadership skills in order to reduce their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. In October 2008, the scheme started the village of Anse-La-Raye including activities in the Girl Guide unit.[4] A Saint Lucian and a Peace Corps volunteer ran the programme. Anse-La-Raye Girls Guides created HIV "fact books" to record information, reflections, and lessons learned since the implementation of the programme. The Guides also explored everyday contexts and tracked and assessed their decision-making against the personal goals and achievements they set for themselves. For World Aids Day 2009, they made and posted HIV education and healthy lifestyles posters around the island. They have also hosted teach-ins for their mothers, aunts and grandmothers. The Anse-La-Raye Girl Guides also shared their posters and conducted HIV education and prevention activities among their peers in Dennery, a nearby fishing village. As a result, the girls in Dennery were inspired and motivated to revive their Girl Guides unit. Dennery Girl Guides have themselves created posters on HIV/AIDS transmission,

Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia care and support, as well as HIV "fact books," which were exhibited in the village as a way to raise community HIV/AIDS awareness. The Dennery Girl Guides were also trained as peer educators and have hosted sessions about HIV/AIDS at local schools.

67

References
[1] http:/ / stluciaguides. com/ [2] "Girl Guide Association of St Lucia - Past Events" (http:/ / stluciaguides. com/ pastevents. htm). . Retrieved 2010-01-07. [3] "Queen's birthday honours list: Commonwealth" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2009/ jun/ 13/ queens-birthday-honours-list-commonwealth). The Guardian. 2009-06-13. . Retrieved 2010-01-06. [4] "Saint Lucia: From Girls at-Risk to Girls Empowered in St. Lucia" (http:/ / www. pepfar. gov/ press/ docs/ saintlucia/ 140735. htm). April 2010. . Retrieved 2012-04-08.

External links
Girl Guide Association of St Lucia website (http://stluciaguides.com/)

Girl Guides Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

68

Girl Guides Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines


Girl Guides Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Girl Guides Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Country Founded

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1914

Membership 1,162 Affiliation World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts

The Girl Guides Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the national Guiding organization of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. It serves 1,162 members (as of 2003). Founded in 1914, the girls-only organization became a full member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1984.

Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting


This is an article about the young person in the Scouting movement. For other meanings see Girl Guides. A Guide, Girl Guide or Girl Scout is a member of a section of some Guiding organisations who is between the ages of 10 and 14. Age limits are different in each organisation. The term Girl Scout is used in the United States and several East Asian countries. The two terms are used synonymously within this article. Girl Guides are organised into units/troops Singing Girl Guides averaging 20-30 girls under guidance of a team of leaders. Units subdivide into patrols of about six Guides and engage in outdoor and special interest activities. Units may affiliate with national and international organisations. Some units, especially in Europe, have been co-educational since the 1970s, allowing boys and girls to work together as Scouts. There are other programme sections for older and younger girls.

Naming
Robert Baden-Powell was a famous soldier who fought in the Boer War in South Africa at the beginning of the 20th century. During the Siege of Mafeking, when the town and British soldiers were besieged by Boer soldiers, B-P noticed how the young boys made themselves useful by carrying messages for the soldiers. When he came home, he decided to put some of his Scouting ideas into practice to see if they would be any good for young boys and took 21 boys camping on Brownsea Island, near Poole in Dorset. The camp was a success, and B-P wrote his book Scouting for Boys, covering tracking, signaling, cooking etc. Soon boys began to organize themselves into Patrols and Troops

Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting and called themselves "Boy Scouts". Girls bought the book as well and formed themselves into Patrols of Girl Scouts. In 1909 there was a Boy Scout Rally at Crystal Palace in London. Among all the thousands of Boy Scouts there was also a group of girls from Pinkneys Green, in Berkshire, who spoke to B-P and asked him to let girls be Scouts. B-P decided to take action. In those days, for girls to camp and hike was not common, as this extract from the Scout newspaper shows: "If a girl is not allowed to run, or even hurry, to swim, ride a bike, or raise her arms above her head, how can she become a Scout?"[1] B-P's career had been in the British Army. There was an Indian regiment called the Khyber Guides who served on the north-west frontier of India. B-P persuaded the girl "Scouts" that Guides was a very special name of which they could be proud. So, in 1910 the first Girl Guides began. Since 1910 Guides have spread and there are now millions of Guides worldwide. The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) was formed to link together Guides. In some countries the girls preferred to call themselves Girl Scouts. (Reference: 'The Guide Handbook', London: The Guide Association, 1996) The first Guide Company was 1st Pinkneys Green Guides (Miss Baden Powell's Own), who still exist in Pinkneys Green, Maidenhead in the English county of Berkshire.[2]

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Key points
Things that are shared amongst all Guide Units are:[3] The Guide Promise - Girls become Guides by making their Promise. Each country has its own Promise but all have the same 3 parts: duty to God or to your religion; duty to your country; keeping the Guide Law. The Good Turn - each Guide tries to do a kind thing for someone else, without payment and without being asked, every day.

The World Badge - this can be worn on uniform or ordinary Partisan in Warsaw clothes. The three leaves of the trefoil stand for the threefold Promise. The vein in the centre is a compass needle, pointing the way and the two stars stand for the Promise and the Law. The colours stand for the golden sun shining over all the children of the world, from a blue sky. This badge is a guiding symbol that can be recognized all over the world. The World Flag - this is in the same colours as the World Badge and can be carried or flown by any member of the movement. It is often used as the Unit Flag. The three yellow blocks represent the threefold Promise and the white corner represents the commitment to peace of all WAGGGs' members. The Guide Sign - the three fingers stand for the three parts of the Promise. The Guide sign is used when making or renewing the Promise and can be used when meeting other Guides. It may also be used when receiving a badge or at the end of meetings. The Motto - Be Prepared - This means that Guides are ready to cope with anything that might come their way. The left handshake - this is the way members of the Movement greet each other. The left hand is the one nearest the heart and so shows friendship. Also, warriors held their shield in their left hand, so by putting down your shield, it meant that you were vulnerable, making it a display of both bravery and trust. Thinking Day - on the 22 February each year Guides think of their Guide sisters all around the world. The date was chosen at a World Conference because it was the birthday of both the Founder and the World Chief Guide. The World Centres - there are 4 Guide homes in different parts of the world: Our Chalet in Switzerland; Pax Lodge in London; Our Cabana in Mexico; and Sangam in India.

Polish Girl Guides by the monument to Small

Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting The World Chief Guide - Olave, Lady Baden-Powell is the only person ever to have been World Chief Guide. She was the wife of the Founder, Lord Baden-Powell of Gilwell and lived from 1889 to 1977.

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Unit affiliation
Local groups, called variously units, companies or troops are the fundamental unit of the Girl Guides. These are run by an adult, normally a woman who is between 18 and 65 years of age. She has responsibility for the girls in her group and plans out activities for the girls as well as leading the meetings. These leaders are supported by assistants. Meetings are held anywhere from weekly to monthly depending on the commitments of the participants and the activities in progress.[4]

Uniforms
Individual national or other emblems may be found on the individual country's Scouting article. Uniform is a specific characteristic of Scouting. Robert Baden-Powell, at the 1938 World Jamboree, said it "hides all differences of social standing in a country and makes for equality; but, more important still, it covers differences of country and race and creed, and makes all feel that they are members with one another of the one great brotherhood".[5] In the 1909 The Scheme for Girl Guides, the uniform for the newly emerging movement was given as: Jersey of company colour. Neckerchief of company colour. Skirt, knickers, stockings, dark blue. Cap red biretta, or in summer, large straw hat. Haversack, cooking billy, lanyard and knife, walking stick or light staff. Cape, hooked up on the back. Shoulder knot, of the 'Group' colour on the left shoulder. Badges, much the same as the Boy Scouts. Officers wear ordinary country walking-dress, with biretta of dark blue, white shoulder knot, walking stick, and whistle on lanyard.[6] Guide uniform varies within cultures, climates and the activities undertaken. They are often adorned with badges indicating a Guide's achievements and responsibilities. In some places, uniforms are manufactured and distributed by approved companies and the local Guiding organization. In other places, members make uniforms themselves.

Lones
Lones are girls who live too far away to attend meetings in a guide district. Often they run the program by mail, but there are some girls who are part of Lones of the Air who talk and have unit meetings by radio. Lones have an 'L' on their promise badge.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Scout Headquarters Gazette 1909 1st Pinkneys Green Guides (http:/ / www. pgguides. org. uk) The Guide Handbook, London: The Guide Association, 1996. "Who We Are" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070507004512/ http:/ / www. girlguiding. org. uk/ xq/ asp/ sID. 146/ qx/ whoweare/ article. asp). Girlguiding UK. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. girlguiding. org. uk/ xq/ asp/ sID. 146/ qx/ whoweare/ article. asp) on 2007-05-07. . Retrieved 2007-01-05. [5] Wade, E.K. (1957). "27 Years With Baden-Powell" (http:/ / pinetreeweb. com/ wade12. htm) (PDF). Why the Uniform?, ch 12. Pinetree.web. . Retrieved 2006-07-24. [6] Kerr, Rose (1976). Story of the Girl Guides 1908-1938. London: Girl Guides Association.

Girl Scouts of the USA

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Girl Scouts of the USA


Girl Scouts of the United States of America
Headquarters New York, New York Country Founded Founder Membership United States March 12, 1912 Juliette Gordon Low 2,303,388 youth [1] 878,904 adults (2010) Anna Maria Chvez World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Website
http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/

CEO Affiliation

The Girl Scouts of the United States of America (GSUSA) is a youth organization for girls in the United States and American girls living abroad. It describes itself as "the world's preeminent organization dedicated solely to girls".[2] It was founded by Juliette Gordon Low in 1912 and was organized after Low met Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, in 1911.[3] Upon returning to Savannah, Georgia, she telephoned a distant cousin, saying, "I've got something for the girls of Savannah, and all of America, and all the world, and we're going to start it tonight!"[4]

Girl Scouts raising the flag at a Municipal Band concert in Eau Claire, Wisconsin

GSUSA aims to empower girls and to help teach values such as honesty, fairness, courage, compassion, character, sisterhood, confidence, and citizenship through activities including camping, community service, learning first aid, and earning badges by acquiring other practical skills. Girl Scouts' achievements are recognized through rank advancement and by various special awards. Girl Scouts welcomed girls with disabilities early in their history, at a time when they were not included in most other activities.[4] Membership is organized according to grade with activities designed appropriately for each level. The GSUSA is a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), and has an extensive history of accepting girls from any background. In 1994, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry publication, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility. The study showed that the Girl Scouts was ranked as the 8th "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 41% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing Love and Like A Lot for the Girl Scouts.[5]

Girl Scouts of the USA

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History
Girl Scouting in the United States of America began on March 12, 1912 when Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low organized the first Girl Scout troop meeting of 18 girls in Savannah, Georgia. It has since grown 3.7 million members.[4] Low, who had met Baden-Powell in London while she was living in the United Kingdom, dreamed of giving the United States and the world "something for all the girls." She envisioned an organization that would bring girls out of their sheltered home environments to serve their communities, experience the out-of-doors, and give them the opportunity to develop "self-reliance and resourcefulness." Unlike other organizations, from its inception, Girl Scouts has been organized and run exclusively by women, for girls and women.[6] The organization's original name was the Girl Guides of America. In 1913, it was changed to the Girl Scouts of the United States and the Juliette Gordon Low (center), with two Girl Scouts. organization was incorporated in 1915. The name was finally changed to the Girl Scouts of the United States of America in 1947, and was given a congressional charter on March 16, 1950. The GSUSA started with 18 members within months, members were hiking through the woods in their knee-length blue uniforms, playing basketball on a curtained-off court, and going on camping trips. By 1920, there were nearly 70,000 members, and by 1930 over 200,000. In 2005 there were over 3.7million Girl Scouts 2.8million girl members and 954,000 adult members in the United States.[7] More than 50million American women have participated in the Girl Scouts. Through its membership in the WAGGGS, GSUSA is part of a worldwide scouting family of over 10 million girls and adults in 145 countries.[8] The names and ages of the levels and the larger structure of the program have evolved significantly. Troops were initially fairly independent before joining together into small councils, which have recently merged into larger councils. The Juliette Gordon Low Birthplace, located in Savannah, Georgia in the former Gordon family home, became the National Girl Scout program center in 1956.[9] It provides tours to thousands of Girl Scouts yearly. Upon Low's death in 1927, she willed her carriage house, which would eventually become The Girl Scout First Headquarters, to the local Savannah Girl Scouts for continued use.[10] The first National Headquarters was in Washington, D.C., but it was moved to New York City in the spring of 1916 and has remained there ever since. The aim of the Girl Scouts is that girls will develop to their full potential by pursuing four goals: developing their full potential; relating to others with increasing understanding, skill, and respect; developing a meaningful set of values to guide their actions and to provide for sound decision-making; and contributing to the improvement of society.[11]

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World War II
During World War II, 19431945, many young Japanese-American girls were confined in internment camps with their families. Girl Scout troops were organized, even in these camps. These girls participated in many activities, including dramatic presentations, which took place in the Crystal City Internment Camp, located in Crystal City, Texas.

Desegregation
Most Girl Scout units were originally segregated by race according to state and local laws and customs. The first troop for African American girls was founded in 1917; the first American Indian troop was formed in New York State in 1921; and the first troop for Mexican Americans was formed in Houston, Texas, in 1922. In 1933, Josephine Groves Holloway founded unofficial African American troops in Tennessee. She also fully desegregated the Cumberland Valley council in 1962.[12] The first official African American troop in the South was founded in 1932 in Richmond, Virginia by Lena B. Watson and led initially by Lavnia Banks, a teacher from Armstrong High School. It first met in Hartshorn Hall, Virginia Union University.[13] By the 1950s, the GSUSA had begun significant national efforts to desegregate the camps and maintain racial balance. One of the first desegregations, accomplished by Murray Walls in 1956, was Camp Shantituck in Kentucky.[14] Later the same year, Martin Luther King, Jr. described Girl Scouts as "a force for desegregation".[15] In 1969, a national Girl Scout initiative called Action 70 was created that aimed to eliminate prejudice. Gloria D. Scott, an African American, was elected National President of the Girl Scouts in 1975.[16]

Wing Scouts
The Wing Scout program was a Senior Girl Scout program for girls interested in flying and wanting to serve their country, started in 1941 and ending in the 1970s. In July 1942, 29 troop leaders from fifteen states met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to take Wing Scout leadership training. These leaders returned to their councils and began setting up Wing Scout troops. In 1959, Girl Scout Council in North San Mateo County, California was presented with an offer from United Airlines San Francisco Management Club President J. L. Burnside to start an aviation program for Senior Girl Scouts. One of the highlights of the Wing Scout program was the courtesy flight provided to Senior Girl Scouts using United Airlines' jets. For many of the girls, this was the first time they had flown in a plane. Senior Girl Scouts who had been in the program for three years were given the opportunity to take over the controls during flight in a small aircraft. The program was discontinued after United Airlines experienced financial setbacks in the 1970s.[17]

Age levels
The program was originally for girls aged from 10 to 18, but it was subsequently divided into three levels. Brownies (for younger girls) was based on a program developed in England in 1914 and was officially recognized in the mid-1920s. At the same time, girls over 18, or over 16 if First Class Scouts, became known as Senior Scouts. In 1938, the age divisions were: Brownies (ages 7 through 9), Intermediates (ages 10 through 13), and Seniors (ages 14 through 18).[18]

Girl Scouts of the USA In 1965 the age structure was rearranged to Brownies (ages 7 through 9, later 6 through 9), Juniors (ages 9 through 11), Cadettes (ages 11 through 14), and Seniors (ages 14 through 17).[19] In 1984, the Daisy program for kindergarten girls or those aged five was introduced.[20] In 2003, the Studio 2B program for girls aged from 11 up to 17 was introduced through Cadettes and Seniors.[21] Studio 2B allowed girls to call themselves by any name of their choosing, including but not limited to "Studio 2Bs,"[22] "teen Girl Scouts," or Cadettes and Seniors. Girl Scouts, aged 11 through 17, can earn both traditional badges and undertake Studio 2B activities, and the Silver Award and Gold Award requirements were rewritten to require both. Studio 2B activities differed from badges in two ways: each booklet focused on topics such as environmentalism or self-confidence rather than being; and to earn each Studio 2B charm, the Girl Scout had to choose activities from the booklet and then meet a goal relevant to the booklet topic. She would create her own plan for achieving her goal, following a basic planning procedure called SMART (standing for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely).

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Bess Truman with Girl Scouts and their leaders

On October 1, 2008, all levels were changed to have Girl Scouts as the beginning of their name, e.g. "Girl Scout Brownies" instead of "Brownie Girl Scouts", and all levels are by grade only instead of by age or grade. A new level, Girl Scout Ambassadors was created for girls in Grades 11 and 12 (around 16 to 18 years old), with Girl Scout Seniors to be only in ninth and tenth grade (around 14 to 16 years old) and grades for other levels were changed. The new levels were trialed in approximately 6 councils in Spring 2008, and began national use after October 1, 2008.
Hillary Clinton posing with Girl Scouts

Although troop membership has always and is still the most common way to participate in Girl Scouting, girls who do not desire to participate in troop activities can still sign up as an individual Girl Scout, known as a Juliette. Juliettes attend activities independently and work individually on badges and awards. The term Juliette may be phased out in the future. The Campus Girl Scouts program allows women (ages 18 and older) to be active in Girl Scouting while in college. Campus Girl Scouting is an organization that helps promote and build student involvement in the community, the local council, and the college campus through service.[23]

Mariner Scouts
The 20th National Council of the GSUSA launched the Mariner Girl Scout program in October 1934.[24] Similar to the Boy Scouts' Sea Scouts, the program was designed for older Girl Scouts interested in outdoor water-based activities. By the end of 1934, 12 Mariner ships were registered and the first two handbooks, Launching a Girl Scout Mariner Ship and Charting the Course of a Girl Scout Mariner Ship were published. The Mariner Girl Scout program remains active but in a smaller form; most girls have instead joined the Sea Scouts, which has been co-ed since 1971.[25]

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Special programs
There are programs for girls in unusual situations that make it difficult for them to participate in the standard program. The Girl Scouts Beyond Bars program helps daughters of incarcerated mothers to connect with their mothers and to have the mothers participate in Girl Scout activities. Another program, Girl Scouting in Detention Centers, allows girls who are themselves in detention centers to participate in Scouting. Other initiatives try to help girls in rural areas or in public housing. There are also programs for American girls living overseas.[26]

Organizational structure
The national organization has its central headquarters in New York City. It has a staff of 400, and is headed by a Chief Executive Officer and a 40 member National Board of Directors. Kathy Cloninger has been the Chief Executive Officer since 2003 and retired in November 2011. Girl Scouts of the USA celebrated 100 years of history and welcomed its new chief executive officer, Anna Maria Chvez, at its National Council Session/52nd Convention in Houston from November 1013, 2011. http:/ / blog. girlscouts. org/ 2011/ 11/ anna-maria-chavez-speaks-to-girl-scouts. html The Chair of the National Board of Directors, the highest volunteer position, is Connie L. Lindsey.[27] Below the national organization are councils, which cover a large portion of a state or geographic region. Some Councils own and run camps for the troops within its area of responsibility. Councils are usually subdivided again into areas, called Neighborhoods, Service Units, or Associations (terms vary), which are program delivery areas that consist of troops at all age levels in a smaller area, such as a town. The basic unit is the troop which may or may not be sponsored. In contrast to Boy Scout troop chartered organizations, Girl Scout troop sponsors do not own the troop. Troops range in size from as small as six to as large as 30 or more girls and may be divided into several patrols of 8 or fewer girls.

Realignment
In 2004, the Girl Scouts of the USA hired Professor Willie Pietersen, an instructor at Columbia Business School, to use his expertise in business metrics "to help Girl Scouts develop a strategy to ensure our future success and growth." They used his help in setting targets and implementing ways to change the organization for the better. In addition, six "Gap Teams" looked at ways for Girl Scouting to improve their structure to prepare for future growth and success for the organization.[28] This was following declines in membership and in revenue, as well as challenges in cross-subsidizing programs for inner city girls. The governance Gap Team found that consolidation decreased confusion and provided economies of scale, and recommended an optimal council size of approximately 10,000 girls.[29] As of 2006, there were 312 regional Girl Scout councils, which own the 236,000 local troops and other groups. As part of the August 26, 2006 reorganization, the National Board of Directors decided to restructure the 312 councils into 109 councils.[30] This was not without resistance, as the Girl Scout council in Manitou, Wisconsin sued the national GSUSA in Federal District Court alleging breach of the Girl Scout charter, which was summarily dismissed with prejudice by the court.[31] However the Seventh U.S. Circuit of Appeals overturned that decision stating that a Girl Scout council agreement "was no different than a Dunkin Donuts franchise" and maintained the status of the Manitou council. Thus, there are 112 Girl Scout councils in the United States.[32]

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Insignia
Promise, Law, Motto, and Slogan
Promise The Girl Scout Promise can be made in English, Spanish, or in American Sign Language with the same meaning.[33] On my honor, I will try: To serve God and my country, To help people at all times, And to live by the Girl Scout Law.[34] The Promise is often recited at Girl Scout troop meetings while holding up the three middle fingers of the right hand, which forms the Girl Scout sign. Girl Scout policy states that the word "God" may be interpreted depending on individual spiritual beliefs. When reciting the Girl Scout Promise, "God" may be substituted with the word dictated by those beliefs. The Girl Scout Motto is "Be Prepared."[35] Law I will do my best to be Honest and Fair, Friendly and Helpful, Considerate and Caring, Courageous and Strong, and Responsible for what I say and do, And to respect myself and others, respect authority, use resources wisely, make the world a better place, and be a sister to every Girl Scout.[34] Motto "Be Prepared."[36] Slogan "Do a Good Turn Daily"[36]

Girl Scout Uniforms


For girls ages 5 to 14, the unifying look includes wearing a choice of a tunic, vest, sash for displaying official pins and awards, combined with their own solid white shirts and khaki pants or skirts. Girl Scouts in high school can also wear a scarf that unites their look with the sisterhood of Girl Scouts around the world. For adult members the unifying look of the uniform is a Girl Scout official scarf or tie for men, worn with the official membership pins, combined with their own navy blue business attire. Girl Scouts at the Daisy and Brownie levels will continue to have a full uniform ensemble available.[37]

Girl Scouts of the USA Girl Scout uniforms have changed significantly over the years from the original navy blue in 1912, to khaki in 1914, to the familiar green. The evolution has included uniforms with the specificity to designate each age level of Girl Scouting. Since 2008, Girl Scouts at each level have one required element (Tunic, Sash or Vest) for the display of official pins and awards which will be required when girls participate in ceremonies or officially represent the Girl Scout Movement. For all levels, earned awards go on the front of the vest or sash following official placements. Fun patches can be displayed on the back of their vest or sash. Girl Scout Daisies can chose a blue vest or a smock with a full uniform or white shirt and khaki pants and skirt. They have their own Daisy Pin and a choice of accessories. Girl Scout Brownies can chose a traditional brown vest or sash to be worn with the historic Brownie Pin and other uniform pieces or white shirt and khaki pants or skirts. Girl Scout Juniors wear their official vest or sash to display insignia including awards, coupled with a white shirt and khaki pants or skirt. Girl Scout Cadettes, Seniors and Ambassadors can chose a khaki sash or vest to go with khaki pants or skirt and a white shirt. The adult uniform also changed, with registered women and men wearing navy blue business attire, again from their regular wardrobes. Also available for women are official sweaters and an insignia scarf, while men have the option of an official tie.[38][39]
Girl Scout in uniform, 1973

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Logos
The current Girl Scouts of the USA logo was adopted in 2010, based on the Saul Bass's 1978 logo. He was a graphic designer known for his motion picture title sequences. The hair and facial styles were updated by Jennifer Kinon and Bobby Martin of The Original Champions of Design.[40] The emblem designed by Juliette Low was the only emblem used for Girl Scout Pins through 1980. The 1978 GSUSA National Convention voted to use two logos, and allow Girl Scouts to pick which they wanted to wear as their Girl Scout Pin (for Girl Scout Juniors and up).

Activities
One of the original and continuing attractions of Girl Scouts is that girls become proficient campers and participate in many outdoor activities such as canoeing or backpacking with their troops. Troops do service projects such as carrying out flag ceremonies, collecting food for food drives, visiting nursing homes and Christmas caroling or other community services.[41] Troops may also plan and take extended trips such as visiting another part of the United States or even travel to another country. Troops may organize cultural or learning events such as first aid training or attending live theatre. The Girl Scout activity most familiar to the general public may be the annual sale of Girl Scout Cookies, which started in 1917 as a money earning opportunity for the local council and troops.

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Destinations
Once known as "Wider Opportunities" or Wider Ops, Destinations are travel opportunities for individual older Girl Scouts. Destinations are held within the United States and in other countries. Destinations are primarily international, outdoor, science, people, or apprenticeship oriented.,[42] such as kayaking in Alaska, or career oriented such as learning about working for NASA.[43] A "Destination" may be a trip to one of the WAGGGS World Centres: Our Cabaa in Cuernavaca, Mexico Our Chalet in Adelboden, Switzerland Pax Lodge in London, England Sangam World Centre in Pune, India[44]

Traditions
The Girl Scouts of the USA have many customs and traditions: camping, community service, singing, and money earning to support their activities. The Girl Scout Handshake and the Girl Scout signal for silence are two shared by WAGGGS member organizations. Other traditions include the Friendship Circle with "the squeeze", taking bandanas and home-made sit-upons on camping trips and the buddy system. "Bridging" is the process of going from one level to another. Bridging is usually done at the troop level, although area bridgings are often held. The girls that are bridging walk across a bridge to their new level and are greeted with the Girl Scout Handshake. There is a notable bridging ceremony held in San Francisco, as GS Juniors bridge to GS Cadettes over the Golden Gate Bridge. World Thinking Day and "Girl Scouts' Own" are traditions throughout the world of Girl Scouting. World Thinking Day has occurred annually since 1926 on February 22, the birthday of both Robert Baden-Powell and Olave Baden-Powell. On Thinking Day, Girl Scouts and Guides around the world think about their sisters in other lands;[45] Councils or local service units (associations) hold a celebration on or near this day, in which each participating troop gives a presentation of the culture and customs of a country selected by the troop. Many Girl Scouts in America celebrate Juliette Gordon Low's birthday on October 31, Founder's Day. The parties often include the girls dressing up in Halloween costumes, and serving birthday cake. A "Girl Scouts' Own" is a special ceremony that expresses the spirit of Girl Scouting when the girls reflect upon their feelings about Girl Scouting and the world around them. A "Scouts' Own" can have any theme, or none at all. It is a solemn time given for Girl Scouts to create a moment of their very own. It can be held at any time and include the girls' troop or be held at any inter-troop gathering.[46]

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Awards and badges


Members can earn awards appropriate for their age level. Originally called badges, the terminology has changed to Learning Petals for GS Daisies, GS Try-Its for Brownies, GS Badges for Juniors, and Charms and Interest Project awards for GS Cadettes, Seniors,and Ambassadors (older girls). These Girl Scout awards are expected to be renamed "badges" in 2012-2014. Girl Scout Daisies will still earn Learning Petals and will be able to earn "Leaves".[47] Girl Scouts at every level can also earn Journey Awards. Journeys have become a large part of the Girl Scout program. In 2011, there were three Journeys, with books and awards for each level: "It's Your World - Change It!", "It's Your Planet - Love It!", and "It's Your Story - Tell It!". The highest achievement in Girl Scouting is the Girl Scout Gold Award, which can only be earned by GS Seniors and Ambassadors. The highest award for GS Cadettes is the Silver Award and Bronze Award is the highest award for Girl Scout Juniors. These awards require large-scale service projects showing leadership along with service hours.[48] The service projects must improve a current situation, such as restoring the eroded banks of a stream.

A Girl Scout working on her Gold Award project.

Girl Scouts can also earn and display on their uniform awards from outside organizations, such as the religious emblems from religious organizations, or the President's Volunteer Service Award. Girl Scouts can also receive awards for lifesaving and leadership.

Adult recognition
There are also GS awards for adults including: Outstanding Volunteer, Outstanding Leader, Appreciation Pin, Honor Pin, Thanks Badge, and Thanks Badge II. Outstanding Volunteer is awarded for Outstanding service as Girl Scout volunteer (other than a leader). Outstanding Leader is awarded for Outstanding service as Girl Scout leader. Appreciation Pin is awarded for exceptional performance beyond expectations for the position. Service benefits one or more service units The Honor Pin recognizes an adult member who has delivered exceptional service beyond expectations to two or more geographic areas, service units or program delivery audiences in a way that furthers the council's goals.[49] Thanks Badge recognizes outstanding service for two or more "service units". Different GS councils use different terminology for regions within their council. Thanks Badge II is awarded where the recipient has received the Thanks Badge and the recipients service continues to merit further recognition. At least one nomination, two endorsements, and a review of the forms is required for each of these awards.[50]

Impact on American life


Among the many famous American Girl Scouts are Dakota Fanning, Lucille Ball, Katie Couric, and Elizabeth Dole.[51] Many Girl Scouts have become successful leaders in numerous professional fields such as law, medicine, politics, journalism, and science.[51] Beginning with Lou Henry Hoover, the incumbent First Lady has served as the Honorary President of GSUSA. Lou Henry Hoover was also the actual President of the Girl Scouts from 19221925 and Chairman of the National Board of Directors from 19251928.[52] During World War I and World War II, girls involved in Scouts helped the Allied forces by selling defense bonds, growing victory gardens, and collecting waste fat and scrap iron.[53] Girl Scouts also spread their values into their communities through community service projects such as soup kitchens and food drives.

Girl Scouts of the USA Over twenty of NASAs career astronauts were former Girl Scouts. The first American woman to spacewalk was a former Girl Scout, Dr. Kathryn Sullivan.[54]

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The American Girl


From 1917 until 1979 Girl Scouts published a magazine, originally called "The Rally" (19171920) and then "The American Girl", with the 'The' later being dropped (not to be confused with the currently published American Girl magazine).[55] At one time this magazine had the largest circulation of any magazine aimed at teen-aged girls.

Girl Scout Senior Roundups


International Girl Scout gatherings named Senior Roundups were held every three years from 1956 until 1965:[56] Milford, Michigan (1956) attended by 5,000girls Colorado Springs, Colorado, from July 3, 1959 to July 12, 1959, with 10,000girls Button Bay, Vermont from July 18, 1962 to July 31, 1962, with 9,000girls Farragut Reservation, Idaho, from July 17, 1965 to July 26, 1965, with 12,000girls

Issues
No official stand on sexuality and gender issues
Girl Scouts of the USA stated in an October 1991 letter:[57] As a private organization, Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. respects the values and beliefs of each of its members and does not intrude into personal matters. Therefore, there are no membership policies on sexual preference. However, Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. has firm standards relating to the appropriate conduct of adult volunteers and staff. The Girl Scout organization does not condone or permit sexual displays of any sort by its members during Girl Scout activities, nor does it permit the advocacy or promotion of a personal lifestyle or sexual preference. These are private matters for girls and their families to address. GSUSA upholds a "don't ask, don't evangelize" policy on sexuality.[58] The debate over this issue is split between those who feel that the policy should avoid and prevent discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, and those who question the inclusion of lesbians.[59][60] In October 2011, the Girl Scouts of Colorado council publicly stated, "If a child identifies as a girl and the child's family presents her as a girl, Girl Scouts of Colorado welcomes her as a Girl Scout," when overturning a local troop's rejection of a transgender 7-year-old child.[61] The decision sparked a boycott of Girl Scouts USA.[62]

"To Serve God" in the Promise


In early 1992, the Totem Girl Scout Council suggested changing the promise to make it possible for girls who did not believe in a monotheistic god to join. In November 1992, the parents of Nitzya Cuevas-Macias sued for their daughter to be permitted to participate even though she refused to promise to serve God.[63][64] On October 23, 1993, the Girl Scouts of the USA voted 1,560-375[65] to permit individuals to substitute another word or phrase for "God" in their promise.[35] "THAT, since the Girl Scout organization makes no attempt to interpret or define the word 'God' but encourages members to establish for themselves the nature of their spiritual beliefs, it is the policy of the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. that individuals when making the Girl Scout Promise may substitute wording appropriate to their own spiritual beliefs for the word 'God'." with the explanation that

Girl Scouts of the USA "For some individuals, the word 'God', no matter how broadly interpreted, does not appropriately reflect their spiritual beliefs. Since the belief in a spiritual principle is fundamental to Girl Scouting, not the word used to define that belief, it is important that individuals have the opportunity to express that belief in wording meaningful to them. It is essential to maintain the spiritual foundation of Girl Scouting, yet be inclusive of the full range of spiritual beliefs. This [policy change] does not take the word 'God' out of the Girl Scout Promise. It gives those individuals who wish to do so the option to state their commitment to the spiritual concepts fundamental to the Movement with a word or words more appropriate to their own beliefs. For instance, an individual may say 'my faith' or 'Allah' or 'the Creator'." Girl Scout President B. LaRae Orullian made an official statement that the change is "a very strong statement that Girl Scouts continue to be on the cutting edge, and this is a continuing effort to show that we have strength in diversity and that we are an inclusive organization."[65] Some groups consider that the Girl Scouts of the USA have not gone far enough in making Scouting open to non-theists; others that they have gone too far in removing God or that they are violating the constitution of the WAGGGS. The WAGGGS constitution requires member societies to maintain membership standards to include a promise similar to the one established by Baden-Powell, which includes the concept of duty to God.[66][67][68] The GSUSA policy adopted in 1993 led to the 1995 formation of an alternative organization, the American Heritage Girls that accepts only leaders and chartering organizations that agree with a specific Christian statement of faith.[69] The organization had a little over 5,000 members in 2006. According to the organization, membership as of 2012 is over 18,000.[70]

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Prayer at meetings
The official Girl Scout policy does not ban or require prayer.[71] The Girl Scout organization does not endorse or promote any particular philosophy or religious belief. Our movement is secular and is founded on American democratic principles, one of which is freedom of religion. Although Girl Scouts has policies supporting religious diversity, there is no policy by Girl Scouts of the USA that prohibits or requires the saying or singing of a grace, blessing, or invocation before meals by Girl Scout members in a troop/group setting, in a resident or day camp, or at meetings, conferences, and other large events. The decision to say a grace, blessing, or invocation is made locally at the troop or group level, and should be sensitive to the spiritual beliefs of all participants.

Association with Planned Parenthood


Although GSUSA is not formally aligned at the national level with the reproductive health organization Planned Parenthood, Girl Scout councils may choose to have connections to the organization.[72] In 2004, in Waco, Texas, the Bluebonnet Council endorsed a Planned Parenthood education event without providing money nor sending Scouts to it. This was criticized by some pro-life movement supporters and social conservatives, resulting in a boycott of Girl Scout cookies sold by the Bluebonnet Council. Although Waco residents responded to the announced boycott by purchasing a record amount of cookies, the Bluebonnet Council removed their endorsement.[73] A month later, GSUSA CEO Kathy Cloninger went on NBC's "Today" show, defending the Bluebonnet Council's decision to sever ties with Planned Parenthood. During the interview she said, "We partner with many organizations..." [including] "with Planned Parenthood organizations across the country, to bring information-based sex education programs to girls."[74]

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National Presidents
Juliette Gordon Low (19151920) Anne Hyde Choate (19201922) Lou Henry Hoover (19221925) (19351937) Sarah Louise Arnold (19251926?) (she had previously been first Dean of Simmons College (Massachusetts) (19011919)) Mira Hoffman (1926?1930) (Mrs. William H. Hoffman) Birdsall Otis Edey (19301935) (Mrs. Frederick Edey) (after ceasing to be President she became National Commissioner for the Girl Scouts until her death in 1940) Mrs. Frederick H. Brook (1937?-1939) Mildred Mudd (19391941) (Mrs. Harvey S. Mudd) (she later supported the founding of Harvey Mudd College named after her husband, Harvey Seeley Mudd) Mrs. Alan H. Means (19411945) Harriet Rankin Ferguson (19461951) (Mrs. Vaughan C. Ferguson) Olivia Cameron Higgins Layton (19511957) (Mrs. Roy F. Layton) (died 1975)[75] Marjorie Mehne Culmer (19581963) (Mrs. Charles U. Culmer) (later chair of WAGGGS, died in 1994) Margaret W. Price (19631969) (Mrs. Holton R. Price Jr.) (died in 1973)[76] Grace M. S. McKittrick MacNeil (19691972) (Mrs. Douglas H. MacNeil) (died in 2000)[77][78] Gloria Randle Scott (19751978)[79] Jane C. Shields Freeman (19781984) (her husband is Orville Freeman)[80] Betty Fuller Pilsbury (19841990), she received the Silver Buffalo Award in 1986. B. LaRae Orullian (19901996) Elinor Johnstone Ferdon (19961999) Connie L. Matsui (19992002) Cynthia B. Thompson (20022005) Patricia Diaz Dennis (20052008) Connie L. Lindsey (2008present)
Portrait of Juliette Gordon Low (1887)

Chief Executive Officers


The title has changed over the years.[81] National Secretaries Edith D. Johnston (June 1913-June 1914) Cora Neal (June 1914-June 1916) Montague Gammon (June 1916-August 1917) National Directors Abby Porter Leland (August 1917-February 1919) Jane Deeter Rippin (February 1919-November 1930)[82] Josephine Schain (November 1930-September 1935) Constance Rittenhouse (September 1935-December 1950)

National Executive Directors Dorothy C. Stratton (December 1950-July 1960) Sally Stickney Cortner (July 1960-May1961) (Interim)

Girl Scouts of the USA Louise A. Wood (May 1961-April 1972) Dr. Cecily Cannan Selby (April 1972-September 1975) Frank H. Kannis (September 1975-July 1976) (Interim) Frances Hesselbein (July 1976-February 1990) was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1998 in part for her work in Girl Scouts. Mary Rose Main (February 1990-October 1997) Joel E. Becker (October 1997-January 1998) (Interim) Marsha Johnson Evans (January 1998-July 2002) - retired rear admiral, left the Girl Scouts to become president of the American Red Cross Chief Executive Officers Jackie Barnes (July 2002-October 2003)(Interim) Kathy Cloninger (October 2003November 2011) Anna Maria Chvez (November 2011 present)[83]

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100th Anniversary
GSUSA celebrated the 100th anniversary of its founding by Juliette Low on March 12, 1912. The kickoff was a "Bridge to the Second Century" event on November 13, 2011, at the GS National Convention in Houston and other sites around the country. The Anniversary was also celebrated by participation in the world famous Pasadena, California Tournament of Roses Parade of 2012, featuring the Girl Scouts 100th Anniversary float, which was designed and decorated by Girl Scouts.[84] US President Barrack Obama signed the "Girl Scouts of the USA Commemorative Coin Act" for the 100th Anniversary celebration. The act authorized the minting of 350,000 silver dollar coins in honor of Girl Scouts and the achievements of the 50 million women influenced by Girl Scouting during the last 100 years.[85] Colorado is staging a vigorous campaign to create a special license plate to honor the Girl Scout Centennial. The Girl Scouts of Minnesota and Wisconsin River Valleys hosted The Great Girl Gathering Centennial Celebration on March 10 and 11, 2012, at the Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota.[86] The Girl Scout Council of the Nation's Capital in Washington, DC will host a 100th Anniversary Sing-Along on the National Mall, on June 9, 2012 called Girl Scouts Rock the Mall: 100th Anniversary Sing-Along.[87] On July 12, 2012 the Girl Scouts of the Northwestern Great Lakes will be presenting a special program at Owen Park in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Scouts from all over the Midwest are expected to be in attendance. Girl Scouts of Citrus, in partnership with Walt Disney World, will hold a special 100th anniversary bridging event on May 2528, 2012. The Bridging into the Next Century event provides Girl Scouts from all over the country an opportunity to celebrate the spirit of Girl Scouting at Epcot.[88] Cincinnati Museum Center held a day time and over night event to celebrate in partnership with the Girl Scouts of Western Ohio, who Ohio designed an exhibit, which will be on display for free until May 13, 2012. The exhibit displays old uniforms, literature and discusses the role of the Girl Scouts for the last 100 years.<http://www.cincymuseum.org/girlscouts><http://www.cincymuseum.org/programs/scouts> GSUSA have made a new cookie called Savannah Smiles to commemorate the anniversary. The Girl Scouts of Northeast Texas is hosting the Girl Scouts national exhibition at the 2012 State Fair of Texas in the historic Hall of State. The State Fair of Texas is located in Dallas, Texas and begins September 28, 2012 and will run through October 21, 2012. At the State Fair of Texas, visitors will be able to indulge on a Fried Samoa, be part of a virtual camp fire, walk through a life - sized cookie box and see a replica of Juliette Gordon Low's house.

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Similar organizations
Campfire Girls was founded in 1910, two years prior to the Girl Scouts, by some of the creators of the Boy Scouts of America.[89] In 1975, the group became co-educational and soon afterwards changed its name to "Camp Fire Boys and Girls". The name was changed to Camp Fire USA in 2001. As of 2009, the group has a membership of about 750,000.[90] Another parallel group is the American Heritage Girls (AHG), started in 1995 in West Chester, Ohio, by a group of parents upset with available female Scouting organizations.[91] AHG is a Christian organization that states that it is "a nonprofit organization dedicated to the mission of building women of integrity through service to God, family, community and country."[69] It has a membership of about 10,000. Various religions have their own youth clubs such as Missionettes (now Impact Girls) for the Assemblies of God.

References
[1] 20109 Annual Report (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ facts/ pdf/ 2010_annual_report. pdf). Girl Scouts of the USA. 2011. p. 16. . [2] "About Girl Scouts of the USA" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ ). Girl Scouts of the USA. 2008. . Retrieved February 23, 2008. [3] Cook, David C. (2005). Mothers of Influence (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=fsMhuXeEtH4C& dq). Cook Communications Ministries. ISBN978-1-56292-368-6. . Retrieved April 20, 2011. [4] http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ history/ low_biography/ [5] The Charities Americans Like Most And Least, The Chronicle of Philanthropy, December 13, 1996 And USA Today, December 20, 1994, "Charity Begins With Health", FINAL 01D [6] Aickin Rothschild, Mary (Autumn 1981). "To Scout or to Guide? The Girl Scout-Boy Scout Controversy, 1912-1941". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies (University of Nebraska Press) 6 (3): 115121. doi:10.2307/3346224. JSTOR3346224.(registration required) [7] "Who We Are: Facts" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ facts/ ). Girl Scouts of The USA. 2003. . Retrieved November 1, 2006. [8] http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ facts/ [9] "Girl Scouting in Indiana" (http:/ / www. statelib. lib. in. us/ www/ ihb/ publications/ girlscout. pdf) (PDF). The Indiana Historian. . Retrieved November 4, 2006. [10] Montgomery, Dana (2003). "History of the Girl Scout Organization" (http:/ / cheesecakeandfriends. com/ troop1440/ history. htm). Troop 1440, Wakefield, MA. . Retrieved September 8, 2006. [11] "Girl Scout Program" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ program). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved September 29, 2006. [12] "Josephine Groves Holloway" (http:/ / tennesseeencyclopedia. net/ imagegallery. php?EntryID=H059). Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture (http:/ / tennesseeencyclopedia. net). Tennessee Historical Society, Nashville, TN (Online ed.). 2002 [1998]. . Retrieved September 8, 2006. [13] "Girl Scout Commonwealth Council to celebrate and honor first African-American Troop in the South" (http:/ / www. comgirlscouts. org/ News Room/ vuu. pdf) (PDF). 2008. . Retrieved December 19, 2008. [14] (PDF) Human Rights Report: New Great Black Kentuckian poster unveiled (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060923073929/ http:/ / www. state. ky. us/ agencies2/ kchr/ pdf/ Winter newsletter 2005. pdf). Kentucky Commission on Human Rights. Winter 2005. pp.3. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. state. ky. us/ agencies2/ kchr/ pdf/ Winter newsletter 2005. pdf) on September 23, 2006. . Retrieved September 8, 2006. [15] Montgomery, Dana (2006). "Getting to Know Juliette Gordon Low" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ for_adults/ leader_magazine/ 2006_spring/ getting_to_know_jgl. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved September 8, 2006. [16] "Gloria Dean Randle Scott" (http:/ / www. topblacks. com/ education/ gloria-randle-scott. htm). TopBlacks. 2001. . Retrieved September 8, 2006. [17] Highlights in Girl Scout 1912-1996. Girl Scouts of the USA. 1996. GSP154.2001 [18] "Timeline of GSUSA - 1930's" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ history/ timeline/ 1930s. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved November 2, 2006. [19] "Timeline of GSUSA 1970s" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ history/ timeline/ 1970s. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved November 2, 2004. [20] "Timeline of GSUSA - 1980s" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ history/ timeline/ 1980s. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved November 2, 2006. [21] "Timeline of GSUSA Today" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ history/ timeline/ today. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved November 2, 2006. [22] http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ program/ gs_central/ studio2b/ studio2b_quickreference. pdf [23] "Campus Girl Scouts" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060819145031/ http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ join/ campus). Girl Scouts of the USA. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ join/ campus) on August 19, 2006. . Retrieved September 25, 2006.

Girl Scouts of the USA


[24] "Vintage Girl Scout Online Museum" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071031234227/ http:/ / www. vintagegirlscout. com/ unimariner. htm). Mariner Girl Scouts. Vintage Girl Scouts. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. vintagegirlscout. com/ unimariner. htm) on October 31, 2007. . Retrieved October 28, 2007. [25] "History of Girl Scouts" (http:/ / cheesecakeandfriends. com/ troop1440/ history. htm). Troop 1440. . Retrieved October 28, 2007. [26] Goddard, Jennifer (2003). "Where Girls Go, Girl Scouting Follows" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ for_adults/ leader_magazine/ 2003_spring/ where_girls_go. asp). Girl Scouts Cross Timbers Council. . Retrieved September 25, 2006. [27] http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ [28] "Girl Scouts Core Business Strategy: Facts" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ strategy/ facts. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved July 21, 2010. [29] http:/ / www. lb7. uscourts. gov/ documents/ WIED/ 08-cv-00184op. pdf [30] "Girl Scouting Undergoes Historic Transformation to Focus on Leadership Development for 21st century Girls" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ news/ news_releases/ 2006/ historic_transformation. asp) (Press release). Girl Scouts of the USA. September 18, 2006. . Retrieved September 26, 2006. [31] http:/ / www. lb7. uscourts. gov/ documents/ WIED/ 08-cv-00184op. pdf [32] http:/ / www. jsonline. com/ news/ wisconsin/ 122907563. html [33] "The Many Languages of the Girl Scout Promise and Law" (http:/ / www. girlscoutsmilehi. org/ content/ documents/ GSPromiseLawLanguages. pdf) (PDF). Girl Scouts Mile Hi Council. . Retrieved November 6, 2006. [34] "Girl Scout Promise and Law" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ program/ gs_central/ promise_law/ ). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved February 4, 2009. [35] Nelson, Bill. "What is the position of the GSUSA as related to God and religion?" (http:/ / www. faqs. org/ faqs/ scouting/ rec. scouting. issues/ section-25. html). [rec.scouting.issues] Commonly asked questions. . Retrieved September 25, 2006. [36] "Girl Scout Glossary" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ program/ gs_central/ glossary/ ). GSUSA. . Retrieved February 4, 2009. [37] http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ program/ gs_central/ insignia/ where_to_place/ as of February 26, 2011 [38] http:/ / www. girlscoutshop. com/ gsusaonline/ LandingPage. aspx?subCatId=Uniform-Women& menuItemId=Uniform. 5 [39] http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ program/ gs_central/ insignia/ where_to_place/ [40] Walker, Alissa (July 6, 2010). "A Fresh Identity for the Girl Scouts of America" (http:/ / www. fastcodesign. com/ 1661850/ a-fresh-identity-for-the-girl-scouts-of-america). Co Design. Fast Company. . Retrieved July 6, 2010. [41] "What is Girl Scouting?" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050908113945/ http:/ / talusrockpa. org/ Girls/ girlscouting. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA, Talus Rock Council. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. talusrockpa. org/ Girls/ girlscouting. asp) on September 8, 2005. . Retrieved November 1, 2006. [42] "GSUSA Global Toolkit "Your Passport to Travel"" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ forgirls/ travel/ / global_travel_toolkit/ pdf/ destinations_brochure_lores. pdf). GSUSA. . Retrieved February 26, 2011. [43] "Destinations 411" (http:/ / www. studio2b. org/ escape/ destinations/ destinations_411. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved November 1, 2006. [44] http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ global/ wagggs/ world_centers. asp [45] "World Thinking Day" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ global/ world_thinking_day/ world_thinking_day_2005. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. 2005. . Retrieved September 25, 2006. [46] http:/ / www. scoutingweb. com/ scoutingweb/ SubPages/ CeremoniesCelebrationsGS. htm [47] Girls' Gide to Girl Scouting, handbook replacement out in August 2011 [48] "List of Insignia" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ program/ gs_central/ insignia/ list/ 11_17. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved November 1, 2006. [49] "Honor Pin Criteria" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060811170049/ http:/ / www. tongassgirlscouts. org/ Forms/ Honor+ Pin+ Award+ Nomination+ Form. pdf) (PDF). Girl Scouts of the USA, Tongass Alaska Girl Scout Council. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. tongassgirlscouts. org/ Forms/ Honor Pin Award Nomination Form. pdf) on August 11, 2006. . Retrieved November 2, 2006. [50] "GSUSA Awards" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20101223000047/ http:/ / gsnnj. org/ adult_recognition2011. html). Girl Scouts of the USA, Girl Scouts of Northern New Jersey. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. gsnnj. org/ adult_recognition2011. html) on December 23, 2010. . Retrieved February 2, 2011. [51] "Famous Girl Scouts" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060207165421/ http:/ / www. girlscoutsctc. com/ famousgs. html). Girl Scouts of the USA. 2003. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. girlscoutsctc. com/ famousgs. html) on February 7, 2006. . Retrieved November 5, 2006. [52] Clements, Kendrick (2004). "The New Era and the New Woman: Lou Henry Hoover and 'Feminisms' Awkward Age'" (http:/ / caliber. ucpress. net/ doi/ pdf/ 10. 1525/ phr. 2004. 73. 3. 425). Pacific Historical Review (University of California Press) 73 (3): 425462. doi:10.1525/phr.2004.73.3.425. . Retrieved November 25, 2006. [53] Montgomery, Dana J.. "History of Girl Scouts" (http:/ / cheesecakeandfriends. com/ troop1440/ history. htm). . Retrieved November 7, 2006. [54] http:/ / spaceflightsystems. grc. nasa. gov/ girlscouts/ gsusa_astro. html as of February 26, 2011 [55] "Girl Scouting in Indiana Timeline" (http:/ / www. in. gov/ history/ 2538. htm). Indiana Historical Bureau. . Retrieved June 22, 2009. [56] Larson, Keith (2000). "Girl Scout Senior Roundups" (http:/ / www. sossi. org/ girls/ roundup. htm). Scouts on Stamps Society International. . Retrieved September 8, 2006.

85

Girl Scouts of the USA


[57] "GSUSA Statement" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ gsusa. html#statement). BSA Discrimination.org. October 1991. . Retrieved September 25, 2006. [58] "Girl Scouts and Discrimination" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ gsusa. html#statement). BSA-Discrimination. . Retrieved November 4, 2006. [59] "People for the American Way: Family Research Council" (http:/ / www. pfaw. org/ pfaw/ general/ default. aspx?oid=4211). . Retrieved November 4, 2006. [60] Dexter, Penna (April 26, 2007). "First-person: Not Your Mom's Girl Scouts" (http:/ / www. bpnews. net/ BPnews. asp?ID=25503). Baptist Press. . Retrieved April 30, 2007. [61] "Transgender boy allowed to join Girl Scouts" (http:/ / www. dailytelegraph. com. au/ news/ breaking-news/ transgender-boy-allowed-to-join-girl-scouts/ story-e6freuyi-1226180155319). the telegraph. October 29, 2011. . Retrieved October 29, 2011. [62] "Technology Geek scouts earn their merit badges" (http:/ / articles. cnn. com/ 2012-01-13/ living/ living_girl-scout-boycott_1_gsusa-cookie-boycott-troop-leader?_s=PM:LIVING). CNN. April 3, 2000. . [63] Brennan, Pat (November 19, 1992). "OC lawyer moves battle over oath to Girl Scouts Man who won suit for sons now backing Daisy hopeful" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ gsusa-problems. html). BSA Discrimination.org. . Retrieved October 20, 2006. [64] Brennan, Pat (December 20, 1992). "Girl Scout troop ordered to readmit atheist" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ gsusa-problems. html#921222). BSA Discrimination.org. . Retrieved March 20, 2007. [65] "Boy Scouts Of America Practices Discrimination" (http:/ / ffrf. org/ timely/ bsa. php). Freedom From Religion Foundation. . Retrieved September 30, 2007. [66] "WAGGGS constitution" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ grab/ 5/ 1/ constitution-English. pdf) (PDF). WAGGGS. . Retrieved September 25, 2006. [67] "Exploring Spirituality in Girl Guides and Girl Scouts: Module 1" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ grab/ 16/ 2/ 1module1-ExploringSpiritualityinGirlGuiding-GirlScouting. pdf) (PDF). WAGGGS. . Retrieved September 25, 2006. [68] "Exploring Spirituality: Resource Materials for Girl Guides and Girl Scouts" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ grab/ 16/ 1/ 1ExpSpirIntroduction. pdf) (PDF). WAGGGS. 2000. . Retrieved September 25, 2006. [69] "Why AHG?" (http:/ / www. ahgonline. org/ pages/ page. asp?page_id=20600). American Heritage Girls. . Retrieved October 27, 2007. [70] "AHG Fact Sheet" (http:/ / www. ahgonline. org/ uploads/ AHGFactSheet_web. pdf). American Heritage Girls. 2012. . Retrieved March 5, 2012. [71] "What We Stand For" (http:/ / www. gsiec. org/ pdf/ whatwestandfor. pdf) (PDF). Girl Scouts of the USA. December 30, 2003. . Retrieved September 25, 2006. [72] Kleder, Martha (March 30, 2004). "Girl Scouts Stumble Boosts Christian-Based American Heritage Girls" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061103005050/ http:/ / www. cwfa. org/ articles/ 5431/ CWA/ misc/ index. htm). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cwfa. org/ articles/ 5431/ CWA/ misc/ index. htm) on November 3, 2006. . Retrieved November 4, 2006. [73] "Cookie crumbles: Girl Scout sex furor splits Texas town" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ nation/ 2004-03-03-cookie-boycott_x. htm). USA Today. March 3, 2004. . Retrieved September 25, 2006. [74] "Girl Scouts: "We Partner With Planned Parenthood Organizations"" (http:/ / www. lifenews. com/ nat369. html). Lifenews.com. March 9, 2004. . Retrieved April 11, 2010. [75] anonymous (October 11, 1975). "Mrs. Roy Layton, Girl Scouts Chief :National President 1951-57 Is Dead at Age of 77". The New York Times: p.34. [76] Special to The New York Times (March 22, 1973). "Mrs. Margaret Price, 62, Dies; Ex-National Head of Girl Scouts :Received Service Awards.". The New York Times: p.46. [77] Special to the New York Times (October 26, 1969). "GIRL SCOUTS SEEK UPDATE GOALS :Give Members Policy Role and Widen Recruiting". The New York Times: pp.44. [78] Obituary (July 12, 2000). "Grace MacNeil, 92, Leader of Girl Scouts". The New York Times: pp.B9. [79] Oliver, Lady (March 2007). "Hometown Hero Dr. Gloria Randall Scott, First African-American National President of Girl Scouts USA, Visits Girl Scouts of San Jacinto Council" (http:/ / www. gssjc. org/ news/ 2007/ 3-pres. cfm). Girl Scouts of San Jacinto Council. . Retrieved March 21, 2007. [80] "Orville and Jane Freeman" (http:/ / www. hhh. umn. edu/ centers/ freeman/ about_orville_jane. html). University of Minnesota. . Retrieved October 8, 2010. [81] "Meet Kathy Cloninger: Chief Executive Officer" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ for_adults/ leader_magazine/ 2003_winter/ kathy_cloninger. asp). . Retrieved December 21, 2008. [82] "Mrs. Rippin is dead; Girl Scout Leader". New York Times: p.31. June 3, 1953. [83] Michelle Healey (August 24, 2011). "Hispanic attorney named new Girl Scouts CEO" (http:/ / yourlife. usatoday. com/ mind-soul/ doing-good/ story/ 2011-08-24/ Hispanic-attorney-named-new-Girl-Scout-CEO/ 50127058/ 1). USA Today. . Retrieved November 27, 2011. [84] http:/ / www. girlscoutsla. org/ pages/ events/ TOR_parade. html [85] http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ news/ news_releases/ 2009/ obama_signs_girl_scout_commemorative_coin_act. asp [86] http:/ / www. gsrv100. org/ GSRV100. org [87] http:/ / www. gscnc. org/ singalong. html [88] http:/ / www. citrus-gs. org

86

Girl Scouts of the USA


[89] Beard, Alice Marie. "Historical Origins of Camp Fire" (http:/ / www. alicemariebeard. com/ campfire/ history. htm). . Retrieved January 29, 2009. [90] "All About Us" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080607140013/ http:/ / www. campfire. org/ all_about_us/ history. asp). Camp Fire USA. 2005. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. campfire. org/ all_about_us/ history. asp) on June 7, 2008. . Retrieved January 29, 2009. [91] Brown, Angela K. "Some unhappy with Girl Scouts form new group" (http:/ / www. ppinw. org/ pages. php?p=news& id=6). Planned Parenthood of the Inland Northwest. . Retrieved November 1, 2006.

87

Further reading
Degenhardt; Kirsch, Judith (2005). Girl Scout Collector's Guide: A History of Uniforms, Insignia, Publications, and Memorabilia (Second ed.). Texas Tech. ISBN978-0-89672-546-1. Block, Nelson R.; Proctor, Tammy M. (2009). Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement's First Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN1-4438-0450-9. Corey, Shana (2012). Here Come the Girl Scouts! The Amazing, All-True Story of Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low and Her Great Adventure. New York: Scholastic. ISBN978-0-545-34278-0.

External links
Girl Scouts of the USA website (http://www.girlscouts.org/) Girl Scout Uniform, ca. 1917, in the Staten Island Historical Society Online Collections Database (http:// statenisland.pastperfect-online.com/00039cgi/mweb. exe?request=record;id=E274B4EE-581B-4373-A081-160648306045;type=101)

Girlguiding Bermuda

88

Girlguiding Bermuda
Girlguiding Bermuda
Headquarters Lady Asser Guide Hut Location Country Founded Membership Chief Guide 19A Richmond Road Pembroke HM 08
Bermuda

1913 392
[1]

Liz Burnley

Girlguiding Bermuda (formerly Bermuda Girl Guide Association) is a Guiding organisation in Bermuda. It is one of the nine branch associations of Girlguiding UK. It is represented by Girlguiding UK at World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) level and Girlguiding UK's Chief Guide is also Chief Guide for Girlguiding Bermuda. Girlguiding Bermuda is part of the Caribbean Link for Guiding.[2]

History
In 1913, Mary Swan, a US Girl Scout visiting her grandparents, introduced Girl Scouting to Bermuda and formed a Girl Scout troop with fifty members. When she left Bermuda, the troop was closed. Shortly after this, a local headmistress started Girl Guiding and the first Guide unit was registered in January 1919. Brownies followed in 1921.[3] In 1927, the Bermudians obtained a local headquarters called the "Lady Asser Guide Hut", which was sponsored by Lady Asser, the wife of the Governor of Bermuda. Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting and Guiding, and Olave Baden-Powell, the World Chief Guide, visited Bermuda in 1930.[4] Olave visited Bermuda again in 1951 and 1954.[5] In 1969, Bermuda issued a set of four postage stamps celebrating Girl Guiding in Bermuda. The 25c stamp shows young people kayaking and the 30c stamp depicts a young person abseiling.[6] In 1993, the instrumental role of Girlguiding Bermuda and the Bermuda Scout Association in developing many of the islands prominent leaders was recognized by the Bank of Bermuda Centennial Trust.[7]

Programme
The programme is a modified form of Guiding in the United Kingdom, adapted to suit local conditions. The promise is the same. Rainbow, Brownie and Guide groups exist on the islands and Young Leaders are also active. In 2005, there were no registered Rangers. The Guide emblem features the Coccoloba uvifera or sea grape.

References
[1] "Annual Review 2005" (http:/ / www. girlguiding. org. uk/ uploads/ FEC2BDBAD3814BCDB998A8034C6E0B844/ annualreview05. pdf). The Guide Association. . Retrieved 2006-10-30. [2] "Face to face with globalisation" (http:/ / western. wagggsworld. org/ en/ news/ 389). WAGGGS. 2006-06-15. . Retrieved 2006-10-30. [3] "Bermuda information sheet" (http:/ / www. girlguiding. org. uk/ uploads/ FB47298738F64029BCB952831B7E1FDD9/ BermudaInformationSheet. doc). Girlguiding UK. . Retrieved 2008-11-13. [4] "A Scouting Timeline" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ history/ timeline. htm). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2006-10-30.

Girlguiding Bermuda
[5] "Olave Baden-Powell travelling" (http:/ / www. olavebadenpowell. org/ travel/ travel1. htm). . Retrieved 2006-10-30. [6] "Girl Scout and Guide Memorabilia Stamps of Bermuda" (http:/ / scouts. elysiumgates. com/ bermuda. html). . Retrieved 2006-10-30. [7] "Scouts and guides receive $100,000 gift" (http:/ / www. royalgazette. com/ rg/ Article/ article. jsp?sectionId=80& articleId=7c9880f30030015). The Royal Gazette. 16 August 1993. . Retrieved 2009-11-17.

89

Interamerican Scout Region (World Organization of the Scout Movement)


InterAmerican Scout Region
Owner World Organization of the Scout Movement Headquarters Ciudad del Saber, Panama Website
[1]

The Interamerican Region is the divisional office of the World Scout Bureau of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, headquartered in Santiago, Chile. The InterAmerican Region services Scouting in the Western Hemisphere, both North and South America. Until the 1960s, the Region serviced only Mexico, Central and South America, with Canada and the United States serviced through the then-named "Boy Scouts International Bureau" in Ottawa, Canada. Even today, the Interamerican Region exists more for the benefit of countries south of the Rio Grande, as evidenced by the website being only in Spanish until 2011; consequently, the United States and Canada do not participate as vigorously in regional activities as do other national organizations around the world.

Member countries of the InterAmerican Scout Region, note several Pacific island chains are linked to the IASR through mainland political ties

The headquarters of the InterAmerican Region has moved progressively southward since its inception, starting in Havana, Cuba, from 1946 to 1960; moving briefly to Kingston, Jamaica, in 1960; immediately relocating to Mexico City, Mexico, between 1960 and 1968; then to San Jos, Costa Rica, between 1968 and 1992; Santiago, Chile, from 1992 to 2010, most recently relocating to Ciudad del Saber, Panama. The Scouts of the nations in the Caribbean basin host their own subregional jamborees. The InterAmerican Region contains one of the five countries with no Scouting organization, Cuba, due to political constraints within the country. This region is the counterpart of the Western Hemisphere Region of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS).

Interamerican Scout Region (World Organization of the Scout Movement)

90

Regional Scouts administered directly by WOSM


The needs of Scout youth in the Region in unusual situations has created some interesting permutations, answerable directly to the World Scout Bureau. For years there was an active Boy Scouts of the United Nations with several troops at Parkway Village in New York City, with but 14 members in 1959. Also directly registered to the World Bureau were the 900 member International Boy Scouts of the Canal Zone.[2]

Pan-American Region Scout Jamborees


The Region has run or sponsored region-wide jamborees in its member countries. Past Jamborees include: 1st Pan-American Jamboree-Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1965 2nd Pan-American Jamboree-Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1966 3rd Pan-American Jamboree-Bogota, Colombia 1974 4th Pan-American Jamboree-Porto Alegre, Brazil 1981 5th Pan-American Jamboree-Kingston, Jamaica 1985 6th Pan-American Jamboree-Villarrica, Chile 1989 7th Pan-American Jamboree-La Calera, Colombia 1990 8th Pan-American Jamboree-Brazil 1992 9th Pan-American Jamboree-Cochabamba, Bolivia 1994 10th Pan-American Jamboree-Muxbal, Guatemala 1996 11th Pan-American Jamboree-Iguau Falls, Brazil 2001 12th Pan-American Jamboree-San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina 2005 13th Pan-American Jamboree-Mexico July 2010 (delayed due to concerns over the 2009 flu pandemic) 14th Interamerican Jamboree-Colombia January 4-12, 2013 (held concurrently with the 1st Interamerican Scout Camporee)

Interamerican Scout Conferences


1946 Columbia (1st) 1948 Mexico 1953 Cuba 1957 Brazil 1961 Venezuela 1964 Jamaica 1968 El Salvador 1972 Peru 1974 USA (Miami, Florida) 1976 Mexico 1978 Guatemala 1980 Chile 1982 Bahamas 1984 Brazil 1986 Trinidad and Tobago 1988 Argentina 1990 Uruguay 1992 Costa Rica

1995 Colombia 1998 Mexico 2001 Bolivia

Interamerican Scout Region (World Organization of the Scout Movement) 2003 El Salvador 2007 Ecuador 2010 Panama 2013 Argentina (25th)

91

Pan-American Moot
1st Pan-American Moot-Cochabamba, Bolivia 27 December, 2008 to 4 January, 2009

Youth of the Americas Award


The Youth of the Americas Award is the only award conferred by the Interamerican Scout Committee. The award is given to persons who have made an impact at the international level.[3]

External links and references


Facts on World Scouting, Boy Scouts International Bureau, Ottawa, Canada, 1961 Patches and memorabilia of the Caribbean Scout Jamborees [4]

References
[1] http:/ / scout. org/ en/ around_the_world/ region_interamericana [2] Wilson, John S. (1959). "The International Bureau Goes on the Road". Scouting Round the World (first edition ed.). London: Blandford Press. p.134. ""At Balboa we met up with Gunnar Berg and Ray Wyland of the B.S.A., also on their way to Bogota, and had a conference about the question of coloured Scouts in the Canal Zone, who claim British and not Panamanian nationality. It was agreed that they should be taken under the wing of the Canal Zone Council of the Boy Scouts of America, but ten years later they were transferred directly under the International Bureau as the International Boy Scouts of the Canal Zone."" [3] Convocation of nominations for the Youth of the Americas Award (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 19918/ 184118/ file/ Circular06_en. pdf). World Scout Bureau, Interamerican Region. . [4] http:/ / www. angelfire. com/ fl/ thetrader/ csj/

International Catholic Conference of Scouting

92

International Catholic Conference of Scouting


International Catholic Conference of Scouting
Headquarters Country Founded Membership ICCS Chairman ICCS Chairman ICCS World Chaplain Rome, Italy
[1]

International 1948
[1] [2]

60 members organisations Bray Barnes (USA)

Roberto Cociancich (Italy) Leo LeBlanc(USA)


[3]

Website [4] cics.org

The International Catholic Conference of Scouting (ICCS) is an autonomous, international body committed to promoting and supporting Catholic Scout associations and to be a link between the Scout movement and the Catholic Church. Its headquarters is located in Rome, Italy. It enjoys consultative status with the World Scout Committee[5] and forms the World Scout Inter-religious Forum (WSIF)[6] together with the Council of Protestants in Guiding and Scouting, International Link of Orthodox Christian Scouts, International Union of Muslim Scouts, International Forum of Jewish Scouts, Won-Buddhism Scout and World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood. There is a close cooperation with the International Catholic Conference of Guiding (ICCG).[7] It represents about 8 million Scouts[2].

History
At the 1st World Scout Jamboree in London Father Jacques Sevin SJ of France, Jean Corbisier of Belgium and Count Mario di Carpegna of Italy decided to create an international umbrella for Catholic Boy Scouts. Pope Benedict XV supported this idea and in 1922 Catholic Boy Scouts from Argentinia, Austria, Belgium, Chile, Ecuador, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Spain and Hungary created this umbrella organisation. Its rules were approved by the Pope in the same year. World War II made an end to this organisation. 1946 and 1947 the contacts between the Catholic Scout associations were reestablished and since 1948 conferences took place every year[1] i.e. in 1958 in Vienna.[8] In June 1962 the Holy See approved the statutes and the Charter of Catholic Scouts, and the umbrella of Catholic Boy Scouting took the name International Catholic Conference of Scouting. In 1977 the new charter was approved by the Holy See.[1] At the 2011 World Assembly, the structure of ICCS was modified. Instead of a Secretary General, two Chairmen (with equal powers) were elected.[2]

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Members
Africa Region
Full members Benin: Scoutisme Bninois Burundi: Association des Scouts du Burundi Chad: Les Scouts du Tchad, component association of the Fdration du Scoutisme Tchadien Cte d'Ivoire: Association des Scouts catholiques de Cte d'Ivoire, component association of the Fdration Ivoirienne du Scoutisme Cameroon: Les Scouts du Cameroun Gabon: Association des Scouts et Guides Catholiques du Gabon, component association of the Fdration Gabonaise du Scoutisme Madagascar: Antilin'i Madagasikara, component association of the Firaisan'ny Skotisma eto Madagasikara Rwanda: Association des Scouts du Rwanda Senegal: Association des Scouts et Guides du Sngal, component association of the Confdration Sngalaise du Scoutisme Tanzania: Tanzania Scouts Association, Tanzanian Catholic Conference of Scouting[9]

Togo: Association Scoute du Togo Uganda: The Uganda Scouts Association Observers: Angola: Associao de Escuteiros de Angola Cape Verde: Associao dos Escuteiros de Cabo Verde Ethiopia: Ethiopia Scout Association Democratic Republic of the Congo: Fdration des Scouts de la Rpublique dmocratique du Congo Guinea: Association Nationale des Scouts de Guine, Association Nationale Catholique des Scouts de Guine Kenya: The Kenya Scouts Association Mali: Scouts et Guides Catholiques du Mali Niger: Association des Scouts du Niger Nigeria: Boy Scouts of Nigeria Zimbabwe: The Boy Scouts Association of Zimbabwe

America Region
Full members: Argentina: Scouts de Argentina, Comisin Pastoral Scout Catlica Bolivia: Asociacin de Scouts de Bolivia Brazil: Unio dos Escoteiros do Brasil Canada: Association des Scouts du Canada (affiliated to Scouts Canada)[10] Chile: Asociacin de Guas y Scouts de Chile, Comisin Pastoral Colombia: Asociacin Scouts de Colombia, Comisin Nacional Pastoral Scout Catlica Costa Rica: Asociacin de Guas y Scouts de Costa Rica Ecuador: Asociacin de Scouts del Ecuador Hati: Scouts d'Hati Netherlands Antilles: Scouting Antiano[9]

Paraguay: Asociacin de Scouts del Paraguay Peru: Asociacin de Scouts del Per St. Lucia: The Saint Lucia Scout Association

International Catholic Conference of Scouting Uruguay: Movimiento Scout del Uruguay, Comisin Pastoral United States: Boy Scouts of America, National Catholic Committee on Scouting Observers: El Salvador: Asociacin de Scouts de El Salvador Candidates: Mexico: Asociacin de Scouts de Mxico

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Asia-Pacific Region
Full members: Hong Kong: The Scout Association of Hong Kong, Catholic Scout Guild Japan: Scout Association of Japan, Japan Catholic Conference of Scouting South Korea: Korea Scout Association, Catholic Scouts of Korea New Zealand: Scouting New Zealand Philippines: Boy Scouts of the Philippines, National Catholic Committee on Scouting Singapore: The Singapore Scout Association, Catholic Scouts of Singapore Thailand: National Scout Organization of Thailand, Ratanakosin Scout Association

Observers: Australia: Scouts Australia Macau: Associao de Escoteiros de Macau

European-Mediterranean region[11]
Full members: Austria: Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen sterreichs Belgium: Scouts en Gidsen Vlaanderen, component association of the Guides and Scouts Movement of Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina: Savez izviaa Bosne i Hercegovine Bulgaria: Organizatsia na Bulgarskite Skauty Czech Republic: Junk France: Scouts et Guides de France, component association of the Scoutisme Franais Germany: Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg, component association of the Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbnde Hungary: Magyar Cserkszszvetsg, Catholic Committee of the Hungarian Scout Association Ireland: Scouting Ireland, Forum for Catholics in Scouting Ireland Israel: Catholic Scout Association in Israel, component association of the Israel Boy and Girl Scouts Federation Italy: Associazione Guide e Scouts Cattolici Italiani, component association of the Federazione Italiana dello Scautismo Jordan: Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, Catholic Scouts and Guides Jordan Lebanon: Les Scouts du Liban, component association of the Lebanese Scouting Federation Liechtenstein: Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins Lithuania: Lietuvos Skautija Luxembourg: Ltzebuerger Guiden a Scouten, component association of the Luxembourg Boy Scouts Association Malta: The Scout Association of Malta Palestine: Palestinian Scout Association, Palestinian Catholic Scouts of Saint John the Baptist Poland: Zwizek Harcerstwa Polskiego

Portugal: Corpo Nacional de Escutas, component association of the Federao Escutista de Portugal Romania: Organizaia Naional Cercetaii Romniei, Asociaia Scout Catolic din Romnia

International Catholic Conference of Scouting Slovakia: Slovensk skauting, Slovensky Scouting Catholic Committee[9] Spain: Movimiento Scout Catlico, component association of the Federacin de Escultismo en Espaa Minyons Escoltes i Guies de Catalunya, component association of the Federaci Catalana d'Escoltisme i Guiatge Switzerland: Gruppo delle Sezioni Scout Cattoliche di Scoutismo Ticino, component association of the Swiss Guide and Scout Movement Verband katholischer Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder, component association of the Swiss Guide and Scout Movement United Kingdom: The Scout Association, National Catholic Scout Fellowship Observers: Denmark: Det Danske Spejderkorps, Hertug Knuds Division Egypt: Egyptian Federation for Scouts and Girl Guides, Egyptian Catholic Scout Committee France: Surs de la Sainte-Croix de Jrusalem Netherlands: Scouting Nederland Norway: Norwegian Guide and Scout Association, Oslo Don Bosco's Speider

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Slovenia: Zdruenje slovenskih katolikih skavtinj in skavtov Syria: Scouts of Syria Sweden: Svenska Scoutrdet Candidates: Cyprus: Cyprus Scouts Association Italy: Sdtiroler Pfadfinderschaft

Activities
World Scout Conference and Regional Scout Conferences
ICCS was represented at the 38th World Scout Conference in Korea.[12] ICCS was also represented at the 14th Africa Scout Conference in Accra in November 2009.[13]

World Scout Jamborees and World Scout Moot


ICCS is active at World Scout Jamborees. At the 20th World Scout Jamboree i.e. there was a special award issued by ICCS and an order of mass[14] and a song book[15] was published. The ICCS was also involved in the 21st World Scout Jamboree with its own center the Hyland Abbey.[16] ICCS will also be present in 2011 at the World Jamboree in Sweden.[17] ICCS is also an active participant of the World Scout Moot i.e. in 2000 in Mexico.[18]

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World Scout Interreligious Symposium


ICCS was an active participant of all World Scout Interreligious Symposium: 1st World Scout Interreligious Symposium - Valencia, Spain, 2003[19] 2nd World Scout Interreligious Symposium, Taiwan, 2006[20] 3rd World Scout Inter-religious Symposium in Uganda, 2009[21][22]

International Scout Week


Between August 16 and 23, 2009 a Scout Week took place in Taiz for the first time.[23] 56 Scouts und Scoutleaders from Egypt, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Czech Republic and Hungary took part in this international week.[24] This event is scheduled for every summer.[25] In 2010 it will take place between August 22 and 29.[26]

World Youth Day


ICCS not only takes part in the activities of World Scouting, but also supports events of the Catholic Church. So ICCS is present at the World Youth Days. So there was a vigil organised by ICCS, ICCG and AGESCI at the World Youth Day in Rome with thousands of Scouts from all over the world.[27] ICCS will be present at the 15th World Youth Day in August 2010 in Madrid.[28]

Trainings and other events


ICCS hold regularly courses and camps for Scouts, Scoutleaders and chaplains and regional and world level.i.e. in December 2009 and January 2010 the Living Stones Camp,[29] ICCS World Seminar 2008 in Korea,[30] Pastoral Seminar for Central Europe,[31] ICCS Scout Jamboree in Thailand[32] ...

International Awareness Recognition


This is an opportunity offered by the ICCS to all youth and adult members of the Boy Scouts of America.[33]

Brotherhood of Saint George


The honor society of the International Catholic Conference of Scouting ist the Brotherhood of Saint George. Catholic Scoutleaders and Chaplains are honoured by getting the membership.[34][35]

Publications
Cahiers, published two times per year in French, English and Spanish Circular Letter Info, published in French, English and Spanish, two monthly Signes, published quarterly in French, English and Spanish[1][36]

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References
[1] (in German) Die geistlichen Gemeinschaften der katholischen Kirche-Kompendium. Rome, Leipzig: Libreria Vaticana, St. Benno-Verlag GmbH. 2004. pp.137139. [2] AGESCI (December 2011) "Elezione Roberto Cociancich [Roberto Cociancich election]" (http:/ / www. agesci. org/ news. php?readmore=290) (in Italian) agesci.org Italy: Agesci . Retrieved 12 December 2011 [3] "New ICCS World Chaplain" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ html/ download/ circular_letter/ Circulair_Letter__Apr09_ENG. pdf). Circular Letter (ICCS): 3. April 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [4] http:/ / www. cics. org/ [5] "International Catholic Conference of Scouting" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ about_scouting/ partners/ interreligious/ iccs). WOSM. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [6] "World Scout Inter-religious Forum (WSIF)" (http:/ / wsis2009. org/ scouting_wsif. php). . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [7] "Cooperation with the International Catholic Conference of Guiding" (http:/ / www. iccs-em. org/ sites/ default/ files/ 4/ attachments/ Euro_Med_News_-_Spring_2009. pdf). Euro-Med News (ICCS European-Mediterranean region): 4. Spring 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [8] Pribich, Kurt (2004) (in German). Logbuch der Pfadfinderverbnde in sterreich. Vienna: Pfadfinder-Gilde-sterreichs. p.187. [9] "Welcome to New Members" (http:/ / www. iccs-em. org/ sites/ default/ files/ 4/ attachments/ Euro_Med_News_-_Spring_2009. pdf). Euro-Med News (ICCS European-Mediterranean region): 3. Spring 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [10] "3.Meeting with the "Scouts of Canada"" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ en/ download/ info_jun. pdf). INFO (ICCS): 1. June 2001. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [11] "Map of the region" (http:/ / www. iccs-em. org/ en/ map-of-the-region?type=member_organisations& country=All). ICCS European-Mediterranean region. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [12] "38th World Scout Conference Summary" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ information_events/ news/ 2008/ 38th_world_scout_conference_summary). WOSM. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [13] "14th Africa Regional Conference ends: another milestone for the region" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ around_the_world/ africa/ information_events/ news/ 14th_africa_regional_conference_ends_another_milestone_for_the_region). WOSM. . Retrieved 2010-01-09. [14] (in Latin, French, Portuguese, English, Italian, Spanish, German and Polish) Order OF MASS-20th World Scout Jamboree, 2003 Thailand. 2002. [15] New Year's Mass At the world Scout Jamboree 1st January 2003. ICCS. 2003. [16] "Report on ICCS involvement at the World Jamboree 2007" (http:/ / www. iccs-em. org/ sites/ default/ files/ 4/ attachments/ Report_on_ICCS_involvement_at_the_World_Jamboree_2007. pdf). ICCS European-Mediterranean region. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [17] "Simply Scouting-World Jamboree 2011" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ html/ download/ circular_letter/ Circulair_Letter__Apr09_ENG. pdf). Circular Letter (ICCS): 2. April 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [18] "3.11th World Scout Moot, Mexico" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ en/ download/ info_sept. pdf). INFO (ICCS): 1. September/October 2000. . Retrieved 2010-01-09. [19] "1st World Scout Interreligious Symposium - Valencia, Spain" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ information_events/ events/ wsis/ 1st_wsis). WOSM. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [20] "2nd WORLD SCOUT INTERRELIGIOUS SYMPOSIUM" (http:/ / www. jewishscoutsforum. org/ ifjsacti3. html). International Forum of Jewish Scouts (IFJS). . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [21] "3rd World Scout Inter-religious Symposium" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ html/ download/ circular_letter/ Circulair_Letter__Apr09_ENG. pdf). Circular Letter (ICCS): 4. April 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [22] "3rd World Scout Inter-religious Symposium" (http:/ / wsis2009. org/ index. php). . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [23] "Taize Scout Week" (http:/ / www. iccs-em. org/ sites/ default/ files/ 4/ attachments/ Euro_Med_News_-_Spring_2009. pdf). Euro-Med News (ICCS European-Mediterranean region): 4. Spring 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [24] Christoph Johannes Kubina (2009). "Jesus was a scout" (in German). SCOUTING Unabhngige Zeitschrift fr Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder 4/2009: 44. [25] Guidelines on Spiritual and Religious Development. Geneva: World Scout Bureau Education, Research and Development. 2010. p.3. [26] "Einladung Pfadfinderwoche in Taiz 22.-29.August 2010" (http:/ / www. dpsg-hildesheim. de/ uploads/ media/ Pfadfinderwoche_in_Taize. pdf) (in German). Euro-Med News (ICCS European-Mediterranean region): 13. 2010. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [27] "1.ICCS-CICG-Agesci Vigil" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ en/ download/ info_sept. pdf). INFO (ICCS): 1. September/October 2000. . Retrieved 2010-01-09. [28] "World Youth Days 2011 in Madrid" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ html/ download/ circular_letter/ Circulair_Letter__Apr09_ENG. pdf). Circular Letter (ICCS): 1. April 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [29] "Living Stones Camp 2009" (http:/ / www. iccs-em. org/ en/ activities/ living-stones-camp-2009). . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [30] "ICCS WORLD SEMINAR 2008" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ html/ modules. php?name=News& file=article& sid=1597). . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [31] "Pastoral Seminar for Central Europe" (http:/ / www. iccs-em. org/ sites/ default/ files/ 4/ attachments/ Euro_Med_News_-_Spring_2009. pdf). Euro-Med News (ICCS European-Mediterranean region): 3. Spring 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [32] "ICCS Scout Jamboree in Thailand" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ html/ download/ circular_letter/ Circulair_Letter__Apr09_ENG. pdf). Circular Letter (ICCS): 3. April 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08.

International Catholic Conference of Scouting


[33] "International Awareness Recognition" (http:/ / www. nccs-bsa. org/ activities/ ICCS. php). National Catholic Committee on Scouting. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [34] "Brotherhood of Saint George" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ html/ download/ circular_letter/ Circulair_Letter__Apr09_ENG. pdf). Circular Letter (ICCS): 4. April 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [35] "Brotherhood of Saint George" (http:/ / www. cics. org/ html/ modules. php?name=IndyNews& MediaOp=get& idMediaAss=s51& MediaName=info_nov04. pdf& MediaNum=1). INFO (ICCS): 1. November 2004. . Retrieved 2010-01-09. [36] "International Catholic Conference of Scouting" (http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ library/ CHISTORY/ zcatconscout. htm). Eternal Word Television Network. . Retrieved 2010-01-09.

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External links
ICCS Official Site (http://www.cics.org/html/index.php) ICCS America region (http://www.cice-america.org/) ICCS European-Mediterranean region (http://www.iccs-em.org/)

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International Link of Orthodox Christian Scouts


International Link of Orthodox Christian Scouts
Country International Website
http:/ / www. desmos. info/

The International Link of Orthodox Christian Scouts (DESMOS, from Greek "", bond) is an autonomous, international body committed to promoting and supporting Orthodox Scout associations and to be a link between the Scout movement and Orthodox churches. It enjoys consultative status with the World Scout Committee and forms the World Scout Inter-religious Forum (WSIF)[1] together with the Council of Protestants in Guiding and Scouting, International Catholic Conference of Scouting, International Union of Muslim Scouts, International Forum of Jewish Scouts, Won-Buddhism Scout and World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood.

Member organizations
Armenia: Hayastani Azgayin Skautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun[2] Bosnia and Herzegovina: Savez izviaa Bosne i Hercegovine (supports by Roman Catholics and Islam) Bulgaria: Organizatsia na Bulgarskite Skauty[3] Cyprus: Cyprus Scouts Association[2] Finland: Suomen Partiolaiset[4] Greece: Scouts of Greece[2] Israel: Israel Boy and Girl Scouts Federation: Christian Orthodox Scout Association Jordan: Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides: Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Lebanon: Lebanese Scouting Federation: National Orthodox Scout Association - Scout national orthodoxe[2] Macedonia: Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija Moldova: Organizaia Naional a Scouilor din Moldova Palestinian Authority: Palestinian Scout Association: Palestinian Orthodox Scouts Association[2] Poland: Polish Scouting and Guiding Association[2] Romania: Cercetaii Romniei[2] Russia: Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators[5] Serbia: Savez Izviaa Srbije[2] Uganda: The Uganda Scouts Association: Uganda Orthodox Scouts[6] United States: Boy Scouts of America: Eastern Orthodox Committee on Scouting[2]

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References
[1] "World Scout Inter-religious Forum (WSIF)" (http:/ / wsis2009. org/ scouting_wsif. php). . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [2] "DEMOS statutes" (http:/ / www. desmos. info/ en/ statutes. html). . Retrieved 2010-08-18. [3] "DESMOS committee meeting" (http:/ / www. desmos. info/ en/ doc/ DesmosDocuments/ Desmos_Committee_Meeting_Sofia_2005_Minutes. pdf). . Retrieved 2010-08-18. [4] "4th DESMOS conference" (http:/ / www. desmos. info/ en/ doc/ DesmosDocuments/ 4th_Desmos_Conference_Tunisia_2005_Summary. pdf). . Retrieved 2010-08-18. [5] "Russian federation joins DESMOS" (http:/ / www. desmos. info/ en/ doc/ RUSSIA_joins_DESMOS _for_web_site-News_Info_. pdf). . Retrieved 2010-08-18. [6] "Uganda - new DESMOS member-country" (http:/ / www. desmos. info/ en/ news. html). . Retrieved 2010-08-18.

External links
DESMOS Official Site (http://www.desmos.info/)

International Scout and Guide Fellowship

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International Scout and Guide Fellowship


International Scout and Guide Fellowship
Founded 1953 Membership 73,557 (2007)[1] Affiliation World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts World Organization of the Scout Movement Website [2] ISGF

The International Scout and Guide Fellowship (ISGF) is a worldwide organization of Scout alumni in support of Scouting and Guiding who want to strengthen dialogue between communities through community-oriented projects worldwide. The International Scout and Guide Fellowship is open to former members of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) and the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), and to adults who did not have the opportunity to be Scouts, Guides, or active Scout/Guide leaders, but who believe in the Scouting ideals. It was created in 1953 under the name of International Fellowship of Former Scouts and Guides (IFOFSAG). ISGF is supported by WOSM and WAGGGS, and it has members in 61 countries presently. Furthermore, there are members of Central Branch (individual members or groups) in 35 countries.[3] In 2003, the 80,000 members celebrated the 50th anniversary of ISGF by carrying out projects to the benefit of communities in which they live and work or worldwide.

Organization
ISGF consists of national Member Organizations and of the members of the Central Branch.

World Regions
[4][5][6][7]

Africa Benin Gambia Ghana [8] Democratic Republic of the Congo[9] Ivory Coast (associate member)[10] Nigeria Senegal Uganda

International Scout and Guide Fellowship Arabia Algeria Bahrain[8] Egypt Jordan[11] Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Saudi Arabia Tunisia

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Asia Pacific Australia Bangladesh India Indonesia Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Sri Lanka

Europe The World Region Europe has 4 regional divisions: Nordic Baltic Sub-region Western Europe Subregion Central Europe Subregion Southern SubRegion

Central Europe Subregion Czech Republic Hungary Latvia Poland Romania Slovakia Slovenia Switzerland[12]

Austria, Germany, Italy (member of IDOL network, but not of the subregion) and Liechtenstein form the IDOL network.[13]

International Scout and Guide Fellowship Nordic Baltic Sub-region Denmark Estonia (associate member) Finland Iceland Latvia (is also in Central Europe Subregion) Lithuania (associate member) Norway Sweden

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Southern SubRegion Cyprus France Greece Italy Portugal Spain

Western Europe Subregion Belgium Ireland Luxembourg Netherlands United Kingdom

Western Hemisphere Canada Chile (associate member) Curaao Haiti Mexico Panama

Mediterranean Algeria Cyprus Egypt France Greece Italy Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Portugal

Spain Tunisia

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Central Branch
Groups and/or individuals in the following countries:[14] [15] Argentina Azerbaidjan Brazil Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Congo Brazzaville Costa Rica Cuba Ecuador Iran Israel Japan Kenya Liberia Maldives[16] Nepal Nicaragua Peru Rwanda South Africa Sudan Surinam Taiwan (ROC) Tanzania Togo Turkey[17] Trinidad & Tobago United States of America Uruguay Venezuela Zambia Zimbabwe

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International Ambassadors Fellowship Guild


This Fellowship was founded in 1998. It is a Foundation to support Scouting and Guiding worldwide

Forthcoming international events


43nd European Forum of Guild-Scouts in Grossarl, 18 - 25 June 2011 [18] ISGF World Conference in Cernobbio, Lake Como, Italy, 25 September - 2 October 2011

References
[1] "Census" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=221:census& catid=48:organization& Itemid=61& lang=en). ISGF. . Retrieved 2008-12-12. [2] http:/ / www. isgf. org [3] "Update CB ISGF Info June 2010" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=504:update-cb-isgf-info-june-2010& catid=40:central-branch& Itemid=86& lang=en). ISGF. . Retrieved 2011-01-02. [4] "Member Organisations/Organisations membres" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ Members/ annick/ Folder. 2004-05-25. 5104/ Document. 2004-03-08. 3221/ view?searchterm=Member Organizations). ISGF. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [5] "Schaubild Subregion und Mitgliedslnder" (http:/ / www. scoutnet. de/ vdapg/ Subregion/ 03orga1. html) (in German). VDAPG. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [6] "Schaubild Subregion und Mitgliedslnder" (http:/ / www. scoutnet. de/ vdapg/ Subregion/ 03orga2. html) (in German). VDAPG. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [7] "ISGF regions overview" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_docman& task=doc_download& gid=250& Itemid=125& lang=en). ISGF. . Retrieved 2008-08-04. [8] "Bahrain and Ghana Full Membership" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_docman& task=doc_download& gid=235& Itemid=125& lang=en). ISGF. . Retrieved 2008-12-12. [9] "Democratic Republic of the Congo" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_docman& task=doc_download& gid=197& Itemid=125& lang=en). ISGF. . Retrieved 2008-12-12. [10] "Ivory Coast" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_docman& task=doc_download& gid=241& Itemid=125& lang=en). ISGF. . Retrieved 2008-12-12. [11] "Jordan" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_docman& task=doc_download& gid=196& Itemid=125& lang=en). ISGF. . Retrieved 2008-12-12. [12] "Liste unserer Mitgliedslnder" (http:/ / www. scoutnet. de/ vdapg/ Subregion/ 06mitlaend. html) (in German). VDAPG. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [13] "Was sind erwachsene Pfadfinderinnen oder Pfadfinder?" (http:/ / www. scoutnet. de/ vdapg/ Subregion/ 05wassind. html) (in German). VDAPG. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [14] "Newsletter CB 2007 2" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ Members/ l_doelman/ file. 2008-01-26. 7771948809) (doc). ISGF. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [15] "Central Branch Countries" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=55:central-branch-countries& catid=40:central-branch& Itemid=86& lang=en). ISGF. . Retrieved 2011-01-02. [16] "CB Newsletter" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_docman& task=doc_download& gid=479& Itemid=153& lang=en) (pdf). ISGF. p.2. . Retrieved 2009-10-29. [17] "Update CB ISGF Info - February 2009" (http:/ / www. isgf. org/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=354:update-cb-isgf-info-february-2009& catid=40:central-branch& Itemid=86& lang=en). ISGF. . Retrieved 2009-09-28. [18] http:/ / www. forumgrossarl. at/ eng/ start. html

International Union of Guides and Scouts of Europe

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International Union of Guides and Scouts of Europe


Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts dEurope
Headquarters Country Founded Membership France see table to the left 1956 65,000 Website
http:/ / www. uigse. org

The International Union of the Guides and Scouts of Europe (Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts dEurope, UIGSE; also known as Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts dEurope Fdration du Scoutisme Europen, UISGE-FSE, or simply as Fdration du Scoutisme Europen, FSE) is a traditional faith-based Scouting organization with 20 member associations in 17 European countries and also in Canada, serving roughly 65,000 members. The organization, headquartered in France, was founded in 1956 by a group of German and French Roman Catholic Scoutmasters as a faith-based Scouting movement, in order to reconcile the European peoples in the aftermath of the Second World War. In the Member organizations both boys and girls can be members, but are strictly separated in all age groups, except sometimes in the Beavers. Member organizations are preferably single faith, local groups must be single faith, most are Roman Catholic. The Confederation of European Scouts (CES) is a split off of the UIGSE, it left after controversies about the importance of religious elements in the single associations' programs and co-education[1].

Member organizations
Country Albania Austria Udhhequset dhe Skautistet e Europes Katholische Pfadfinderschaft Europas - sterreich (KPE-) Katalickija Skautki i Skauty FSE Belarus Guides et Scouts dEurope - Belgique (GSE-B) / Europascouts en Gidsen - Belgi (ESG-B) Association Evangelique du Scoutisme au Quebec (Protestant) Federation of North-American Explorers (Roman Catholic) Asociace skautek a skaut Evropy (ASSE) [2] 1999 1963 Association founded 1996 1981 Members Status contacts 100 full member 115 observer 1,200 full member candidate 110 observer 50 contacts

Belarus Belgium

Canada Canada Czech Republic France

Association des Guides et Scouts dEurope (AGSE)

1958

26,600 full member 300 full member

Germany

Evangelische Pfadfinderschaft Europas (EPE, Protestant)

1977

International Union of Guides and Scouts of Europe


Germany Katholische Pfadfinderschaft Europas (KPE, Roman Catholic) 1976 2,500 full member 200 candidate 20,000 full member 300 candidate 2,050 full member 200 full member 500 full member 2,500 observer

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Hungary Italy

Magyarorszgi Eurpai Cserkszek (MECS) Associazione Italiana Guide e Scouts d'Europa Cattolici della FSE (AIGSEC-FSE)

1990 1976

Lithuania Poland

Lietuvos Nacionalin Europos Skaut Asociacija (LNESA) Stowarzyszenie Harcerstwa Katolickiego - "Zawisza" FSE (SHK Zawisza FSE)

1992 1982/1990

Portugal

Associao das Guias e Escuteiros da Europa - Portugal (AGEEP)

1979

Romania

Cercetaii Cretini Romni din Federaia Scoutismu-lui European (ACCR-FSE) (Roman Catholic and Orthodox) ORYuR/ - The Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders Zdruenie Katolckych Vodk a Skautov Eurpy na Slovensku (ZKVSES) Asociacin Espaola Guas y Scouts de Europa (AEGSE)

1991

Russia

1990

Slovakia Spain

2003 1978

observer 500 full member 250 full member

Switzerland

Schweizerische Pfadfinderschaft Europas (SPE, German) Scoutisme Europen Suisse (SES, French) Scautismo Europeo Svizzero (SES, Italian) Katolickije Skautsvo Evropi

1977

Ukraine

observer

Organizations need at least 200 members to become a full member of the UIGSE.

References
[1] "FSE Alsace Geschichte" (http:/ / www. fse-alsace. de/ ?E1=1& E2=1& E3=0). . Retrieved 2009-11-30. [2] http:/ / www. fneexplorers. com

External links
http://www.uigse.org Official Website http://www.fse.it Italian AIGSEC-FSE - Official Website History of the "European Scouting Movement" (http://www.fraternite.net/documents/scoutisme_europeen. pdf) (French)

International Union of Muslim Scouts

108

International Union of Muslim Scouts


International Union of Muslim Scouts
Headquarters Country Jeddah, Saudi Arabia International

The International Union of Muslim Scouts (Arabic: (IUMS) is an autonomous, ) international body committed to promoting and supporting Islam within Scouting. Its headquarters are in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Establishment
The idea was first sparked in the 3rd Islamic Conference Summit, held in Taif, KSA (1981). As a response Qatar scout association called for the first Islamic conference together with 1st Islamic Jamboree (Doha - January 1982). Establishment officially declared in Amman, Jordan (1989), during the 3rd International Muslim Scouts Conference. In August 1992, the 6th International Scout Conference, in Pakistan, certified the emblem, organization and the statutes of the IUMS.

Objectives
The official objectives of IUMS are:[1] To develop an education curriculum that should contribute to structure and build the spiritual dimension in the personalities of young Muslims. To motivate and promote Islamic Scouting on global basis. To extend coordination and cooperation among IUMS members. To promote and coordinate social, humanitarian and relief activities within the Union or in cooperation with non-Scout organisations of similar nature. To introduce Islamic Scouting in such states where Muslims are residing. To develop and promote the spirit of brotherhood and understanding among Muslim Scouts.

Leadership training
Since 2006, IUMS has held an annual leadership training course in Switzerland, in conjunction with other organisations.[2]

References
[1] "International Union of Muslim Scouts" (http:/ / www. oicun. org/ articles/ 50/ 1/ International-Union-of-Muslim-Scouts/ 1. html). OICUN. . Retrieved 2007-07-09. [2] "EU Muslim Scouts Integrate Better, Preserve Identity" (http:/ / www. turkishweekly. net/ news. php?id=30070). Journal of Turkish Weekly. . Retrieved 2007-07-09.

International Union of Muslim Scouts

109

External links
IUMS Official Site (http://www.iums.net)(now Idle) New official website (http://iums.org.sa/ar/

List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members


Table of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members
The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts recognizes at most one Guiding organization per country. Some countries have several organizations combined as a federation, with different component groups divided on the basis of religions (France, Denmark), ethnic identification (Israel) or language (Belgium).
Country Member organization Membership status Membership (from 2006 or most recent) 608 Year Guiding organization joined WAGGGS 1984 Year Guiding was introduced Admits girls/boys

Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia

The Girl Guides Association of Antigua and Barbuda Asociacin Guas Argentinas National Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts of Armenia Het Arubaanse Padvindsters Gilde Guides Australia Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen sterreichs The Bahamas Girl Guides Association The Girl Guides Association of Bahrain Bangladesh Girl Guides Association The Girl Guide Association of Barbados The Association of Belarusian Guides Guides and Scouts Movement of Belgium The Girl Guides Association of Belize Guides du Bnin Asociacin de Guas Scouts de Bolivia Botswana Girl Guides Association

full

1931 girls-only

full associate

3,251 1,514

1958 2001

1915 both 1988 girls-only

Aruba

associate

306

1993

1941 girls-only

Australia Austria

full full

29,811 10,301

1928 1957

1911 girls-only 1914 both

Bahamas

full

2,732

1975

1915 both

Bahrain

full

1,556

1981

1970 girls-only

Bangladesh

full

52,567

1973

1928 girls-only

Barbados

full

3,290

1969

1918 girls-only

Belarus

full

1,670

1996

1926 girls-only

Belgium

full

59,268

1928

1915 both

Belize

full

412

1987

1937 girls-only

Benin Bolivia

full full

2,000 390

1963 1966

1954 girls-only 1915 girls-only

Botswana

full

9,825

1969

1924 girls-only

List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members


Brazil Federao de Bandeirantes do Brasil Girl Guides Association of Brunei Darussalam Association des Guides du Burkina Faso Association des Guides du Burundi Girl Guides Association of Cambodia Association des Guides du Cameroun Girl Guides of Canada full 4,454 1930 1919 both

110

Brunei

full

1,677

1996

1951 girls-only

Burkina Faso

full

12,753

1972

1955 girls-only

Burundi

full

11,034

1972

1954 girls-only

Cambodia

full

1,425

2002

1940 girls-only

Cameroon

associate

1,033

1972

1943 girls-only

Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile

full

116,206 8,879

1928 1963

1910 girls-only 1952 girls-only

Association Nationale des Guides full de Centrafrique Association des Guides du Tchad Asociacin de Guas y Scouts de Chile Girl Scouts of Taiwan full full

6,450 17,572

NA 1957

NA girls-only 1913 both

Republic of China Colombia

full

20,264

1963

1919 girls-only

Asociacin de Guas Scouts de Colombia Guides de la Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo

full

706

1954

1936 girls-only

Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Cook Islands

full

7,784

1972/2008

1928 girls-only

Association des Scouts et Guides du Congo The Girl Guides Cook Islands Association Asociacin de Guas y Scouts de Costa Rica Girl Guides Association of Cyprus Junk Pigespejdernes Fllesrd Danmark The Girl Guides Association of Dominica Asociacin de Guas Scouts Dominicanas Asociacin Nacional de Guas Scouts del Ecuador Egyptian Federation for Scouts and Girl Guides Asociacin de Muchachas Guas de El Salvador Eesti Gaidide Liit

full

1,100

1957/1996

1927 both

associate

893

1993

1928 girls-only

Costa Rica

full

4,214

1946

1922 both

Cyprus

full

2,763

1962

1912 both

Czech Republic Denmark

full full

19,948 18,893

1928/1990 1928

1915 both 1910 both

Dominica

full

533

1987

1930 girls-only

Dominican Republic Ecuador

full

507

1969

1961 girls-only

full

144

1966

1919 girls-only

Egypt

full

44,300

1931

1913 girls-only

El Salvador

full associate

259

1960

1945 girls-only

Estonia

full

776

1928/1993

1919 both

List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members


Fiji Finland France Gambia Fiji Girl Guides Association Suomen Partiolaiset Scoutisme Franais The Gambia Girl Guides Association Sakartvelos Gogona Skautebis Asociacia 'Dia' Ring Deutscher Pfadfinderinnenverbnde The Ghana Girl Guides Association Soma Hellinidon Odigon The Girl Guides Association of Grenada Asociacin Nacional de Muchachas Guas de Guatemala full full full full 2,081 32,278 60,327 11,777 1981 1928 1928 1966 1924 girls-only 1910 both 1921 both 1923 girls-only

111

Georgia

associate

805

NA

NA girls-only

Germany

full

47,688

1950

1912 both

Ghana

full

7,835

1960

1921 girls-only

Greece Grenada

full full

10,682 1,518

1933 1990

1932 both 1925 girls-only

Guatemala

full

998

1957

1934 girls-only

Guinea

Association Nationale des Guides associate de Guine Guyana Girl Guides Association full

4,000

NA

NA girls-only

Guyana Haiti

1,121 1,362

1969 1946

1922 girls-only 1942 girls-only

Association Nationale des Guides full d'Hati Asociacin Nacional de Muchachas Guas de Honduras Hong Kong Girl Guides Association Magyar Cserkszlny Szvetsg Bandalag slenskra Skta The Bharat Scouts and Guides Council of Irish Guiding Associations Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel Federazione Italiana dello Scautismo Fdration Ivoirienne du Scoutisme Fminin The Girl Guides Association of Jamaica Girl Scouts of Japan Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Kenya Girl Guides Association The Girl Guides Association of Kiribati Girl Scouts Korea full

Honduras

5,484

1981

1953 both

Hong Kong

full

55,145

1978

1916 both

Hungary Iceland India Ireland

full full full full

683 1,582 1,305,028 13,837

1928/1993 1928 1948 1932

1919 girls-only 1922 both 1911 both 1911 girls-only

Israel

full

11,268

1957

1919 both

Italy

full

84,303

1946

1912 both

Ivory Coast

full

1,900

1963

1937 girls-only

Jamaica

full

5,903

1963

1915 girls-only

Japan Jordan

full full

49,447 9,080

1952 1963

1919 girls-only 1938 girls-only

Kenya Kiribati

full associate

158,810 500

1963 1990

1920 girls-only 1926 girls-only

South Korea

full

68,006

1957

1946 both

List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members


Kuwait Latvia Kuwait Girl Guides Association Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrl Organizcija Fdration Libanaise des Eclaireuses et des Guides Lesotho Girl Guides Association Liberian Girl Guides Association Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins Lietuvos skaui seserija Bureau de Liaison des Associations Guides du Luxembourg Skotisma Zazavavy eto Madagasikara The Malawi Girl Guides Association Persatuan Pandu Puteri Malaysia Maldives Girl Guide Association The Malta Girl Guides Association Association des Scouts et Guides de Mauritanie The Mauritius Girl Guides Association Guas de Mxico Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco Girl Scout Association of Mongolia The Girl Guides Association of Namibia Nepal Scouts Scouting Nederland Padvindstersvereniging van de Nederlandse Antillen GirlGuiding New Zealand Federacin Nacional de Muchachas Guas de Nicaragua The Nigerian Girl Guides Association Speidernes Fellesorganisasjon full full 9,025 293 1966 1928/1993 1957 girls-only 1921 both

112

Lebanon

full

6,615

1955

1937 girls-only

Lesotho Liberia Libya

full full full

1,783 1,180 4,325

1978 1928/1966 1966

1925 girls-only 1920 girls-only 1958 both

Liechtenstein

full

318

1948

1932 both

Lithuania Luxembourg

associate full

1,400 2,093

2008 1928

girls-only 1915 both

Madagascar

full

25,152

1963

1941 both

Malawi

full

11,044

NA

NA girls-only

Malaysia Maldives Malta

full full full

73,915 7,307 1,191

1960 1994 1966

1916 girls-only 1962 girls-only 1918 girls-only

Mauritania

associate

456

1996

1986 both

Mauritius

full

776

1975

1926 girls-only

Mexico Monaco

full full

5,196 23

1948 1960

1930 girls-only 1929 both

Mongolia

associate

1,050

2005

1996 girls-only

Namibia

full

1,278

1993

1923 girls-only

Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua

full full full

15,740 54,663 344

1978 1928/1981 1978

1952 both 1911 both 1930 girls-only

full associate

17,635 707

1928 1981

1908 girls-only 1940 girls-only

Nigeria

full

113,726

1960

1919 girls-only

Norway

full

14,443

1928

1912 both

List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members


Oman The National Organisation for Scouts and Guides Pakistan Girl Guides Association Asociacin de Muchachas Guas de Panam full 6,831 1987 1972 both

113

Pakistan Panama

full full

48,253 728

1948 1952

1911 girls-only 1950 girls-only

Papua New Guinea Paraguay

Girl Guides Association of Papua full New Guinea Asociacin Guas Scouts del Paraguay Asociacin Nacional de Guas Scouts del Per Girl Scouts of the Philippines Zwizek Harcerstwa Polskiego Associao Guias de Portugal full

1,224

1978

1927 girls-only

329

1966

1923 both

Peru

full

5,500

1960

1916 both

Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar

full full full

713,777 76,718 3,157 2,368

1946 1928/1996 1963 NA

1919 girls-only 1910 both 1919 girls-only NA both

The Scout and Guide Association full of Qatar Asociaia Ghidelor i Ghizilor din full Romnia Rossiskaya Assotsiatsia Devochek-Skautov Association des Guides du Rwanda The Girl Guides Association of Saint Christopher and Nevis Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia full

Romania

1,000

1993

1928 both

Russia

2,175

1999

1910 girls-only

Rwanda

full

9,284

1981

1962 girls-only

Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia

associate

290

1993

1931 girls-only

full

2,100

1984

1925 girls-only

Saint Vincent and Girl Guides Association of Saint the Grenadines Vincent and the Grenadines San Marino Associazione Guide Esploratori Cattolici Sammarinesi Association des Scouts et Guides du Sngal The Sierra Leone Girl Guides Association Girl Guides Singapore Slovensk skauting Zdruenje slovenskih katolikih skavtinj in skavtov The Girl Guides Association of the Solomon Islands Girl Guides Association of South Africa Comit de Enlace del Guidismo en Espaa The Sri Lanka Girl Guides Association

full

1,456

1984

1914 girls-only

full

129

1993

1973 both

Senegal

full

2,071

1981

1953 both

Sierra Leone

full

2,026

1963

1924 girls-only

Singapore Slovakia Slovenia

full full full

12,334 3,210 4,173

1966 1928/1990 1928/1996

1917 girls-only 1919 both 1922 both

Solomon Islands

associate

697

1987

1949 girls-only

South Africa

full

27,164

1928

1910 girls-only

Spain

full

7,559

1959

1929 both

Sri Lanka

full

37,057

1951

1917 girls-only

List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members


Sudan The Sudan Girl Guides Association Surinaamse Padvindsters Raad The Swaziland Girl Guides Association Svenska Scoutrdet Swiss Guide and Scout Movement Scouts of Syria The Tanzania Girl Guides Association The Girl Guides Association of Thailand Association des Guides du Togo The Girl Guides Association of the Kingdom of Tonga The Girl Guides Association of Trinidad and Tobago Les Scouts Tunisiens Trkiye zcilik Federasyonu The Uganda Girl Guides Association Asotsiatsiya Haydov Ukrayiny Girl Guides Association of the United Arab Emirates Girlguiding UK Girl Scouts of the USA full 17,350 1957 1928 girls-only

114

Suriname Swaziland

associate full

472 2,100

1972 1969

1947 girls-only 1924 girls-only

Sweden Switzerland

full full

42,482 20,177

1928 1928

1910 both 1913 both

Syria Tanzania

associate full

NA 30,376

2008 1963

1950 both 1928 girls-only

Thailand

full

28,911

1963

1957 girls-only

Togo Tonga

full associate

2,700 200

1963 1987

1942 girls-only 1952 girls-only

Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda

full

2,545

1963

1914 girls-only

full full full

7,298 2,883 112,371

1996 1972 1963

1934 both 1923 both 1914 girls-only

Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States of America Uruguay

associate full

728 2,124

1999 1984

1911/1992 girls-only 1973 girls-only

full full

552,603 3,578,760

1928 1928

1909 girls-only 1912 girls-only

Asociacin Guas Scout del Uruguay Asociacin de Guas Scouts de Venezuela Yemen Scouts and Guides Association - Guide branch Girl Guides Association of Zambia Girl Guides Association of Zimbabwe

associate

71

1966

1924 both

Venezuela

full

655

1960

1958 girls-only

Yemen

full

18,649

1990

1962 girls-only

Zambia

full

11,920

1966

1924 girls-only

Zimbabwe

full

15,278

1969

1912 girls-only

List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members

115

Non-sovereign territories with independent WAGGGS member organizations


Aruba - Het Arubaanse Padvindsters Gilde: Associate Member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Cook Islands - The Girl Guides Cook Islands Association: Associate Member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Hong Kong - Hong Kong Girl Guides Association: Full Member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Netherlands Antilles - Padvindstersvereniging van de Nederlandse Antillen: Full Member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts

Sovereign countries with Guiding run by another sovereign state


Girl Scouts of the USA
Federated States of Micronesia - Scouting in the Federated States of Micronesia - Girl Scouts of the USA Marshall Islands - Scouting in the Marshall Islands - Girl Scouts of the USA Palau - Scouting in Palau - Girl Scouts of the USA

Non-sovereign territories with Guiding run by a sovereign state


Denmark
Faroe Islands - Froya Sktar Greenland - Grnlands Spejderkorps

France
Guiding in the following areas is run by different French Scout associations: French Guiana - Scouting in French Guiana Guadeloupe and Saint Martin - Scouting in Guadeloupe et Saint Martin Martinique - Scouts et Guides de Martinique Mayotte - Scouting in Mayotte New Caledonia - Scouting in New Caledonia Runion - Scouting on Runion Saint Pierre and Miquelon - Scouting in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna - Scouting in Wallis and Futuna

United Kingdom
Anguilla - Girlguiding Anguilla Bermuda - Girlguiding Bermuda British Virgin Islands - British Virgin Islands Girl Guide Association Cayman Islands - Girlguiding Cayman Islands Falkland Islands - Girlguiding Falkland Islands Gibraltar - Girlguiding Gibraltar Montserrat - Girlguiding Montserrat Saint Helena - Girlguiding Saint Helena

Turks and Caicos Islands - Turks and Caicos Islands branch of Girlguiding UK

List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members

116

United States
The following areas are administered by the Girl Scouts of the USA: American Samoa - Scouting in American Samoa Guam - Scouting in Guam Northern Mariana Islands - Scouting in the Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico - Scouting in Puerto Rico United States Virgin Islands - Scouting in the United States Virgin Islands

Countries working towards WAGGGS membership


"Working towards WAGGGS membership" is an official status by WAGGGS acknowledging the development of an association. As of 2005, six countries have this status: Albania - Shoqata e Guidave dhe Scoutve n Shqipri Azerbaijan - Association of Azerbaijan Girl Guides Mozambique - Mozambique Guides Niger - Guides du Niger Palestinian National Authority - Girl Guides of Palestine

So Tom and Prncipe - Associao Guias de So Tom and Prncipe Vietnam - Vietnam Scouting National Council (Girl Guides section)

Countries with Guiding organizations, work towards recognition unclear


Algeria - Scouting in Algeria Iraq - Iraq Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Council Kazakhstan - Kazakh Guide Association Morocco - Scouting in Morocco Nauru - Scouting and Guiding in Nauru

Former members of WAGGGS


Burma - Union of Burma Girl Guides Association last mentioned in 1969 Cuba - Asociacin de Guas de Cuba, last mentioned in 1969 Ethiopia - last mentioned in 1984, now part of Ethiopia Scout Association Indonesia - Gerakan Pramuka left WAGGGS and joined WOSM in 2002 Iran - Fereshtegan-e Pishahang-e rn, last mentioned in 1979 Samoa - Samoa Girl Guides Association, membership cancelled in 2008 Tuvalu - Girl Guides Association of Tuvalu, membership withdrawn in 2005 Vanuatu - Vanuatu Girl Guides Association, membership cancelled in 2008 Vietnam - Hi N Hng o Vit Nam, last mentioned in 1973

List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members

117

References
World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Bureau (1997), Trefoil Round the World. Eleventh Edition 1997. ISBN 0-900827-75-0

External links
wagggs.org: Member organizations (http://www.wagggs.org/en/world) World Guiding (http://worldguiding.net:)

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members


Since its conception in 1907, the Scouting movement has spread from the United Kingdom to 216 countries and territories around the world. There are over 38 million Scouts and Guides worldwide, with 160 national organisations governed by the World Organization of the Scout Movement and a nearly equal number governed by the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts.

Table of World Organization of the Scout Movement members


The World Organization of the Scout Movement recognizes at most one Scouting organization per country. Some countries have several organizations combined as a federation, with different component groups divided on the basis of religion (e.g., France and Denmark), ethnic identification (e.g., Israel), or language (e.g., Belgium). Canada is the only country to have two distinct recognized associations, which are divided by language.
Country Membership (from 2010) [1] 1,730 24,750 13,777 42,812 2,303 Name of member organization Year current Scouting organization joined [2] WOSM 2005 1963 1998 1922 Year member organization was [2] founded 2004 1934 1998 1912 1912 Admits boys/girls

Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia

Beslidhja Skaut Albania Scouts Musulmans Algriens Associao de Escuteiros de Angola Scouts de Argentina

both both both both both

Hayastani Azgayin Scautakan Sharjum 1997 Kazmakerputiun Scouts Australia Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen sterreichs Azrbaycan Skaut Assosiasiyasi The Scout Association of the Bahamas Boy Scouts of Bahrain Bangladesh Scouts Barbados Boy Scouts Association Belarusian Republican Scout Association 1953 1922/1946

Australia Austria

73,523 10,277

1908 1912

both both

Azerbaijan The Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus

1,677 1,060 2,301 1,015,116 2,738 1,200

2000 1974 1970 1974 1969 1989

1997 1913 1953 1972 1912 1909

both both boys only both boys only both

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members


Belgium 96,837 Guides and Scouts Movement of Belgium (federation of several organizations) The Scout Association of Belize Scoutisme Bninois Bhutan Scout Tshogpa Asociacin de Scouts de Bolivia Savez izviaa Bosne i Hercegovine 1922 1911 both

118

Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei

3,041 5,259 18,170 7,898 1,250

1987 1964 1999 1950 1999

1911 1932 1991 1915 1999/2011

both both both both both

2,075 53,055 2,086

The Botswana Scouts Association Unio dos Escoteiros do Brasil Persekutuan Pengakap Negara Brunei Darussalam Organizatsia Na Bulgarskite Skauty Fdration Burkinab du Scoutisme (federation of several organizations) Association des Scouts du Burundi National Association of Cambodian Scouts Les Scouts du Cameroun

1958 1922 1981

1936 1910 1933

boys only both both

Bulgaria Burkina Faso

2,109 9, 398

1999 1972

19111913 1943

both both

Burundi Cambodia

6,661 5,404

1979 2008

1940 2000

both both

Cameroon Canada

4,561 107,798

1971

1937 1908

both both

Scouts Canada, with which is affiliated 1946 the Association des Scouts du Canada Associao dos Escuteiros de Cabo Verde Fdration du Scoutisme Tchadien (federation of several organizations) Asociacin de Guas y Scouts de Chile Scouts of China 2002

Cape Verde

733

2002

NA

Chad

14,500

1974

1960

both

Chile Republic of China (Taiwan) Colombia Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Costa Rica

19,476 49,457

1922/1974 1937

1909 1912

both both

11,057 1,725 71,486

Asociacin Scouts de Colombia Wezombeli

1933 1990

1917 1975 1924

both both both

Fdration des Scouts de la Rpublique 1963 dmocratique du Congo

5,319

Asociacin de Guas y Scouts de Costa 1925 Rica Fdration Ivoirienne du Scoutisme (federation of several organizations) Savez izviaa Hrvatske Cyprus Scouts Association Junk-Svaz Skaut a Skautek Fllesrdet for Danmarks Drengespejdere (federation of several organizations) The Scout Association of Dominica 1972

1915

both

Cte d'Ivoire

23,213

1937

both

Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark

3,827 5,926 19,196 40,813

1993 1961 1922/1990/1996 1922

1915 1913 1911 1909

both both both both

Dominica

1,100

1990

1929

both

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members


Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt 1,278 Asociacin de Scouts Dominicanos 1930 1926 both

119

3,220 79,611

Asociacin de Scouts del Ecuador Egyptian Federation for Scouts and Girl Guides (federation of several organizations) Asociacin de Scouts de El Salvador Eesti Skautide hing Ethiopia Scout Association Fiji Scouts Association

1922 1922

1920 1914

both both

El Salvador Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland

2,820 1,337 19,001 3,926 55,686

1940 1922/1996 2002 1971

1938 1911/1989 1950 1914 1910

both both both both both

Suomen Partiolaiset - Finlands Scouter 1922 ry Scoutisme Franais (federation of several organizations) Fdration Gabonaise du Scoutisme (federation of several organizations) The Gambia Scout Association Sakartvelos Skauturi Modzraobis Organizatsia Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbnde (federation of several organizations) The Ghana Scout Association Soma Hellinon Proskopon The Scout Association of Grenada Asociacin de Scouts de Guatemala Association Nationale des Scouts de Guine The Scout Association of Guyana Scouts d'Hati Asociacin de Scouts de Honduras The Scout Association of Hong Kong Magyar Cserkszszvetsg Bandalag slenskra Skta The Bharat Scouts and Guides Gerakan Pramuka Scouting Ireland Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel (federation of several organizations) Federazione Italiana dello Scautismo The Scout Association of Jamaica Scout Association of Japan 1922

France

76,342

1910

both

Gabon

3,809

1971

1936

both

Gambia Georgia

18,448 1,343

1984 1997

1921 1994

both both

Germany

115,944

1950

1910

both

Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea

3,919 18,482 1,378 6,020 10,592

1960 1922 1979 1930 1990/2005

1912 1910 1924 1928 1984

both both both both NA

Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Ireland Israel

424 43,618 3,031 95,877 8,145 1,741 2,886,460 17,103,793 37,692 21,920

1967 1932/1940 1957 1977 1922/1990 1924 1938 1953 1949 1951

1909 1916 1952 1914 1912 1912 1909 1912 1908 1920

both both both both both both both both both both

Italy Jamaica Japan

102,778 2,539 156,420

1922/1946 1963 1922/1950

1912 1910 1913

both both both

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members


Jordan 15,521 Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan The Kenya Scouts Association Kiribati Scout Association Korea Scout Association Kuwait Boy Scouts Association Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrl Organizcija Lebanese Scouting Federation (federation of several organizations) Lesotho Scouts Association Boy Scouts of Liberia Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins Lietuvos Skautija Luxembourg Boy Scouts Association (federation of several organizations) Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija 1955 1954 both

120

Kazakhstan

1,223

2008

1992

both

Kenya Kiribati South Korea Kuwait Latvia

323,929 1,333 201,455 6,061 466

1964 1993 1953 1955 1993

1910 1993 1922 1952 1917

both both both boys only both

Lebanon

14,040

1947

1912

both

Lesotho Liberia Libya

371 2,418 13,698

1971 1922/1965 1958

1936 1922 1954

boys only boys only both

Liechtenstein

799

1933

1931

both

Lithuania Luxembourg

2,311 5,275

1997 1922

1918 1914

both both

Republic of Macedonia Madagascar

1,988

1997

1921

both

14,905

Firaisan'ny Skotisma eto Madagasikara 1960 (federation of several organizations) The Scout Association of Malawi Persekutuan Pengakap Malaysia The Scout Association of Maldives The Scout Association of Malta Association des Scouts et Guides de Mauritanie The Mauritius Scout Association Asociacin de Scouts de Mxico, A.C. Organizaia Naionala A Scouilor Din Moldova Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco Mongolyn Skautyn Kholboo Savez Izviaa Crne Gore Fdration Nationale du Scoutisme Marocain Liga dos Escuteiros de Moambique Scouts of Namibia Nepal Scouts 2005 1957 1990 1966 1983

1921

both

Malawi Malaysia Maldives Malta Mauritania

4,000 48,394 5,538 2,936 3,790

1996 1911 1963 1908 1947

NA both both both both

Mauritius Mexico Moldova

2,782 33,509 2,430

1971 1926 1997

1912 1920 1921

both both both

Monaco

61

1990

1990

both

Mongolia Montenegro Morocco

8,822 1,100 12,304

1994 2008 1961

1992 2006 1933

both both both

Mozambique Namibia Nepal

15,644 2,845 19,952

1999 1990 1969

1960 1917 1952

both both both

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members


Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway 53,324 18,649 1,509 3,202 46,701 17,348 Scouting Nederland Scouting New Zealand Asociacin de Scouts de Nicaragua Association des Scouts du Niger Boy Scouts of Nigeria Speidernes Fellesorganisasjon (federation of several organizations) The National Organisation for Scouts and Guides Pakistan Boy Scouts Association Palestinian Scout Association 1922 1953 1946 1996 1961 1922 1910 1908 1917 1947 1915 1911 both both both both boys only both

121

Oman

8,892

1977

1948

both

Pakistan Palestinian Authority Panama

526,626 18,738

1948 1996

1947 1912

boys only both

1,775

Asociacin Nacional de Scouts de Panam The Scout Association of Papua New Guinea Asociacin de Scouts del Paraguay Asociacin de Scouts del Per Boy Scouts of the Philippines Zwizek Harcerstwa Polskiego Federao Escotista de Portugal The Scout and Guide Association of Qatar Cercetaii Romniei Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators Association des Scouts du Rwanda The Saint Lucia Scout Association The Scout Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Associazione Guide Esploratori Cattolici Sammarinesi Saudi Arabian Boy Scouts Association Confdration Sngalaise du Scoutisme (federation of several organizations) Savez Izviaa Srbije Seychelles Scout Association Sierra Leone Scouts Association The Singapore Scout Association Slovensk skauting Zveza tabornikov Slovenije South African Scout Association

1924/1950

1924

both

Papua New Guinea

6,284

1976

1926

boys only

Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar

369 4,852 1,464,765 61,394 75,359 4,208

1962 1922 1946 1922/1996 1922 1965

1960 1916 1923 1918 1913 1955

both both both both both both

Romania Russia

2,278 14,130

1993 2004

1914 1909

both both

Rwanda Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines San Marino

18,884 393 549

1975 1990 1990

1940 1910 1911

both both both

152

1990

1973

both

Saudi Arabia Senegal

19,269 9,966

1963 1963

1961 1930

boys only both

Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia South Africa

3,773 372 11,749 10,292 3,157 5,179 15,781

1995 1927 1964 1966 1922/1990/1997 1994 1937

1915 2002 1909 1910 1913 1915 1908

both both both both both both both

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members


Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden 53,184 36,297 14,868 2,601 6,850 49,196 Federacin de Escultismo en Espaa Sri Lanka Scout Association Sudan Scouts Association Boy Scouts van Suriname Swaziland Boy Scouts Association Svenska Scoutrdet (federation of several organizations) Swiss Guide and Scout Movement Scouts of Syria Ittihodi Scouthoi Tojikiston Tanzania Scouts Association The National Scout Organization of Thailand Association Scoute du Togo The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago Les Scouts Tunisiens Trkiye zcilik Federasyonu The Uganda Scouts Association National Organization of Scouts of Ukraine Emirates Scout Association 1922/1978 1953 1956 1968 1968 1922 1912 1912 1935 1924 1928 1911 both both boys only both boys only both

122

Switzerland Syria Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand

23,994 9,358 511 91,057 1,257,645

1922 2008 1997 1963 1922

1912 1912/1949 1991 1929 1911

both both both both both

Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine

9,727 5,234

1977 1963

1920 1911

both both

24,080 33,974 116,465 4,650

1957 1950 1964 2008

1933 1923 1915 2007

both both both both

United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela Yemen

5,522

1977

1972

boys only

446,557 3,968,206 1,549 14,801 6,481

The Scout Association Boy Scouts of America Movimiento Scout del Uruguay Asociacin de Scouts de Venezuela Yemen Scouts and Guides Association - Scout branch Zambia Scouts Association The Boy Scouts Association of Zimbabwe

1922 1922 1950 1937 1980

1907 1910 1946 1913 1927

both both both both boys only

Zambia Zimbabwe

7,396 5,932

1965 1980

1930 1909

both boys only

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members

123

Non-sovereign territories with independent WOSM member organizations


Hong Kong - The Scout Association of Hong Kong: Full Member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement Aruba - Scouting Aruba: Associate Member of the Interamerican Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement French Polynesia - Conseil du Scoutisme polynsien: Associate Member of the Asia-Pacific Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement Macau - Associao de Escoteiros de Macau: Associate Member of the Asia-Pacific Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement Curaao, Sint Maarten and the Caribbean Netherlands (former Netherlands Antilles) - Scouting Antiano: Associate Member of the Interamerican Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement

Countries and territories with Scouting run by overseas branches of WOSM member organizations
Sovereign countries
Served by the Boy Scouts of America Federated States of Micronesia - Scouting in the Federated States of Micronesia - Aloha Council of the Boy Scouts of America Marshall Islands - Scouting in the Marshall Islands - Aloha Council of the Boy Scouts of America Palau - Scouting in Palau - Aloha Council of the Boy Scouts of America Served by The Scout Association (UK) Antigua and Barbuda - Antigua and Barbuda Branch of The Scout Association Saint Kitts and Nevis - The Scout Association of Saint Kitts and Nevis Solomon Islands - Solomon Islands branch of The Scout Association Tonga - Tonga branch of The Scout Association Tuvalu - Tuvalu Scout Association Vanuatu - Vanuatu branch of The Scout Association

Served by Scouts Australia Nauru - Scouting in Nauru

Non-sovereign territories
Australia Christmas Island - Scouts Australia Cocos (Keeling) Islands - Scouts Australia Norfolk Island - Scouts Australia Denmark Faroe Islands - Froya Sktar Greenland - Grnlands Spejderkorps

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members France French Guiana - Scouting in French Guiana Guadeloupe and Saint Martin - Scouting in Guadeloupe et Saint Martin Martinique - Scouts et Guides de Martinique Mayotte - Scouting in Mayotte New Caledonia - Scouting in New Caledonia Runion - Scouting on Runion Saint Pierre and Miquelon - Scouting in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna - Scouting in Wallis and Futuna

124

New Zealand Cook Islands - Cook Islands Boy Scout Association Niue - Scouting New Zealand Tokelau - Scouting New Zealand United Kingdom Anguilla - The Scout Association of Anguilla Bermuda - The Scout Association of Bermuda Cayman Islands - The Scout Association of the Cayman Islands Falkland Islands - Scouting and Guiding in the Falkland Islands Gibraltar - The Scout Association of Gibraltar Montserrat - The Scout Association of Montserrat Saint Helena and Ascension Island - Scouting and Guiding on Saint Helena and Ascension Island Turks and Caicos Islands - The Scout Association of the Turks and Caicos British Virgin Islands - The Scout Association of the British Virgin Islands

United States American Samoa - Scouting in American Samoa - Aloha Council of the Boy Scouts of America Guam - Scouting in Guam - Aloha Council of the Boy Scouts of America Northern Marianas Islands - Scouting in the Northern Mariana Islands - Aloha Council of the Boy Scouts of America Puerto Rico - Puerto Rico Council of the Boy Scouts of America United States Virgin Islands - Virgin Islands Council of the Boy Scouts of America

'Potential member countries' listed by WOSM


In 2008, WOSM listed 29 sovereign countries as potential members. Ten of them are overseas branches of WOSM accredited National Scout Organizations (marked by *).[3] Afghanistan - Afghanistan Scout Association Antigua and Barbuda - Antigua and Barbuda Branch of The Scout Association* Central African Republic - Fdration du scoutisme centrafricain Republic of the Congo - Association des Scouts et Guides du Congo Djibouti - Association des Scouts de Djibouti East Timor - Unio Nacional dos Escuteiros de Timor Leste Equatorial Guinea - Scouting in Equatorial Guinea

Eritrea - National Scout Association of Eritrea Guinea-Bissau - Corpo Nacional de Escutas da Guin-Bissau

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members Iran - Iran Scout Organization Iraq - Iraq Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Council Kyrgyzstan - Scouting in Kyrgyzstan Mali - Scouting in Mali Marshall Islands - Scouting in the Marshall Islands* Federated States of Micronesia - Scouting in the Federated States of Micronesia* Nauru - Scouting in Nauru* Palau - Scouting in Palau* Saint Kitts and Nevis - The Scout Association of Saint Kitts and Nevis* Samoa - Scouting in Samoa So Tom and Prncipe - Associao dos Escuteiros de So Tom e Prncipe Solomon Islands - Solomon Islands branch of The Scout Association* Somalia - Scouting in Somalia Tonga - Tonga branch of The Scout Association* Turkmenistan - Scouting in Turkmenistan Tuvalu - Tuvalu Scout Association* Uzbekistan - Scouting in Uzbekistan

125

Vanuatu - Vanuatu branch of The Scout Association* Vietnam - Vietnamese Scout Association

Countries with no Scouting organization


In 2008, WOSM listed six sovereign countries as without Scouting. The People's Republic of China, with assistance from the Asia-Pacific Region, now has a Scout association in its infancy, hence it has been moved to the next section. Andorra - Scouting in Andorra Burma - Burmese Scouting prior to 1962 Cuba - Cuban Scouting prior to 1961 and in exile North Korea - shared history with Korea Scout Association prior to 1950 Laos - Laotian Scouting prior to 1975 and in exile

Other status
Antarctica - Scouting in the Antarctic Kosovo - Scouting in Kosovo-partially recognized People's Republic of China (mainland China) - Scouting in Mainland China Somaliland - Scouting in Somaliland-self-proclaimed unrecognized functional state within Somalia South Sudan - Scouting in South Sudan-independent July 2011, status unmentioned Vatican City - Scouting in the Vatican City Western Sahara - Scouting in Western Sahara

List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members

126

References
[1] "Triennal review: Census as at 1 December 2010" (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 22261/ 199900/ file/ Census. pdf). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2011-01-13. [2] "Some statistics" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ around_the_world/ countries/ national_scout_organisations/ some_statistics). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2010-03-30. [3] "Scouting elsewhere" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ around_the_world/ countries/ scouting_elsewhere). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2008-07-10.

World Scout Bureau (1979), Scouting 'round the World. Le scoutisme travers le monde. 1979 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0 World Organization of the Scout Movement (1990), Scouting 'round the World. Facts and Figures on the World Scout Movement. 1990 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0

External links
WOSM: Scouting around the World (http://www.scout.org/satw/index.shtml)

Methodism
Methodism (from Greek: - methodos, "pursuit of knowledge"[1]) is a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide.[2] The movement traces its roots to John Wesley's[3] evangelistic revival movement within Anglicanism.[4][5] His younger brother Charles was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church.[6] George Whitefield, another significant leader in the movement, was known for his unorthodox ministry of itinerant open-air preaching.[7] The Methodist Church is known for its missionary work,[8] and its establishment of hospitals, universities, orphanages, soup kitchens, and schools to follow Jesus' command to spread the Good News and serve all people.[9] Wesley, along with his brother, founded the Holy Club while they were at Oxford, where John was a fellow and later a lecturer at Lincoln College.[10] The holy club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were branded as "Methodist" by students at Oxford who derided the methodical way they ordered their lives. Wesley took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour. Initially Whitefield and the Wesleys merely sought reform, by way of a return to the gospel, within the Church of England, but the movement spread with revival and soon a significant number of Anglican clergy became known as Methodists in the mid-18th century.[11] The movement did not form a separate denomination in England until after John Wesley's death in 1791. Although Wesley and the majority of his followers were decidedly Arminian in their theological outlook, George Whitefield, Howell Harris,[12] and Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists, and the Presbyterian Church of Wales originated from the preaching of Harris and Whitfield. The influence of Whitefield and Lady Huntingdon on the Church of England was a factor in the founding of the Free Church of England in 1844. Through vigorous missionary activity Methodism spread throughout the British Empire and, mostly through Whitefield's preaching during what historians call the First Great Awakening, colonial America. After Whitefield's death in 1770, however, American Methodism entered a more lasting Wesleyan and Arminian phase of development. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy,em but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside of organized religion at that time.[13] Wesley himself thought it wrong to preach outside a church building until persuaded otherwise by Whitefield.[14] Doctrinally, the branches of Methodism following the Wesleys are Arminian, while those following Harris and Whitefield are Calvinistic.methdoct Wesley maintained the Arminian doctrines that were dominant in the 18th-century Church of England, while Whitefield adopted Calvinism through his contacts with Calvinists in Scotland and New

Methodism England. This caused serious strains on the relationship between Whitefield and Wesley, with Wesley becoming quite hostile toward Whitefield in what had been previously very close relations. Whitefield consistently begged Wesley not to let these differences sever their friendship and, in time their friendship was restored, though this was seen by many of Whitefield's followers to be a doctrinal compromise.[15] As a final testimony of their friendship, John Wesley's sermon on Whitefield's death is full of praise and affection.[16] Methodism has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Both Whitefield and the Wesleys themselves greatly valued the Anglican liturgy and tradition, and the Methodist worship in The Book of Offices was based on the 1662 Book of Common Prayer.[17]

127

History
See John Wesley and George Whitefield for a much more complete discussion of early Methodism.

Wesleyan revival
The Methodist revival originated in Epworth, North Lincolnshire, England. It began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The movement focused on Bible study and a methodical approach to scriptures and Christian living. The name "methodist" was a pejorative name given to a small society of students at Oxford who met together between 1729 and 1735 for the purpose of mutual improvement, given because of their methodistic habits. They were accustomed to receiving communion every week, fasting regularly, and abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury. They also frequently visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners. The early Methodists acted against perceived apathy in the Church of England, preaching in the open air and establishing Methodist societies John Wesley wherever they went. These societies were divided into groups called classes intimate meetings where individuals were encouraged to confess their sins to one another and to build each other up. They also took part in love feasts which allowed for the sharing of testimony, a key feature of early Methodists. George Whitefield, another significant leader in the movement, and one of the Wesley brothers' fellow students at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox ministry of itinerant open-air preaching. Methodist preachers were notorious for their enthusiastic sermons and often accused of fanaticism. In those days, many members of England's established church feared that new doctrines promulgated by the Methodists, such as the necessity of a new birth for salvation, of justification by faith, and of the constant and sustained action of the Holy Spirit upon the believer's soul, would produce ill effects upon weak minds. Theophilus Evans, an early critic of the movement, even wrote that it was "the natural Tendency of their Behaviour, in Voice and Gesture and horrid Expressions, to make People mad." In one of his prints, William Hogarth likewise attacked Methodists as "enthusiasts" full of "Credulity, Superstition and Fanaticism." But the Methodists resisted the many attacks against their movement. John Wesley came under the influence of the Moravians, and of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, while George Whitefield adopted Calvinistic views. Consequently, their followers separated, those of Whitefield becoming Calvinistic Methodists. Wesleyan Methodists have followed Arminian theology.

Methodism

128

Missions to America
In 1766, Reverend Laurence Coughlan arrived in Newfoundland and opened a school at Black Head in Conception Bay.[18] In the late 1760s, two Methodist lay preachers emigrated to America and formed societies. Philip Embury began the work in New York at the instigation of fellow Irish Methodist Barbara Heck. Soon, Captain Webb from the British Army aided him. He formed a society in Philadelphia and traveled along the coast. In 1770, two authorized Methodist preachers, Richard Boardman and Joseph Pilmoor, arrived from the British Connexion. They were immediately preceded by the unauthorized Robert Williams who quietly set about supporting himself by publishing American editions of Wesley's hymnbooks without obtaining permission to do so. These men were soon followed by others, including Francis Asbury. Asbury reorganized the mid-Atlantic work in accordance with the Wesleyan model. Internal conflict Francis Asbury was sent to America by characterized this period. Missionaries displaced most of the local preachers Wesley and irritated many of the leading lay members. During the American Revolution, "the mid-Atlantic work" (as Wesley called it) diminished, and, by 1778, the work was reduced to one circuit. Asbury refused to leave. He remained in Delaware during this period. Robert Strawbridge began a Methodist work in Maryland at the same time as Embury began his work in New York. They did not work together and did not know of each other's existence. Strawbridge ordained himself and organized a circuit. He trained many very influential assistants who became some of the first leaders of American Methodism. His work grew rapidly both in numbers and in geographical spread. The British missionaries discovered Strawbridge's work and annexed it into the American connection. However, the native preachers continued to work side-by-side with the missionaries, and they continued to recruit and dispatch more native preachers. Southern Methodism was not dependent on missionaries in the same way as mid-Atlantic Methodism. Up until this time, with the exception of Strawbridge, none of the missionaries or American preachers was ordained. Consequently, the Methodist people received the sacraments at the hands of ministers from established Anglican churches. Most of the Anglican priests were Loyalists who fled to England, New York or Canada during the war. In the absence of Anglican ordination, a group of native preachers ordained themselves. This caused a split between the Asbury faction and the southern preachers. Asbury mediated the crisis by convincing the southern preachers to wait for Wesley's response to the sacramental crisis. That response came in 1784. At that time, Wesley sent the Rev. Dr. Thomas Coke to America to form an independent American Methodist church. The native circuit riders met in late December. Thomas Coke, the first Methodist bishop Coke had orders to ordain Asbury as a joint superintendent of the new church. However, Asbury turned to the assembled conference and said he would not accept it unless the preachers voted him into that office. This was done, and from that moment forward, the general superintendents received their authority from the conference. Later, Coke convinced the general conference that he and Asbury were bishops and added the title to the discipline. It caused a great deal of controversy. Wesley did not approve of 'bishops' who had not been ordained by bishops. By the 1792 general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the controversy relating to episcopal power boiled over. Ultimately, the delegates sided with Bishop Asbury. However, the Republican Methodists split off from the Methodist Episcopal Church (MEC) in 1792. Also, William Hammet (a missionary ordained by Wesley who

Methodism traveled to America from Antigua with Bishop Coke), led a successful revolt against the MEC in 1791. He opposed Bishop Asbury and the episcopacy. He formed his people into the American Primitive Methodist Church (not directly connected with the British Primitive Methodist Church). Both American churches operated in the Southeast and presaged the episcopal debates of later reformers. Regardless, Asbury remained the leading bishop of early American Methodism and did not share his "appointing" authority until Bishop McKendree was elected in 1808. Coke had problems with the American preachers. His authoritarian style alienated many. Soon, he became a missionary bishop of sorts and never had much influence in America.

129

Beliefs
Most Methodists identify with the Arminian conception of free will, through God's prevenient grace, as opposed to the theological determinism of absolute predestination. This distinguishes Methodism from the Calvinist tradition prevalent in Reformed churches. In strongly Reformed areas such as Wales, however, Calvinistic Methodists remain, also called the Presbyterian Church of Wales. The Calvinist Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion was also strongly associated with the Methodist revival. John Wesley is studied by Methodist ministerial students and trainee local preachers for his interpretation of Church practice and doctrine. One popular expression of Methodist doctrine is in the hymns of Charles Wesley. Since enthusiastic congregational singing was a part of the early Evangelical movement, Wesleyan theology took root and spread through this channel.[19][20] Methodism affirms the traditional Christian belief in the triune Godhead: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, as well as the orthodox understanding of the consubstantial humanity and divinity of Jesus. Most Methodists also affirm the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed. In devotional terms, these confessions are said to embrace the biblical witness to God's activity in creation, encompass God's gracious self-involvement in the dramas of history, and anticipate the consummation of God's reign. Sacramental theology within Methodism tends to follow the historical interpretations and liturgies of Anglicanism. This stems from the origin of much Methodist theology and practice within the teachings of John and Charles Wesley, both of whom were priests of the Church of England. As affirmed by the Articles of Religion, Methodists recognize two Sacraments as being ordained of Christ: Baptism and Holy Communion.[21] Methodism also affirms that there are many other Means of Grace which often function in a sacramental manner, but most Methodists do not recognize them as being Dominical sacraments. Methodists, stemming from John Wesley's own practices of theological reflection, make use of tradition, drawing primarily from the teachings of the Church fathers, as a source of authority. Though not infallible like holy Scripture, tradition may serve as a lens through which Scripture is interpreted (see also Prima scriptura and the Wesleyan Quadrilateral). Theological discourse for Methodists almost always makes use of Scripture read inside the great theological tradition of Christendom. It is a historical position of the church that any disciplined theological work calls for the careful use of reason. By reason, it is said, one reads and is able to interpret Scripture coherently and consistently. By reason one determines whether one's Christian witness is clear. By reason one asks questions of faith and seeks to understand God's action and will. Methodism insists that personal salvation always implies Christian mission and service to the world. Scriptural holiness entails more than personal piety; love of God is always linked with love of neighbours and a passion for justice and renewal in the life of the world. A distinctive liturgical feature of Methodism is the use of Covenant services. Although practice varies between different national churches, most Methodist churches annually follow the call of John Wesley for a renewal of their covenant with God. It is not unusual in Methodism for each congregation to normally hold an annual Covenant Service on the first convenient Sunday of the year, and Wesley's Covenant Prayer is still used, with minor

Methodism modification, in the order of service. In it, Wesley avers man's total reliance upon God, as the following excerpt demonstrates: Christ has many services to be done. Some are easy, others are difficult. Some bring honour, others bring reproach. Some are suitable to our natural inclinations and temporal interests, others are contrary to both... Yet the power to do all these things is given to us in Christ, who strengthens us. ...I am no longer my own but yours. Put me to what you will, rank me with whom you will; put me to doing, put me to suffering; let me be employed for you or laid aside for you, exalted for you or brought low for you; let me be full, let me be empty, let me have all things, let me have nothing; I freely and wholeheartedly yield all things to your pleasure and disposal. Wesley Covenant Prayer

130

Ecumenical relations with other branches of Christianity


In October of 1999, an executive committee of the World Methodist Council resolved to explore the possibility of its Member Churches becoming associated with the doctrinal agreement which had been reached by the Catholic Church and Lutheran World Federation (LWF). In May of 2006, the International Methodist-Catholic Dialogue Commission completed its most recent report, entitled "The Grace Given You in Christ: Catholics and Methodists Reflect Further on the Church," and submitted the text to Methodist and Catholic authorities. In July of the same year, in Seoul, South Korea, the Member Churches of the World Methodist Council (WMC) voted to approve and sign a "Methodist Statement of Association" with the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification (JDDJ), the agreement which was reached and officially accepted in 1999 by the Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation and which proclaimed that "Together we confess: By grace alone, in faith in Christs saving work and not because of any merit on our part, we are accepted by God and receive the Holy Spirit, who renews our hearts while equipping and calling us to good works... as sinners our new life is solely due to the forgiving and renewing mercy that God imparts as a gift and we receive in faith, and never can merit in any way," affirming "fundamental doctrinal agreement" concerning justification between the Catholic Church, the LWF, and the World Methodist Council.[22] This is not to say there is perfect agreement between the three denominational traditions; while Catholics and Methodists believe that salvation involves cooperation between God and man, Lutherans believe that God brings about the salvation of individuals without any cooperation on their part. Commenting on the ongoing dialogues with Catholic Church leaders, Rev. Ken Howcroft, Methodist minister and the Ecumenical Officer for the Methodist Church of Great Britain, noted that "these conversations have been immensely fruitful."[23] Methodists are increasingly recognizing that the 15 centuries prior to the Reformation constitute a shared history with Catholics, and are gaining new appreciation for neglected aspects of the Catholic tradition.[24] There are, however, important unresolved doctrinal differences separating Roman Catholicism and Methodism, which include "the nature and validity of the ministry of those who preside at the Eucharist, the precise meaning of the Eucharist as the sacramental memorial of Christs saving death and resurrection, the particular way in which Christ is present in Holy Communion, and the link between eucharistic communion and ecclesial communion.[25] In the 1960s, the Methodist Church of Great Britain made ecumenical overtures to the Church of England, aimed at denominational union. Formally, these failed when they were rejected by the Church of England's General Synod in 1972; conversations and co-operation continued, however, leading in 2003 to the signing of a covenant between the two churches.[26] From the 1970s onward, the Methodist Church also started several Local Ecumenical Projects (LEPs, later renamed Local Ecumenical Partnerships) with local neighbouring denominations, which involved sharing churches, schools and in some cases ministers. In many towns and villages there are United Churches which are sometimes with Anglican or Baptist churches, but most commonly are Methodist and URC, simply because in terms of belief, practice and churchmanship, many Methodists see themselves as closer to the United Reformed Church than to other denominations such as the Church of England. In the 1990s and early 21st century, the British

Methodism Methodist Church was involved in the Scottish Church Initiative for Union, seeking greater unity with the established and Presbyterian Church of Scotland, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the United Reformed Church in Scotland.[27] Methodist Churches in the United States have also strengthened ties with other denominations. In April 2005, bishops in the United Methodist Church approved A Proposal for Interim Eucharistic Sharing. This document was the first step toward full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA). The ELCA approved this same document in August 2005.[28] At the 2008 General Conference, the United Methodist Church approved full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.[29] The UMC is also in dialogue with the Episcopal Church for full communion by 2012.[30] The two denominations are working on a document called "Confessing Our Faith Together."

131

Great Britain
The original body founded as a result of Wesley's work was later known as the Wesleyan Methodist Church. Schisms within the original (Wesleyan) Methodist church, and independent revivals, led to the formation of a number of separate denominations calling themselves Methodist. The largest of these were the Primitive Methodist church, deriving from a revival at Mow Cop in Staffordshire, the Bible Christians and the Methodist New Connexion. The original church became known as the Wesleyan Methodist Church to distinguish it from these bodies. In 1907, a union of smaller groups with the Methodist New Connexion and Bible Christian Church brought about the British "United Methodist Church", then the three major streams of British Methodism united in 1932 to form the current Methodist Church of Great Britain. The Wesleyan Reform Union[31] and the Independent Methodist Connexion[32] still remain separate. The Primitive Methodist Church had branches in the USA which still continue.

Methodist Central Hall Westminster, erected to mark the centenary of John Wesley's death.

Traditionally, Methodism was particularly prominent in Cornwall and (in its Calvinistic form)in Wales, both regions noted for their non-conformism and distrust of the Church of England. It was also very strong in the old mill towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire, where the Methodists stressed that the working classes were equal to the upper classes in the eyes of God. British Methodism does not have bishops; however, it has always been characterized by a strong central organization, the Connexion, which holds an annual Conference (note that the Church retains the 18th century spelling "connexion" for many purposes). The Connexion is divided into Districts in the charge of a Chairman (who may be male or female). Methodist districts often correspond approximately, in geographical terms, to counties as do Church of England dioceses. The districts are divided into circuits governed by the Circuit Meeting and led and administrated principally by a superintendent minister. Ministers are appointed to Circuits rather than to individual churches (though some large inner-city churches, known as Central Halls, are designated as circuits in themselves Westminster Central Hall, opposite Westminster Abbey in central London is the best known). Most circuits have fewer ministers than churches, and the majority of services are led by lay local preachers, or by supernumerary ministers (ministers who have retired, called supernumerary because they are not counted for official purposes in the numbers of ministers for the circuit in which they are listed). The superintendent and other ministers are assisted in the leadership and administration of the Circuit by lay Circuit Stewards, who collectively with the ministers form what is normally known as the Circuit Leadership Team.

Methodism The Methodist Council also helps to run a number of schools, including two leading Public Schools in East Anglia: Culford School and The Leys. It helps to promote an all round education with a strong Christian ethos.

132

United States
The First Great Awakening was a religious movement among colonials in the 1730s and 1740s. The English Calvinist Methodist preacher George Whitefield played a major role, traveling across the colonies and preaching in a dramatic and emotional style, accepting everyone as his audience. The new style of sermons and the way people practiced their faith breathed new life into religion in America. People became passionately and emotionally involved in their religion, rather than passively listening to intellectual discourse in a detached manner. People began to study the Bible at home, which effectively decentralized the means of informing the public on religious matters and was akin to the individualistic trends present in Europe during the Protestant Reformation.

Barratt's Chapel, built in 1780, is the oldest Methodist Church in the United States built for that purpose. The church was a meeting place of Asbury and Coke.

The first American Methodist bishops were Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury, whose boyhood home, Bishop Asbury Cottage, in West Bromwich, England, is now a museum. Upon the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America at the Baltimore Christmas Conference in 1784, Coke (already ordained in the Church of England) ordained Asbury a deacon, elder, and bishop each on three successive days. Circuit riders, many of whom were laymen, traveled by horseback to preach the gospel and establish churches until there was scarcely any crossroad community in America without a Methodist expression of Christianity. One of the most famous circuit riders was Robert Strawbridge who lived in the vicinity of Carroll County, Maryland soon after arriving in the Colonies around 1760. The Second Great Awakening was a nationwide wave of revivals, from 1790 to 1840. In New England, the renewed interest in religion inspired a wave of social activism among Yankees; Methodism grew rapidly and established several colleges, notably Boston University. In the "burned over district" of western New York, the spirit of revival burned brightly. Methodism saw the emergence of a Holiness movement. In the west, especially at Cane Ridge, Kentucky and in Tennessee, the revival strengthened the Methodists and the Baptists. Disputes over slavery placed the church in difficulty in the first half of the 19th century, with the northern church leaders fearful of a split with the South, and reluctant to take a stand. The Wesleyan Methodist Methodist membership (blue) rose significantly Connexion (later became The Wesleyan Church) and the Free in the period following the Second Great Methodist Churches were formed by staunch abolitionists, and the Free Awakening, in the early 19th century. Methodists were especially active in the Underground Railroad, which helped to free the slaves. Finally, in a much larger split, in 1845 at Louisville, the churches of the slaveholding states left the Methodist Episcopal Church and formed The Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The northern and southern branches were reunited in 1939, when slavery was no longer an issue. In this merger also joined the Methodist Protestant Church. Some southerners, conservative in theology, and strongly segregationist, opposed the merger, and formed the Southern Methodist Church in 1940.

Methodism The Third Great Awakening from 1858 to 1908 saw enormous growth in Methodist membership, and a proliferation of institutions such as colleges (e.g., Morningside College). Methodists were often involved in the Missionary Awakening and the Social Gospel Movement. The awakening in so many cities in 1858 started the movement, but in the North it was interrupted by the Civil War. In the South, on the other hand, the Civil War stimulated revivals, especially in Lee's army. In 19141917 many Methodist ministers made strong pleas for world peace. To meet their demands, President Woodrow Wilson (a Presbyterian), promised "a war to end all wars." In the 1930s many Methodists favored isolationist policies. Thus in 1936, Methodist Bishop James Baker, of the San Francisco Conference, released a poll of ministers showing 56% opposed warfare. However, the Methodist Federation did call for a boycott of Japan, which had invaded China and was disrupting missionary activity there.[33] In Chicago, sixty-two local African Methodist Episcopal churches voted their support for the Roosevelt administration's policy, while opposing any plan to send American troops overseas to fight. When war came in 1941, the vast majority of Methodists strongly supported the national war effort, but there were also a few (673[34]) conscientious objectors. The United Methodist Church was formed in 1968 as a result of a merger between the Evangelical United Brethren (EUB) and the Methodist Church. The former church had resulted from mergers of several groups of German Methodist heritage. There was no longer any need or desire to worship in the German language. The merged church had approximately 9 million members as of the late 1990s. While United Methodist Church in America membership has been declining, associated groups in developing countries are growing rapidly.[35] American Methodist churches are generally organized on a connectional model, related but not identical to that used in Britain. Pastors are assigned to congregations by bishops, distinguishing it from presbyterian government. Methodist denominations typically give lay members representation at regional and national meetings (conferences) at which the business of the church is conducted, making it different from most episcopal government (The Episcopal Church USA, however, has a representational polity giving lay members, priests, and bishops voting privileges). This connectional organizational model differs further from the congregational model, for example of Baptist, and Congregationalist Churches, among others. In addition to the United Methodist Church, there are over 40 other denominations that descend from John Wesley's Methodist movement. Some, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the AME Zion Church,[36] the Free Methodist Church, the Wesleyan Church (formerly Wesleyan Methodist Connection), the Congregational Methodist Church and First Congregational Methodist Church are explicitly Methodist. The Primitive Methodist Church is a continuing branch of the former British Primitive Methodist Church. Others do not call themselves Methodist, but are related to varying degrees. The Evangelical Church was formed by a group of EUB congregations who dissented from the merger which formed the United Methodist Church. The United Methodist Church has also taken steps to strengthen ties with its fellow Bishop Richard Allen, the founder of Methodist churches, as well as other Protestant denominations in the United the African Methodist Episcopal States. Since 1985, the UMC has been exploring a possible merger with three Church. historically African-American Methodist denominations: the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, and the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church.[37] A Commission on Pan Methodist Cooperation and Union formed in 2000 to carry out work on such a merger.[38] The holiness revival was primarily among people of Methodist persuasion , who felt that the church had once again become apathetic, losing the Wesleyan zeal. Some important events of this revival were the writings of Phoebe Palmer during the mid-19th century, the establishment of the first of many holiness camp meetings at Vineland, New Jersey in 1867, and the founding of Asbury College, (1890), and other similar institutions in the US around the turn of the 20th century.

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Methodism From its beginning in England, Methodism laid emphasis on social service and education. Numerous originally Methodist institutions of higher education were founded in the United States in the early half of the 19th century, and today altogether there are about twenty universities and colleges named as "Methodist" or "Wesleyan" still in existence. Additionally, the Methodist Church has created a number of Wesley Foundation establishments on college campuses. These ministries are created to reach out to students, and often provide student housing to a few students in exchange for service to the ministry. There are a wide range of theological and political beliefs in The United Methodist Church. For example, former Republican President George W. Bush is a member, and former Vice President Dick Cheney attends the United Methodist Church (though he is not a member). Democrat Hillary Clinton is a member of the United Methodist Church. United Methodist elders and pastors may marry and have families. They are placed in congregations by their bishop. Elders and pastors can either ask for a new appointment or their church can request that they be re-appointed elsewhere. If the elder is a full-time pastor, the church is required to provide either a house or a housing allowance for the pastor. Whereas most American Methodist worship is modeled after the Anglican Communion's Book of Common Prayer, a unique feature was the once practiced observance of the season of Kingdomtide, which encompasses the last thirteen weeks before Advent, thus dividing the long season after Pentecost into two discrete segments. During Kingdomtide, Methodist liturgy emphasizes charitable work and alleviating the suffering of the poor. This practice was last seen in The book of Worship for Church and Home by The United Methodist Church, 1965, and The Book of Hymns, 1966. While some congregations and their pastors might still follow this old calendar, the Revised Common Lectionary, with its naming and numbering of Days in the Calendar of the Church Year, is used widely. However, congregations who strongly identify with their African American roots and tradition would not usually follow the Revised Common Lectionary. Adding more complexity to the mix, there are United Methodist congregations who orient their worship to the "free" church tradition, so particular liturgies are not observed. The United Methodist Book of Worship and The Hymns of the United Methodist Church are voluntarily followed in varying degrees. Such churches employ the liturgy and rituals therein as optional resources, but their use is not mandatory.

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Social principles and participation in movements


From the movements beginnings, with its roots in Wesleyan theology, Methodism has distinguished itself as a religious movement strongly tied to social issues. As father of the movement, John Wesley injected much of his own social philosophy into the movement as a whole. Wesleys personal social philosophy was characterized by an instructive reluctance to criticize existing institutions [which] was overborne by indignation at certain abuses which cried out for rectification.[39] The Methodist Churchs responses to injustices in society are embodiments of the Wesleyan traditions of mercy and justice. At the end of the 19th- and beginning of the 20th-centuries, the Methodist Church responded strongly to what it regarded as social ills (i.e. gambling, use of intoxicating beverages, etc.) with attention to the Methodist doctrines of sanctification and perfection through Christ. In the United States, todays United Methodist Church continues to embody Methodist traditions in their response to social needs through the General Board of Church and Society and the General Board of Global Ministries.

Methodism Attitudes toward slavery Like most other national organizations, the Methodist Church experienced tensions and rifts over the slavery dispute. Both sides of the argument used the doctrines of the movement and scriptural evidence to support their case. The initial statement of the Methodist position on slavery was delivered in the Conference minutes from 1780s annual conference. After a comprehensive statement of the varied reasons slavery goes against the laws of God, man, and nature, the Conference answered in the affirmative to the question, do we pass our disapprobation on all our friends who keep slaves and advise their freedom?[39] This position was put into action in 1783. Preachers from the Baltimore Conference were required, under threat of suspension, to free their slaves.[39] By 1784, similar requirements were made of Methodists as a whole, laity and clergy alike. The negative reaction to this requirement was so strong that it had to be abandoned, but the rule was kept in the Book of Discipline. As slavery disputes intensified in the 19th century, there emerged two doctrines within the Methodist Church. Churches in the South were primarily proslavery, while northern churches started antislavery movements. The apologia of the Southern churches was largely based in Old Testament scriptures, which often represent slavery as a part of the natural order of things.[39] New Testament writings were sometimes used to support the case for slavery as well. Some of the writings of Paul, especially in Ephesians, instruct slaves to remain obedient to their masters. Southern ideology also argued that slavery was beneficial for slaves, as well as their owners, saying that they were offered protections from many ills because of their slavery.[39] The antislavery movement in northern churches strengthened and solidified in response to the pro-slavery apologia of Southern churches. Civil War and Reconstruction Many Northerners had only recently become religious (thanks to the Second Great Awakening) and religion was a powerful force in their lives. No denomination was more active in supporting the Union than the Methodist Episcopal Church. Carwardine argues that for many Methodists, the victory of Lincoln in 1860 heralded the arrival of the kingdom of God in America. They were moved into action by a vision of freedom for slaves, freedom from the terror unleashed on godly abolitionists, release from the Slave Power's evil grip on the state, and a new direction for the Union.[40] Methodists formed a major element of the popular support for the Radical Republicans with their hard line toward the white South. Dissident Methodists left the church.[41] The Methodist family magazine Ladies' Repository promoted Christian family activism. Its articles provided moral uplift to women and children. It portrayed the War as a great moral crusade against a decadent Southern civilization corrupted by slavery. It recommended activities that family members could perform in order to aid the Union cause.[42] During Reconstruction the Methodists took the lead in helping form Methodist churches for Freedmen, and moving into Southern cities even to the point of taking control, with Army help, of buildings that had belonged to the southern branch of the church.[43][44] To help the Freedmen the church set up the Freedmens Aid Society focused on creating an educational system for former slaves.[45] This organization, along with the churchs Department of Education for Negroes of the Board of Education, helped provide education to former slaves and their children. Within three months of its organization, the Freedmens Aid Society had begun work in the South. By the end of the first year, the society had more than fifty teachers. Education of young people The Methodist church has always been strongly oriented towards the religious lives of the young. In 1848, the General Conference stated, when the Church has collected...a great population born within [her] bosom, she cannot fulfill her high mission unless she takes measure to prevent this population from being withdrawn from under her care in the period of its youth.[39] The first two American bishops of the Methodist Church, Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury, opened a preparatory school in Abingdon, Maryland in 1787.[39] The school was a strict environment, with seven hours a day devoted to study. The venture ended when a fire destroyed the building in

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Methodism which the school was housed. In the 1870s, there was a broad movement toward incorporating Sunday schools into the doctrines of churches as a way to take ownership of the Christian education of children. This was the first great interdenominational movement the United States had ever seen. Methodists invested heavily in the cause of Christian education because of their emphasis on the childs right to and ability to respond to divine influences from the beginning.[45] Beginning after World War II, the Methodist churches in the United States continued developing, at a much greater pace, ministries on Universities, Colleges, Junior Colleges and other higher education institutions, on campuses of both church-owned and state schools throughout the United States and Canada, and to a lesser degree in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Methodism boasts the largest number of higher education ministries, including teaching positions, of any Protestant denomination in the world in close competition with the Southern Baptist Convention. This emphasis is, in part, a reflection of the Methodist movement's earliest roots in The Oxford Holy Club, founded by John Wesley, his brother Charles, George Whitefield and others as a response to what they saw as the pervasive permissiveness and debauchery of Oxford University, and specifically Lincoln College when they attended. It is from the Holy Club that the earliest Methodist societies were formed and spread.[45][46] Temperance movement The temperance movement was the social concern which most broadly captured the interest and enthusiasm of the Methodist Church. The movement was strongly tied to John Wesleys theology and social principles. Wesleys abhorrence of alcohol use was taken up by American Methodists, many of whom were active and prominent leaders within the movement. The temperance movement appealed strongly to the Methodist doctrines of sanctification and Christian perfection. The Methodist presentation of sanctification includes the understanding that justification before God comes through faith. Therefore, those who believe are made new in Christ. The believers response to this sanctification then is to uphold Gods word in the world. A large part of this, especially in the late-19th century, was to be their brothers keepers, or [...] their brothers brothers.[47] Because of this sense of duty toward the other members of the church, many Methodists were personally temperate out of a hope that their restraint would give strength to their brothers. The Methodist stance against drinking was strongly stated in the Book of Discipline. Initially, the issue taken was limited to distilled liquors, but quickly evolved into teetotalism and Methodists were commonly known to abstain from all alcoholic beverages.[39] In 1880, the general conference included in the Discipline a broad statement which included, Temperance is a Christian virtue, Scripturally enjoined.[47] Due to the temperate stance of the church, the practice of Eucharist was altered to this day, Methodist churches most commonly use grape juice symbolically during Communion rather than wine. The Methodist church distinguished itself from many other denominations in their beliefs about state control of alcohol. Where many other denominations, including Roman Catholics, Protestant Episcopalians, Lutherans, and Unitarians, believed that the ill-effects of liquor should be controlled by self-discipline and individual restraint, Methodists believed that it was the duty of the government to enforce restrictions on the use of alcohol.[47] In 1904, the Board of Temperance was created by the General Conference to help push the Temperance agenda. The women of the Methodist Church were strongly mobilized by the temperance movement. In 1879, a Methodist woman, Frances E. Willard, was voted to the presidency of the Womens Christian Temperance Union, an organization which was characterized by heavy Methodist participation. To this day, the Womens Division of the General Board of Global Missions holds property across on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC, which was built using funds provided by laypeople. Women of the church were responsible for 70% of the $650,000 it cost to construct the building in 1922. The building was intended to serve as the Methodist Churchs social reform presence of the Hill. The Board of Temperance, Prohibition and Public Morals was especially prominent within the building.[48]

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Methodism

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Other countries
An estimated 75 million people worldwide belong to the Methodist community, however the number has gone into steady decline, especially in North America, where an increasing number of people are leaving the old-line churches to join theologically conservative denominations.[49] Almost all Methodist churches are members of a consultative body called the World Methodist Council, which is headquartered at Lake Junaluska, North Carolina, in the United States.
World Methodist Council at Lake Junaluska, North Carolina a consultive body linking most Methodist groups of the world. The headquarters contains a museum of Methodism and a small park the Susannah Wesley Herb Garden

Caribbean
Methodism came to the Caribbean in 1760 when the planter, lawyer and Speaker of the Antiguan House of Assembly Nathaniel Gilbert III (~17191774) returned to his sugar estate home in Antigua.[50]

Antigua The story is often told that in 1755, Nathaniel Gilbert, while convalescing, read a treatise of John Wesley, "An Appeal to men of Reason and Religion" sent to him by his brother Francis. As a result of having read this book Gilbert, two years later, journeyed to England with three of his slaves and there in at drawing room meeting arranged in Wandsworth on 15 January 1759, met the preacher John Wesley. He returned to the West Indies that same year and on his subsequent return began to preach to his slaves in Antigua.[50] When Nathaniel Gilbert died in 1774 his work in Antigua was continued by his brother Francis Gilbert to approximately 200 Methodists. However, within a year Francis took ill and had to return to England and the work was carried on by Sophia Campbell ("a Negress") and Mary Alley ("a Mulatto"), two devoted women who kept the flock together with Class and Prayer meetings as best as they could. On 2 April 1778, John Baxter , a local preacher and skilled shipwright from Chatham in England, landed at English harbour in Antigua (now called Nelson's Dockyard) where he was offered a post at the naval dockyard. Baxter was a Methodist and had heard of the work of the Gilberts and their need for a new preacher. He began preaching and meeting with the Methodists leaders, and within a year the Methodist community had grown to 600 persons. By 1783 the first Methodist Chapel was built in Antigua, with John Baxter as the local preacher, where its wooden structure now seated some 2,000 people. St. Barts It was at this time, in 1785, that William Turton (17611817) a Barbadian son of a planter, met John Baxter in Antigua, and later as layman assisted in the Methodist work in the Swedish colony of St. Bartholomew from 1796.[50] In 1786 the missionary endeavour in the Caribbean was officially recognised by the Conference in England, and that same year Rev. Dr. Thomas Coke, having been made Superintendent of the Church two years previously in America by Wesley, was travelling to Nova Scotia, but providence forced his ship to Antigua.

Methodism Jamaica Later Edward Fraser (1798-Aft.1850) a privileged Barbadian slave who in 1818 moved to Bermuda and subsequently met the new minister James Dunbar. The Nova Scotia Methodist Minister noted young Fraser's sincerity and commitment to his congregation and encouraged him by appointing him as assistant. By 1827 Fraser assisted in building a new chapel, was later freed, admitted to the Methodist Ministry to serve in Antigua and Jamaica.[50] Barbados Ann Gill (17791866) a free-born coloured woman of reasonable comfort who, following Rev. William J. Shrewsbury's 1820's preachings used Civil Disobedience in an attempt to thwart magistrate rulings that prevented parishioners holding prayer meetings, to the point of paying and extraordinary 1700.00 in hopes to build a new chapel and having militia appointed by the Governor to protect her home from demolition.[51] In 1884 an attempt was made at autonomy with the formation of two West Indian Conferences, however by 1903 the venture had failed. It was not until the 1960s that another attempt was made at autonomy. This second attempt resulted in the emergence of the Methodist Church in the Caribbean and the Americas (MCCA) in May 1967. In the island of Barbados Francis Godson (18641953) became a Methodist who, having served briefly in several of the Caribbean islands, eventually immersed himself in helping those in hardship of the first world war in Barbados and later was appointed to the Legislative Council there and fought for the Pensioners. He was later followed by renowned Barbadian Augustus Rawle Parkinson (1864-19??) who also was the first principal of the Wesley Hall School in Barbados (which celebrated its 125 anniversary back in September 2009).[50] In more recent times in Barbados, Victor Alphonso Cooke (born 1930) and Lawrence Vernon Harcourt Lewis (born 1932) are strong influences on the Methodist Church on the island.[50] Their contemporary and late member of the Dalkeith Methodist Church, was the former secretary of the University of the West Indies, consultant of the Canadian Training Aid Programme and a man of letters Francis Woodbine Blackman (19222010) it was his research and published works that enlightened much of this information on Caribbean Methodism.[52][53]

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Africa
The adherents of Methodism in Africa are now estimated to number 20 million. The latest figures indicate that the continent's largest groups of Methodists are in Sudan, East Africa, South Africa, Congo-Zaire and Liberia. Ghana The Methodist Church Ghana came into existence as a result of the missionary activities of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, inaugurated with the arrival of Joseph Rhodes Dunwell to the Gold Coast (Ghana) in 1835. Like the mother church, the Methodist Church in Ghana was established by people of Protestant background. Roman Catholic and Anglican missionaries came to the Gold Coast from the 15th century. A school was established in Cape Coast by the Anglicans during the time of Philip Quaque, a Ghanaian priest. Those who came out of this school had scriptural knowledge and scriptural materials supplied by the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge. A member a resulting Bible study groups, William De-Graft, requested Bibles through captain Potter of the ship Congo. Not only were Bibles sent, but also a Methodist missionary. In the first eight years of the Churchs life, 11 out of 21 missionaries who worked in the Gold Coast died. Thomas Birch Freeman, who arrived at the Gold Coast in 1838 was a pioneer of missionary expansion. Between 1838 and 1857 he carried Methodism from the coastal areas to Kumasi in the Asante hinterland of the Gold Coast. He also established Methodist Societies in Badagry and AbeoKuta in Nigeria with the assistance of William De-Graft. By 1854, the church was organized into circuits constituting a district with T.B. Freeman as chairman. Freeman was replaced in 1856 by William West. The district was divided and extended to include areas in the then Gold Coast and Nigeria by the synod in 1878, a move confirmed at the British Conference. The district were Gold Coast (Ghana)

Methodism District, with T.R. Picot as chairman and Yoruba and Popo District, with John Milum as chairman. Methodist evangelization of northern Ghana began in 1910. After a long period of conflict with the colonial government, missionary work was established in 1955. Paul Adu was the first indigenous missionary to northern Ghana. In July 1961, the Methodist Church in Ghana became autonomous, and was called the Methodist Church Ghana, based on a deed of foundation, part of the church's Constitution and Standing Orders. The Methodist Church Ghana has a total membership of close to 600,000. The church has 15 dioceses, 3,814 societies, 1,066 pastors, 15,920 local preachers, 24,100 lay leaders, many schools, an orphanage, hospitals and clinics. Southern Africa Methodism in Southern Africa began as a result of lay Christian work by an Irish soldier of the English Regiment, John Irwin, who was stationed at the Cape and began to hold prayer meetings as early as 1795.[54] The first Methodist lay preacher at the Cape, George Middlemiss, was a soldier of the 72nd regiment of the British Army stationed at the Cape in 1805.[55] This foundation paved the way for missionary work by: Methodist missionary societies from Great Britain, many of whom sent missionaries with the 1820 English settlers to the Western and Eastern Cape. Among the most notable of the early missionaries were Barnabas Shaw and William Shaw.[56][57][58] The largest group was the Wesleyan Methodist Church, but there were a number of others that joined together to form the Methodist Church of South Africa, later known as The Methodist Church of Southern Africa.[59] The Methodist Church of Southern Africa is the largest mainline Christian denomination in South Africa 7.3% of the South African population recorded their religious affiliation as 'Methodist' in the last national census.[60] Peter J. Harley born 24 November 1931 in Acres Goodwood Cape Town is the longest serving Local Preacher in the Cape of Good Hope District. Renowned throughout for the futuristic type of youth programs which today is the norm, teaching young people in disadvantaged areas about terms such organograms, resource, co-ordinator,liaison,scrounger as far back as 1969 way ahead of its time. Harley worked in an that area to quote his original statement in '69 "Our premise was that within every community there are organisations and groupings exercising an influence for good. Organisations like sports clubs, Boy Scouts, Ratepayers Associations etc, etc, including ofcourse the Churches and Mosques as the main sources of good influence. However, through investigation we discovered the these influences for good on a community (including the churches) penetrated the community only up to a point beyond which the influence of the church were either diminished or not felt at all. Even though it was impossible to mark on a map where the good influences diminished or stopped. It was decided rightly or wrongly to make such a marking. That mark became for us a line, a sort of FRONTIER and it was specifically beyond that frontier where we would concentrate our efforts.From 1969 through 1974 they drew up to 450 of the youth in the area unfailingly attending its activities week by week. An outspoken and challenging local preacher, the preached word more often than not sending parishioners home with much food for thought as the unadulterated word is preached as a pure Methodist. The originator of many Bible Study groups throughout the Peninsula of which some are still in operation. Many young people originally from that group have advanced to become leaders in various fields with much thanks and gratefulness to the commitment and dedication of Peter Harley for the spreading of the Gospel and above all: teaching others to teach.[61]

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Methodism Mozambique The Igreja Metodista Unida is one of the largest Christian denominations of Mozambique.

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Asia
China Methodism was brought to China in the fall of 1847 by the Methodist Episcopal Church. The first missionaries sent out were Judson Dwight Collins and Moses Clark White, who sailed from Boston 15 April 1847, and reached Foochow 6 September. They were followed by Henry Hickok and Robert Samuel Maclay, who arrived 15 April 1848. In 1857 it baptized the first convert in connection with its labors. In August 1856, a brick church, called the "Church of the True God" ( ), the first substantial church building erected at Foochow by Protestant Missions, was dedicated to the worship of God. In the winter Flower Lane Church is the first Methodist church of the same year another brick church, located on the hill in the erected in downtown Fuzhou suburbs on the south bank of the Min, was finished and dedicated, called the "Church of Heavenly Peace" ( ). In 1862, the number of members was 87. The Foochow Conference was organized by Isaac W. Wiley on 6 December 1867, by which time the number of members and probationers had reached 2,011. Rev. Hok Chau (also known as Lai-Tong Chau, ) was the first Chinese ordained minister of the South China District of the Methodist Church (incumbent 1877-1916). Benjamin Hobson (1816-1873), a medical missionary sent by the London Missionary Society in 1839, set up a highly successful Wai Ai Clinic ( ) [62] [63] Liang Fa (Leung Fat in Cantonese, , 1789-1855, ordained by the London Missionary Society), Hok Chau and others worked there. Rev. Liang (age 63) baptized Chau (quite young) in 1852. The Methodist Church based in England sent missionary George Piercy to China. In 1851, Piercy went to Guangzhou (Canton), where he worked in a trading company. In 1853, he started a church in Guangzhou. In 1877, Chau was ordained by the Methodist Church, where he pastored for 39 years. [64] [65] In 1867, the mission sent out the first missionaries to Central China, who began work at Kiukiang. In 1869 missionaries were also sent to the capital city Peking, where they laid the foundations of the work of the North China Mission. In November 1880, the West China Mission was established in Sichuan Province. In 1896 the work in the Hinghua prefecture (modern-day Putian) and surrounding regions was also organized as a Mission Conference.[66] In 1947, the Methodist Church in the Republic of China celebrated its centennial. In 1949, however, the Methodist Church moved to Taiwan A former Methodist school in Wuhan (founded with the Kuomintang government. On 21 June 1953, the Taipei 1885) Methodist Church was erected, then local churches and chapels with a baptized membership numbering over 2,500. Various types of educational, medical and social services are provided (including Tunghai University). In 1972 the Methodist Church in the Republic of China became autonomous and the first bishop was installed in 1986.

Methodism India Methodism came to India twice, in 1817 and in 1856, according to P. Dayanandan who has done extensive research on the subject.[67] Dr. Thomas Coke and six other missionaries set sail for India on New Year's Day in 1814. Dr. Coke, then 66, died en route. Rev. James Lynch was the one who finally arrived in Madras (present day Chennai) in 1817 at a place called Black Town (Broadway), later known as George Town. Lynch conducted the first Methodist missionary service on 2 March 1817, in a stable. The first Methodist church was dedicated in 1819 at Royapettah. A chapel at Broadway (Black Town) was later built and dedicated on 25 April 1822. This church was rebuilt in 1844 since the earlier structure was collapsing. At this time there were about 100 Methodist members in all of Madras, and they were either Europeans or Eurasians (European and Indian descent). Among those names associated with the founding period of Methodism in India are Elijah Hoole & Thomas Cryer, who came as CSI English Wesley Church in Broadway, missionaries to Madras. In 1857, the Methodist Episcopal Church Chennai, India. This is one of the first Methodist started its work in India, and with prominent Evangelists like William Churches in India. Taylor the Emmanuel Methodist Church, Vepery, was born in 1874. Famous evangelist Bishop James Mills Thoburn established the Thoburn Memorial Church in calcutta (Kolkata) in 1873 and the famous Calcutta Boys' School in 1877. In 1947 the Wesleyan Methodist Church in India merged with Presbyterians, Anglicans and other Protestant churches to form the Church of South India while the American Methodist Church remained affiliated as the Methodist Church in southern Asia (MCSA) to the mother church in USA- the United Methodist Church till 1981, when by an enabling act the Methodist Church in India (MCI) became an autonomous church in India. Today, the Methodist Church in India is governed by the General Conference of the Methodist Church of India headed by 6 Bishops, with headquarters at Methodist Centre, 21 YMCA Road, Mumbai, India...[68] Malaysia and Singapore Missionaries from Britain, North America, and Australia founded Methodist churches in many Commonwealth countries. These are now independent and many of them are stronger than the former "mother" churches. In addition to the churches, these missionaries often also founded schools to serve the local community. A good example of such schools are the Methodist Boys' School in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Anglo-Chinese School, Methodist Girls' School and Fairfield Methodist Schools in Singapore. Philippines The beginnings of Methodism in the Philippines islands grow from the American invasion of the Philippines following the Spanish-American War. On 21 June 1898, the American executives of the Mission Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church expressed their desire to join other Protestant denominations in starting mission work in the islands and to enter into any comity agreement that would facilitate the establishment of such mission. The first Protestant worship service was conducted on 28 August 1898 by an American military chaplain named Rev. George C. Stull. Rev. Stull was an ordained Methodist minister from the Montana Annual Conference of The Methodist Episcopal Church (Later became The United Methodist Church in 1968). Methodist and Wesleyan traditions in the Philippines are shared by three of the largest mainline Protestant churches in the country The United Methodist Church, Iglesia Evangelica Metodista En Las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF) (Evangelical Methodist Church in the Philippine Islands), and The United Church of Christ in the Philippines.[69]

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Methodism There are also evangelical Protestant churches in the country with Methodist and Wesleyan tradition like The Wesleyan Church of the Philippines, Inc. Free Methodist Church of the Philippines,[70] and the Church of the Nazarene in the Philippines.[71] There are also the IEMELIF Reform Movement (IRM), The Wesleyan (Pilgrim Holiness) Church of the Philippines, the Philippine Bible Methodist Church, Inc., the Pentecostal Free Methodist Church, Inc., the Fundamental Christian Methodist Church, The Reformed Methodist Church, Inc., The Methodist Church of the Living Bread, Inc., and the Wesley Evangelical Methodist Church & Mission, Inc. There are three Episcopal Areas of the United Methodist Church in the Philippines namely: Baguio Episcopal Area,[72] Davao Episcopal Area [73] and Manila Episcopal Area.[74] A call for autonomy within groups in The United Methodist Church was discussed at many conferences led mostly by bishop candidates. Only in 2010 did decisive action led to the establishment of the Ang Iglesia Metodista sa Pilipinas,[75] with groups in Palawan, Bataan, Zambales, Pangasinan, Bulacan,[76]. Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Metro Manila Area, some part of Pampanga, and Cavite. It was led by Bishop Lito C. Tangonan, Rev. George Buenaventura, Chita Milan and Atty. Joe Frank E. Zuiga. The group finally declared its full autonomy and incorporated legally Consecration of the first bishop of Ang Iglesia Metodista sa with Securities and Exchange Commission of the Pilipinas held at Luacan Church in Bataan, Philippines Philippines and was approved on December 7, 2011 with papers held for by present procurators. It now has 126 local churches all over the Philippines. Rev. Lito Tangonan becomes the first bishop of the autonomous church and was consecrated March 17, 2012.[77] South Korea One of the strongest current Methodist churches in the world is that of South Korea. There are many Korean-language Methodist churches in North America catering to Korean-speaking immigrants, not all of which are named as Methodist. There are several denominations that are of Wesleyan and Methodist heritage, but are not explicitly Methodist. The first missionary sent out was R. S. Mclay, who sailed from Japan 1884, and was given the authority of medical and schooling permission from Gojong, Korean Emperor. Next year, H. G. Apenzeller from North Methodist church, who arrived 5 April 1885, started to evangelize with Dr. Scranton and his mother. They established "Jeongdon Metheodist Church"(), "Sangdong Pharmacy Store"() becoming "Sangdong Methodist Church"() and "Baejae School"(). In 1895, there were Bishop E. R. Hendrix and Dr. C. F. Reid from South Methodist Church, who established "Jonggyo Methodist Church"() and "Baewha School"(). In 1930, the Korean Methodist Church was reunited as "Joseon Methodist Church"() before United Methodist Church in U.S. The Korean Methodist Church has 11 bishops and 12 Annual Conferences in the Republic of Korea. The Korean Methodist Church is also a strong Methodist Church for international mission, sending missionaries to 76 countries in the world.

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143

Europe
There are small Methodist Churches in most European countries, the strongest outside the British Isles being in Germany. A few of these derive from links with the American rather than the British church.[78] There is a degree of co-operation between the individual Methodist churches in Europe, including European Methodist Council, and European Methodist Youth & Children Ireland The Methodist Church in Ireland covers the entire island of Ireland including Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) and Evangelical Methodist Church in Novi Sad, Serbia, built in the Republic of Ireland. Eric Gallagher was the head of the 1904 Church in the 1970s. He was one of the group of Protestant churchmen who met with Provisional IRA officers in Feakle, County Clare to try to broker peace. The meeting was unsuccessful due to a Garda raid on the hotel. The church suffered a split in Ireland in 1973 when a group of churches formed the Fellowship of Independent Methodist Churches. Another strong Methodist movement in Ireland is the Church of the Nazarene which takes its roots from American Methodism as opposed to British whilst still rejecting episcopal polity. France In France, the Methodist movement was founded in the 1820s . Several sections of the Methodist Church joined the Reformed Church of France in 1938. The Methodist Church exists today in France under various names. The best-known is the "UEEM" (l'Union de l'Eglise Evanglique Mthodiste de France), the Union of Evangelical Methodist Churches of France. It is the fruit of a fusion in 2005 between the Methodist Church of France and the Union of Methodist Churches (in France). The UEEM is a part of the world organization, the United Methodist Church. The Reverend Emmanuel Briglia.[79] founded in 1998 an independent conservative, high-church Anglican/Methodist mission in South-East France named the Mission Mthodiste Episcopale du Var.[80] and commonly named "Mission anglicane mthodiste du Christ-Roi" (Anglican Methodist mission of Christ the King). This small community has sought to retain the original link between Methodism and Anglicanism. It has acted since September 2011 as an Anglo-Catholic chaplaincy. Hungary The first Methodist missions in Hungary were established in 1898 in the German-speaking Bcska region (since 1918 part of the Serbian province of Vojvodina) and in 1905 in Budapest. The church in Hungary split in 1974-5 over the question of interference by the communist state. Today, the Hungarian Methodist Church has 40 congregations in 11 districts.[81] The seceding Hungarian Evangelical Fellowship also considers itself a Methodist church. It has 8 full congregations and several mission groups, and runs a range of charitable organizations: hostels and soup kitchens for the homeless, a non-denominational theological college,[82] a dozen schools of various kinds, and four old people's homes. The Fellowship was granted official church status by the state in 1981. Both Methodist churches lost official church status under discriminatory legislation passed in 2011, limiting the number of recognized churches to 14.[83] However, the list of recognized churches was lengthened to 32 at the end of February 2012.[84] This gave recognition to the Hungarian Methodist Church and to two other Methodist-derived denominations the Salvation Army, which was banned in Hungary in 1949 but returned in 1990, and currently has four congregations, and the Church of the Nazarene, which entered Hungary in 1996 but not to the Hungarian Evangelical Fellowship. The legislation has

Methodism been strongly criticized by the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe as discriminatory.[85] The Hungarian Methodist Church, the Salvation Army, and the Church of the Nazarene have formed an association mainly for publishing purposes.[86] The Hungarian Evangelical Fellowship also has a publishing arm.[87] Italy The Italian Methodist Church ("OPCEMI Opera per le Chiese Evangeliche Metodiste in Italia) is small, with c.5,000 members. Since 1975 it is in a formal covenant partnership with the Waldensian Church. The Italian Methodist Church was previously an overseas district of the British Methodist Church. Bertrand Tipple, pastor of the American Methodist Church in Rome, founded a college there.[88] Russia The Methodist Church established several strongholds in Russia Saint Petersburg in the west and the Vladivostok region in the east, with big Methodist centers right in the middle, in Moscow and Ekaterinburg (former Sverdlovsk). Methodists began their work in the west amongst Swedish immigrants in 1881 and started their work in the east in 1910.[89] On 26 June 2009, Methodists celebrated the 120th year since Methodism arrived in Czarist Russia by erecting a new Methodist centre in Saint Petersburg.[89] A Methodist presence was continued in Russia for 14 years after the Russian Revolution of 1917 through the efforts of Deaconess Anna Eklund.[90] In 1939, political antagonism stymied the work of the Church and Deaconess Anna Eklund was coerced to return to her native Finland.[89] After 1989, the collapse of the Soviet Union gave way to the surge of religious freedoms[91] and people's hunger for spiritual and hopeful message. During the 1990s, Methodism experienced a powerful wave of revival in the nation.[89] Three sites in particular carried the torch - Samara, Moscow and Ekaterinburg. Today, The United Methodist Church in Eurasia has 116 congregations, each with a native pastor. There are currently 48 students enrolled in residential and extension degree programs at the United Methodist Seminary in Moscow.[89]

144

North America
Bermuda Bermuda's Methodist Synod, is a separate presbytery of the United Church of Canada's Maritime Conference. Canada The father of Methodism in Canada was William Black who began preaching in settlements along the Petitcodiac River of New Brunswick in 1781.[92] A few years afterwards, Methodist Episcopal circuit riders from New York State began to arrive in Canada West at Niagara, and the north shore of Lake Erie in 1786, and at the Kingston region on the northeast shore of Lake Ontario in the early 1790s. At the time the region was part of British North America and became part of Upper Canada after the Constitutional Act of 1791. Upper and Lower Canada were both part of the New York Episcopal Methodist Conference until 1810 when they were transferred to the newly formed Genesee Conference. Reverend Major George Neal began to preach in Niagara in October 1786, and was ordained in 1810 by Bishop Philip Asbury, at the Lyons, New York Methodist Conference. He was Canada's first saddlebag preacher, and travelled from Lake Ontario to Detroit for 50 years preaching the gospel. The spread of Methodism in the Canadas was seriously disrupted by the War of 1812 but quickly gained lost ground after the Treaty of Ghent was signed in 1815. In 1817 the British Wesleyans arrived in the Canadas from the Maritimes but by 1820 had agreed, with the Episcopal Methodists, to confine their work to Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) while the later would confine themselves to Upper Canada (present-day Ontario). In 1828 Upper Canadian Methodists were permitted by the General Conference in the United States to form an independent Canadian Conference and, in 1833, the Canadian Conference merged with the British Wesleyans to form the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Canada. The Methodist Church of Canada was an 1884 union of pioneering groups.

Methodism In 1925, they merged with the Presbyterians, then by far the largest Protestant communion in Canada, most Congregationalists, Union Churches in Western Canada, and the American Presbyterian Church in Montreal, to form the United Church of Canada. In 1968, the Evangelical United Brethren Church's Canadian congregations joined after their American counterparts joined the United Methodist Church.

145

Oceania
Australia Various branches of Methodism in Australia merged in the 20 years from 1881, with a union of all groups except the Lay Methodists forming the Methodist Church of Australasia in 1902.[93] In 1945 the Rev. Dr. Kingsley Ridgway offered himself as a Melbourne based "field representative" for a possible Australian branch of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America, after meeting an American serviceman who was a member of that denomination.[94] The Wesleyan Methodist Church of Australia was founded on his work. The Methodist Church of Australasia merged with the majority of the Presbyterian Church of Australia and the Congregational Union of Australia in 1977, becoming the Uniting Church.Wesley Mission in Pitt Street Sydney is not only the largest parish in the Uniting Church but also strongly in the Wesleyan tradition.[95] The Wesleyan Methodist Church of Australia continues to operate independently. There are also other independent Methodist congregations, some of which were established by, or have been impacted by, Tongan immigrants. Fiji As a result of the early efforts of missionaries, most of the natives of the Fiji Islands were converted to Methodism in the 1840s and 1850s.[96] Most ethnic Fijians are Methodists today (the others are largely Roman Catholic), and the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma is in important social force. New Zealand The Methodist Church of New Zealand was the fourth most frequent religious affiliation chosen by those who declared one in the 2006 national census.[97] Samoan Islands In 1868, Piula Theological College was established in Lufilufi on the north coast of Upolu island in Samoa and serves as the main headquarters of the Methodist church in the country.[98] The college includes the historic Piula Monastery as well as Piula Cave Pool, a natural spring situated beneath the church by the sea. The Methodist Church is the third largest denomination throughout the Samoan Islands, in both Samoa and American Samoa.

Piula Theological College in Samoa

Methodism Tonga Methodism had a particular resonance with the inhabitants of Tonga. As of 2006 somewhat more than a third of Tongans adhered to the Methodist tradition.[99][100] Methodism is represented on the island by a number of churches including the Free Church of Tonga and the Free Wesleyan Church, which the largest church in Tonga. The royal family of the country are prominent members, and the late king was a lay preacher.

146

Notes
1. This social analysis is a summary of a wide variety of books on Methodist history, articles in The Methodist Magazine etc. Most of the Methodist aristocracy were associated with the Countess of Huntingdon who invited Methodist preachers to gatherings she hosted. Methodists were the leaders at that time in reaching out to the poorest of the working classes in any major way. A number of soldiers were also Methodists.[101] 2. Arminianism is named after Jacobus Arminius, a Dutch Reformed pastor who was trained to preach Calvinism, but concluded that some aspects of Calvinism had to be modified in the light of Scripture.[102] Both of these branches of Reformation doctrine hold as essential the "Solas" Scripture alone, Grace alone, Faith alone, Glory to God alone.[103] John Wesley was perhaps the clearest English proponent of Arminian theology.[104] In spite of the differences, these twin strands have much common ground, such as that salvation is entirely a work of God alone with no work by which it can be earned (monergism), and that one cannot either turn to God nor believe unless God has first drawn a person and implanted the desire in their heart (the Wesleyan doctrine of prevenient grace).[105] The primary difference is that Arminians interpret the Bible as teaching that the saving work of Jesus Christ is for all people (general atonement) but effective only to those who believe in accordance with the Reformation principles of Grace alone and Faith alone. While also holding to these principles, the Solas, Calvinists emphasize the deterministic[106] interpretation of Election, that salvation is only for a few decreed by God (limited atonement) while all others are decreed to be condemned.[107]

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[72] http:/ / www. umcphilippines. org/ baguioarea/ [73] http:/ / www. umcphilippines. org/ davaoarea/ [74] Manila Episcopal Area (http:/ / www. meaweb. blogspot. com/ ). Meaweb.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-11. [75] "AIM Pilipinas Website" (http:/ / aimpilipinas. org/ ). AIM Pilipinas. . Retrieved 2012-03-28. [76] "Philippine Methodist" (http:/ / philmethodist. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 06/ first-annual-conference-of-pmc. html). AIM Pilipinas. . Retrieved 2012-03-28. [77] "AIM Pilipinas Blogsite" (http:/ / aimpilipinas. blogspot. com/ ). AIM Pilipinas. . Retrieved 2012-03-28. [78] The Methodist Church in Britain | Where we work: Europe archive (http:/ / www. methodist. org. uk/ index. cfm?fuseaction=opentoworld. content& cmid=1417). Methodist.org.uk. Retrieved on 2011-12-11. [79] Rvrend Emmanul Briglia - site officiel (http:/ / www. emmanuelbriglia. com/ ). Emmanuelbriglia.com. Retrieved 11 December 2011. [80] Eglise Mthodiste Episcopale de France - Mission Anglicane Mthodiste du Christ Roi (http:/ / eglisemethodiste. canalblog. com/ ). Eglisemethodiste.canalblog.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-11. [81] Church site in Hungarian: Retrieved 18 September 2011. (http:/ / www. metodista. hu/ ) [82] John Wesley Theological College site: Retrieved 26 March 2012. (http:/ / www. wesley. hu/ wesley/ foiskola/ english) [83] Fellowship site: (http:/ / www. metegyhaz. hu/ ). College site: (http:/ / www. wesley. hu/ index/ altalanos). Both in Hungarian. Retrieved 18 September 2011. [84] Die Welt, 21 March 2012: Retrieved 26 March 2012. (http:/ / www. welt. de/ politik/ ausland/ article13936759/ Ungarns-Kirche-von-Viktor-Orbans-Gnaden-abhaengig. html) [85] Opinion on Act CCVI/2011: Retrieved 26 March 2012. (http:/ / www. venice. coe. int/ docs/ 2012/ CDL-AD(2012)004-e. pdf) [86] Hungarian Salvation Army site: Retrieved 18 September 2011. (http:/ / udvhadsereg. hu/ ) [87] Wesley Kiad site in Hungarian: Retrieved 26 March 2012. (http:/ / www. wesley. hu/ wesley/ foiskola/ szervezeti_egysegek/ egyeb_szolgaltatasok/ kiadvanyok_jegyzetek/ )

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Methodism
[88] "METHODISTS BUY ROME SITE; Will Build a College in Connection with Mission Work" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9500E6DE113FE633A25755C2A9679C946596D6CF). The New York Times. 26 January 1914. . [89] "Centennial of Methodism in Russia observed" (http:/ / www. umc. org/ site/ apps/ nlnet/ content3. aspx?c=lwL4KnN1LtH& b=1723955& ct=7160023). United Methodist Church. . Retrieved 20091229. [90] "Develop United Methodist Center in St. Petersburg" (http:/ / gbgm-umc. org/ global_news/ full_article. cfm?articleid=5032). United Methodist Church. . Retrieved 20091229. [91] "Soviets OK New Religious Freedoms" (http:/ / www. deseretnews. com/ article/ 124148/ SOVIETS-OK-NEW-RELIGIOUS-FREEDOMS. html). deseretnews. . Retrieved 20110511. [92] G. S. French, "William black" (http:/ / www. biographi. ca/ 009004-119. 01-e. php?& id_nbr=2757)Dictionary of Canadian Biography [93] Humphreys, Robert; Rowland Ward (1986). Religious Bodies in Australia. Melbourne: Robert Humphreys and Rowland Ward. p.45. ISBN1-86252-709-1. [94] O'Brien, Glen (1996). Kingsley Ridgway: Pioneer with a Passion. Melbourne: Wesleyan Methodist Church. [95] Humphreys, Robert; Rowland Ward (1986). Religious Bodies in Australia. Melbourne: Robert Humphreys and Rowland Ward. p.47. ISBN1-86252-709-1. [96] World Council of Churches, Methodist Church in Fiji and Rotuma (http:/ / www. oikoumene. org/ en/ member-churches/ regions/ pacific/ fiji/ methodist-church-in-fiji-and-rotuma. html). [97] "Table 25 in 2006 Census Data > QuickStats About Culture and Identity - Tables" (http:/ / www. stats. govt. nz/ Census/ 2006CensusHomePage/ classification-counts-tables/ about-people/ religious-affiliation. aspx). Statistics New Zealand. . Retrieved 14 November 2011. [98] Fairbairn-Dunlop, Peggy (2003). Samoan women: widening choices (http:/ / books. google. co. nz/ books?id=Tckqy2TMjqoC& pg=PA127& dq=Piula+ Theological+ College,+ Lufilufi& cd=10#v=onepage& q=Piula Theological College, Lufilufi& f=false). University of the South Pacific. p.127. ISBN982-02-0360-0U. . Retrieved 2 February 2010. [99] (cf. Ernst, Manfred/ Winds of Change. Suva: PCC, 1994, p. 146) [100] government census of 2006 SPC - Tonga religion facts (http:/ / www. spc. int/ prism/ Country/ TO/ stats/ Census06/ social/ religion. htm) [101] J A Clapperton, "Romance and Heroism in Early Methodism", (1901) [102] Edgar Parkyns, "His Waiting Bride", (1996), pp169-170, ISBN 0-9526800-0-9 [103] Gwyn Davies, "A Light in the Land", (2002), p. 46, ISBN 1-85049-181-X [104] John Wesley, Sermons on Several Occasions (http:/ / www. ccel. org/ ccel/ wesley/ sermons. toc. html) for further detail. [105] J. Steven Harper, "The Way to Heaven: The Gospel According to John Wesley", (1983), ISBN 0-310-25260-1 [106] J S Banks, "The development of Doctrine Early Middle Ages to the Reformation" in the "Books for Bible Students" series, (1901), Part 3, Ch. II and VI where the issues of determinism and the differences from Luther are discussed. [107] "The Baptist Confession of Faith 1689", Section 3, p. 13, edited by Peter Masters, The Wakeman Trust, (1981), ISBN 1-870855-24-8

149

Cracknell, Kenneth and White, Susan J. (2005) An Introduction to World Methodism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-81849-4.

Archives
The Archive of the Methodist Missionary Society is held at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London. http://www.soas.ac.uk/library/archives/

Further reading
World
Dowson, Jean and Hutchinson, John (2003) John Wesley: His Life, Times and Legacy [CD-ROM], Methodist Publishing House, TB214 Forster, DA and Bentley, W (eds.) (2008)What are we thinking? Reflections on Church and Society from Southern African Methodists. Methodist Publishing House, Cape Town. ISBN 978919883526 . Forster, DA and Bentley, W (eds.) (2008) Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission AcadSA Publishers, Kempton Park. ISBN 978-1-920212-29-2 Harmon, Nolan B. (ed.) (1974) The Encyclopedia of World Methodism, Nashville: Abingdon Press, ISBN 0-687-11784-4. Heitzenrater, Richard P. (1994) Wesley and the People Called Methodists, Nashville: Abingdon Press, ISBN 0-687-01682-7 Hempton, David (2005) Methodism: Empire of the Spirit, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10614-9

Methodism Hempton, David (1984) Methodism and Politics in British Society, 17501850, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-1269-7 Kent, John (2002) Wesley and the Wesleyans, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45532-4 Warner, Wellman J. (1930) The Wesleyan Movement in the Industrial Revolution, London: Longmans, Green. Wilson, Kenneth. Methodist Theology. London, T & T Clark International, 2011 (Doing Theology).

150

United Kingdom
Brooks, Alan (2010) West End Methodism: The Story of Hinde Street, London: Northway Publications, 400pp.

African Americans
Campbell, James T. (1995) Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa (http://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.00589), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507892-6 George, Carol V.R. (1973) Segregated Sabbaths: Richard Allen and the Rise of Independent Black Churches, 17601840, New York: Oxford University Press, LCCN 73076908 Montgomery, William G. (1993) Under Their Own Vine and Fig Tree: The African-American Church in the South, 18651900, Louisiana State University Press, ISBN 0-8071-1745-5 Walker, Clarence E. (1982) A Rock in a Weary Land: The African Methodist Episcopal Church During the Civil War and Reconstruction, Louisiana State University Press, ISBN 0-8071-0883-9 Wills, David W. and Newman, Richard (eds.) (1982) Black Apostles at Home and Abroad: Afro-American and the Christian Mission from the Revolution to Reconstruction, Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, ISBN 0-8161-8482-8

USA and Canada


Cameron, Richard M. (ed.) (1961) Methodism and Society in Historical Perspective, 4 vol., New York: Abingdon Press Lyerly, Cynthia Lynn (1998) Methodism and the Southern Mind, 17701810, Religion in America Series, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-511429-9 Meyer, Donald (1988) The Protestant Search for Political Realism, 19191941, Wesleyan University Press, ISBN 0-8195-5203-8 Rawlyk, G.A. (1994) The Canada Fire: Radical Evangelicalism in British North America, 17751812, Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press, ISBN 0-7735-1221-7 Schmidt, Jean Miller (1999) Grace Sufficient: A History of Women in American Methodism, 17601939, Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press ISBN 0-687-15675-0 Semple, Neil (1996) The Lord's Dominion: The History of Canadian Methodism, Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press, ISBN 0-7735-1367-1 Sweet, William Warren (1954) Methodism in American History, Revision of 1953, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 472 p. Wigger, John H. (1998) Taking Heaven by Storm: Methodism and the Rise of Popular Christianity in America, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510452-8 p. ix & 269 focus on 17701910

Methodism

151

Primary sources
Richey, Russell E., Rowe, Kenneth E. and Schmidt, Jean Miller (eds.) (2000) The Methodist Experience in America: a sourcebook, Nashville: Abingdon Press, ISBN 0-687-24673-3 756 p. of original documents Sweet, William Warren (ed.) (1946) Religion on the American Frontier: Vol. 4, The Methodists,17831840: A Collection of Source Materials, New York: H. Holt & Co., 800 p. of documents regarding the American frontier

External links
Methodist History Bookmarks (http://www.ku.edu/heritage/um/time~1.html) Pictures of Strawbridge Shrine near New Windsor, MD (http://olympuszuiko.wordpress.com/2008/01/18/ strawbridge-shrine-revisited/)

Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports (France)


The Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports ("Ministre de la Jeunesse et des Sports", alternatively translated "Minister of Youth and Sports") is, in the Government of France, the cabinet member in charge of national and public sport associations, youth affairs, public sports centers and national stadia (like the Stade de France). The position has changed names a number of times since its creation and has occasionally been eliminated or regrouped with the Minister of National Education. Currently the minister is : Valrie Fourneyron.

Ministers of Youth Affairs and Sports


Pierre Bourdan (Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports) - 22 January 1947 - 22 October 1947 Andr Morice (Secretary of State of Youth, Sports and Professional Education) 11 September 1948 - 11 August 1951 Pierre Chevalier (Secretary of State of Youth, Sports and Professional Education) 11 August 1951 - 12 August 1951 Pierre Chevalier (Secretary of e of Youth, Sports and Professional Education) 12 August 1951 - 20 January 1952 Jean Masson (Secretary of State of Youth, Sports and Professional Education) 20 January 1952 - 28 June 1953 Andr Moynet (Secretary of State for the Coordination of Problems with Youth ) 12 November 1954 - 1 February 1956 Ren Billres (Minister of National Education, Youth Affairs and Sports) - 1 February 1956 - 14 May 1958 Franois Missoffe (Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports) -8 January 1966 - 30 May 1968 Roland Nungesser (Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports) - 30 May 1968 - 10 July 1968 Jean-Pierre Soisson (Minister of Youth Affairs, Sports and of Leisure Activities) - 5 April 1978 - 22 May 1981 Andr Henry (Minister of Free Time) - 22 May 1981 22 March 1983 Alain Calmat (Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports) 23 July 1984 - 20 March 1986 Christian Bergelin (Secretary of State for Youth Affairs and Sports) 20 March 1986 - 13 May 1988 Lionel Jospin (Minister of National Education, Research and Sports) - 13 May 1988 - 16 May 1991 Frdrique Bredin (Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports) - 16 May 1991 - 29 March 1993 Michle Alliot-Marie (Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports) - 29 March 1993 - 18 May 1995 Guy Drut (Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports) - 7 November 1995 - 4 June 1997 Marie-George Buffet (Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports) - 4 June 1997 - 7 May 2002 Jean-Franois Lamour (Minister of Youth Affairs, Sports and Associative Life) - 7 May 2002 - 18 May 2007 Roselyne Bachelot-Narquin (Minister of Youth Affairs, Sports and Health) - 18 May 2007 - 14 November 2010 Chantal Jouanno (Minister of Sports) - 14 November 2010 - 26 September 2011 David Douillet (Minister of Sports) - 26 September 2011 - 16 May 2012

Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports (France) Valrie Fourneyron (Minister of Youth Affairs, Sports and Associative Life) - 16 May 2012 - current

152

Muslim Scouts of France


Scouts Musulmans de France
Muslim Scouts of France

Headquarters Noisy-le-Grand Country Founded Membership France 1990 1,000

Website
http:/ / www. scouts-mf. org

Scouts Musulmans de France (Muslim Scouts of France, SMF) is a French Muslim Scouting organization for boys and girls between 8 and 21 years old with about 1,000 members. It was founded in 1990 by Sheikh Khaled Bentouns, the spiritual leader of the Sufi Alawiya Brotherhood, and is headquartered in Noisy-le-Grand. It is part of the Fdration du Scoutisme Franais (Federation of French Scouting) and through this a member of both the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts and the World Organization of the Scout Movement. It also is a member of the International Union of Muslim Scouts.

Emblem
The badge of the SMF consists of a red fleur de lis for allegiance to the Scout movement, resting on a green trefoil, a sign of belonging to the Guide movement, the 5 pointed star in the centre is for the Muslim believe of the association.

Levels
There are four sections in the organisation: Voyageurs and Voyageuses are between 8 and 12 years old and belong to a Cercle. claireurs and claireuses are between 11 and 15 years old and belong to a Troupe. Pionniers and Pionnires are between 14 and 18 years old and belong to a Poste. Compagnons and Compagnonnes are between 17 and 21 years old and belong to a Relais.[1]

References
[1] "Scouting Facts: France" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ facts/ pdfs/ fs260039. pdf). Scout Association. August 2003. . Retrieved 2007-07-10.

External links
Official website (http://www.scouts-musulmans.fr/) (French)

Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organisations

153

Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organisations


Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organizations are Scouting organizations that are not affiliated to the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) and the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM). The Scout movement has led to the formation of many Scouting organizations around the world. The mainstream Scout movement is now served by the WAGGGS and WOSM, who only recognize one Scouting organization per country, although that organization can be a federation of several organizations that serve the youth of that country. Terminology used in this article: Scouting organisations that are not a member of WAGGGS or WOSM are non-aligned organisations. Youth organisations whose origin was the mainstream Scout Movement but are no longer associated with it are breakaway organisations; a breakaway organization may also be a Scouting or Scout-like organization. Scout-like youth organisations have been created both prior to and after the origin of the Scout Movement, and are characterized by use or mimicry of part of the Scout Method.

Aligned and non-aligned Scouting organisations


Since its inception in 1907, the Scout Movement has spread from the United Kingdom to 216 countries and territories around the world. There are at least 520 separate national or regional Scouting associations in the world and most have felt the need to create international Scouting organisations to set standards for Scouting and to coordinate activities among member associations. Six international Scouting organisations serve 437 of the world's national associations, plus a seventh that is just for adults. The largest two international organisations, WOSM and WAGGGS, count 362 national associations as members, encompassing 38 million Scouts and Guides. Other multinational Scouting organisations include the Confdration Europenne de Scoutisme, Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe, and World Federation of Independent Scouts. Additionally, there are over 80 Scouting associations or umbrella federations that are not aligned with any international Scouting organisation, including the Eclaireurs Neutres de France. There are also many single groups that are not affiliated with any regional or national association and the majority of these are in Germany, where Scouting is very fragmented. Membership in non-aligned Scouting organizations worldwide is roughly 300,000 to 500,000 individuals.

Scout-like youth organisations


There are also some similar organisations linked to movements such as organised churches, such as Salvation Army's Adventure Corps, Adventism's Pathfinders, the Nazarene Caravan, and the Pentecostal Royal Rangers, as well as faith-wide groups like the neo-pagan SpiralScouts International. Other groups such as the Camp Fire USA, YMCA, YWCA, Sokol, Rotaract, Boys' Brigade and Girls' Brigade also have similarities with Scouting, although some of those actually predate the foundation of Scouting. The TUXIS and Trail Rangers movements were similar organisations which originated about the same time as Scouting; however, these organisations were unable to recover from the disruption of World War II and post-war competition with the Scouting movement. The Future Farmers of America and 4-H are also sometimes seen as Scout-like organisations. South Africa's Voortrekkers are an Afrikaner youth movement founded in 1931 as some Afrikaners found it difficult to participate in a movement founded by their Boer War opponent, Lord Baden-Powell.

Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organisations

154

Political and military Scouting substitutes


Scouting has been banned in certain nations and remains banned in some of them. Some countries that have banned Scouting replaced it with youth organisations that are not considered part of the Scouting movement. The USSR banned Scouting in 1922, creating a separate Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union, which gave birth to the Pioneer Movement, still existing in some fashion in the People's Republic of China, Cuba, North Korea and Vietnam, and has been turned into a nationalist movement in Tajikistan-the King Somoni Inheritance. Currently, there are no externally recognised Scout organisations in Cuba, North Korea, Laos, Myanmar, and the People's Republic of China (except Hong Kong and Macau, which each have a Scouting organisation). In many parts of Europe there exists the socialist Red Falcons forming the International Falcon Movement - Socialist Education International (IFM - SEI). The Woodcraft Folk is the UK branch of IFM-SEI. These organisations adapt many of the methods of Scouting in a socialist orientation. Examples are the Children's Republic, camps run by the SJD-The Falken in Germany in the 1920s, however unlike the concurring Pioneer Movements, IFM SEI works to further democracy. Other politically based youth movements still in existence include Fianna na hireann, an Irish republican youth movement. In the parliamentary democracy of Andorra, Scouting does not exist, though not because of any bans on such organisations. Prior to World War II, Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary and Romania disbanded Scouting. Germany created the Hitler-Jugend (Hitler Youth) organisation; Mussolini had a fascist youth organisation, the Balilla; and Romania under the Iron Guard had the Strjeria.

Breakaway organisations
Between the first publication of Scouting for Boys and the creation of a supranational Scout organisation, the World Organization of the Scout Movement, fifteen years had passed and millions of copies of the appealing handbook had been sold in dozens of languages. By that point, Scouting was the purview of the world's youth, as from the outset Baden-Powell had not intended Scouting to be containable by any one school of thought. Many groups have formed since the original formation of the Scouting "Boy Patrols." Some maintain that the WOSM is currently far more political and less youth based than ever envisioned by Lord Baden-Powell. They believe that Scouting in general has moved away from its original intent, because of political machinations that happen to longstanding organisations, and seek to return to the earliest, simplest methods. Others are a result of groups or individuals who refuse to follow the original ideals of Scouting but still desire to participate in Scout-like activities. The first schism within Scouting occurred during November 1909, when the British Boy Scouts, was created, initially comprising an estimated 25 percent of all Scouts in the United Kingdom, but rapidly declining from 1912 onward. From 1932 onward it was called the Brotherhood of British Scouts, but returned to the name British Boy Scouts in 1983. It was allied to Scouting organisations in the United States, Italy, Hong Kong, Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, South America and India in 1911, and formed what was known as the Order of World Scouts. The organisation was formed by Sir Francis Vane because of perceptions of bureaucracy and militaristic tendencies in the mainstream movement. Initially in the United Kingdom, with several smaller organisations, such as the Boy's Life Brigade Scouts they formed the National Peace Scouts federation. The British Girl Scouts were the female counterpart of the British Boy Scouts. In 1916 a group of Scoutmasters in Cambridge, led by Ernest Westlake and his son Aubrey, who believed that the movement had moved away from its early ideals and had lost its woodcraft character, founded the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry. The order survives to this day in England.

Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organisations In the years following the First World War, the Commissioner for Camping and Woodcraft John Hargrave, broke with what he considered to be the Scouts' militaristic approach and founded a breakaway organisation, the Kibbo Kift, taking a number of similar-minded Scoutmasters and troops with him.[1] This organisation was the direct antecedent of the Woodcraft Folk.

155

Traditional Scouting
Baden-Powell Scouts were formed in 1970, initially in the United Kingdom but now also elsewhere, when it was felt that the "modernisation" of Scouting was abandoning the traditions and intentions established by Baden-Powell. Another modern breakway group is the Christian American Heritage Girls, formed in 1995 in response to the perceived growing liberalism in the Girl Scouts of the USA.[2] In Canada and to some extent in the United States, there is a Traditional Scouting movement, seeking to take Scouting back to the way it was in Baden-Powell's days.[3]

Scouts-in-Exile
Scouts-in-Exile groups formed overseas from their native country as a result of war and changes in governments. For the Scouts-in-exile groups, serving the community outside their homelands, there is resentment that they were not recognised during their nations' totalitarian periods. These groups often provided postal delivery and other basic services in displaced-persons camps.[4]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] "Official Site" (http:/ / www. kibbokift. org/ ). Kibbo Kift Foundation. . Retrieved 2006-07-25. "Official Site" (http:/ / www. ahgonline. org). American Heritage Girls. . Retrieved 2006-07-25. "Official Site" (http:/ / www. inquiry. net/ traditional/ index. htm). Traditional Scouting. . Retrieved 2006-07-25. Victor M. Alexieff (September 1982). "The Other Ones - Scouts in Exile" (http:/ / www. sossi. org/ exile/ scouts. htm). SOSSI Journal XXXVII (9). .

External links
World Scouting infopage, by Troop 97 (http://www.troop97.net/intscout.htm)

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

156

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell


Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

Founder of Scouting Nickname Born Died Service/branch B-P Paddington, London, England 8 January 1941 (aged83) Nyeri, Kenya British Army

Yearsof service 18761910 Rank Lieutenant-General


Commands held

Chief of Staff, Second Matabele War (18961897) 5th Dragoon Guards in India (1897) Inspector General of Cavalry, England (1903) Anglo-Ashanti Wars Second Matabele War Siege of Mafeking Second Boer War Ashanti Star (1895) [2] Matabele Campaign, British South Africa Company Medal (1896) [3] Queen's South Africa Medal (1899) [4] King's South Africa Medal ( 1902) Boy Scouts Silver Wolf [5] Boy Scouts Silver Buffalo Award (1926) [6] World Scout Committee Bronze Wolf (1935) Grand Cross of the Order of Dannebrog, Denmark (1921) Groes Dankabzeichen des PB (1927) Groes Ehrenzeichen der Republik am Bande (1931) Goldene Gemse (1931) Grand-Cross in the Order of Orange-Nassau (1932) Order of Merit (1937) Wateler Peace Prize (1937) Order of St Michael and St George Royal Victorian Order Order of the Bath
[1]

Battles/wars

Awards

Otherwork Signature

Founder of the international Scouting Movement; writer; artist

Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, Bt, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB ( /bednpo.l/; 22 February 1857 8 January 1941), also known as B.-P., B-P or Lord Baden-Powell, was a

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, founder and Chief Scout of the Scout Movement. After having been educated at Charterhouse School, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell successfully defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were also read by boys. Based on those earlier books, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Sir Arthur Pearson, for youth readership. In 1907, he held the first Brownsea Island Scout camp, which is now seen as the beginning of Scouting. After his marriage to Olave St Clair Soames, Baden-Powell, his sister Agnes Baden-Powell and notably his wife actively gave guidance to the Scouting Movement and the Girl Guides Movement. Baden-Powell lived his last years in Nyeri, Kenya, where he died and was buried in 1941.

157

Early life
Baden-Powell was born as Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell, or more familiarly as Stephe Powell, at 6 Stanhope Street (now 11 Stanhope Terrace), Paddington in London, on 22 February 1857.[7] He was named for his godfather, Robert Stephenson, the railway and civil engineer;[8] his third name was his mother's maiden name. His father Reverend Baden Powell, a Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University, already had four teenage children from the second of his two previous marriages. On 10 March 1846 at St Luke's Church, Chelsea, Reverend Powell married Henrietta Grace Smyth (3 September 1824 13 October 1914), eldest daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth and 28 years his junior. Quickly they had Warington (early 1847), George (late 1847), Augustus (1849) and Francis (1850). After three further children who died when very young, they had Stephe, Agnes (1858) and Baden (1860). The three youngest children and the often ill Augustus were close friends. Reverend Powell died when Stephe was three, and as tribute to his father and to set her own children apart from their half-siblings and cousins, the mother changed the family name to Baden-Powell. Subsequently, Stephe was raised by his mother, a strong woman who was determined that her children would succeed. Baden-Powell would say of her in 1933 "The whole secret of my getting on, lay with my mother."[7][9][10] After attending Rose Hill School, Tunbridge Wells, during which his favourite brother Augustus died, Stephe Baden-Powell was awarded a scholarship to Charterhouse, a prestigious public school. His first introduction to Scouting skills was through stalking and cooking game while avoiding teachers in the nearby woods, which were strictly out-of-bounds. He also played the piano and violin, was an ambidextrous artist, and enjoyed acting. Holidays were spent on yachting or canoeing expeditions with his brothers.[7]

Military career
In 1876, R.S.S. Baden-Powell, as he styled himself then, joined the 13th Hussars in India with the rank of lieutenant. He enhanced and honed his military scouting skills amidst the Zulu in the early 1880s in the Natal province of South Africa, where his regiment had been posted, and where he was Mentioned in Despatches. During one of his travels, he came across a large string of wooden beads, worn by the Zulu king Dinizulu, which was later incorporated into the Wood Badge training programme he started after he founded the Scouting Movement. Baden-Powell's skills impressed his superiors and he was brevetted Major as Military Secretary and senior Aide-de-camp of the Commander-in-Chief and Governor of Malta, his uncle General Sir Henry Augustus Smyth.[7] He was posted in Malta for three years, also working as intelligence officer for the Mediterranean for the Director of Military Intelligence.[7] He frequently travelled disguised as a butterfly collector, incorporating plans of military installations into his drawings of butterfly wings.[11] Baden-Powell returned to Africa in 1896, and served in the Second Matabele War, in the expedition to relieve British South Africa Company personnel under siege in Bulawayo.[12] This was a formative experience for him not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory in Matobo Hills,

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell but because many of his later Boy Scout ideas took hold here.[13] It was during this campaign that he first met and befriended the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, who introduced Baden-Powell to the American Old West and woodcraft (i.e., scoutcraft), and here that he wore his signature Stetson campaign hat and neckerchief for the first time.[7] Baden-Powell was accused of illegally executing a prisoner of war in 1896, the Matabele chief Uwini, who had been promised his life would be spared if he surrendered. Uwini was shot by firing squad under Baden-Powell's instructions. Baden-Powell was cleared by an inquiry, and later claimed he was "released without a stain on my character." After Rhodesia, Baden-Powell served in the Fourth Ashanti War in Gold Coast. In 1897, at the age of 40, he was brevetted colonel (the youngest colonel in the British Army) and given command of the 5th Dragoon Guards in India.[14] A few years later he wrote a small manual, entitled Aids to Scouting, a summary of lectures he had given on the subject of military scouting, to help train recruits. Using this and other methods he was able to train them to think independently, use their initiative, and survive in the wilderness. Baden-Powell returned to South Africa prior to the Second Boer War and was engaged in further military actions against the Zulus. He organised the Legion of Frontiersmen to assist the regular army. While engaged in this, he was at Mafeking when it was surrounded by a Boer army, at times in excess of 8,000 men. Baden-Powell became garrison commander during the subsequent Siege of Mafeking, which lasted 217 days. Although greatly outnumbered, the garrison held out until relieved, in part thanks to cunning deceptions devised by Baden-Powell. Fake minefields were planted and his soldiers pretended to avoid non-existent barbed wire while moving between trenches.[15] Baden-Powell did most of the reconnaissance work himself.[16] In one instance noting that the Boers had not removed the rail line, Baden-Powell loaded an armoured locomotive with sharpshooters and successfully sent it down the rails into the heart of the Boer encampment and back again in a strategic attempt to decapitate the Boer leadership. Contrary views of Baden-Powell's actions during the siege argue that his success in resisting the Boers was secured at the expense of the lives of the native African soldiers and civilians, including members of his own African garrison. Pakenham stated that Baden-Powell drastically reduced the rations to the native garrison.[17] However, in 2001, after subsequent research, Pakenham decidedly retreated from this position.[7][18] During the siege, the Mafeking Cadet Corps of white boys below Baden-Powell on patriotic postcard in 1900 fighting age stood guard, carried messages, assisted in hospitals, and so on, freeing grown men to fight. Baden-Powell did not form the Cadet Corps himself, and there is no evidence that he took much notice of them during the Siege. But he was sufficiently impressed with both their courage and the equanimity with which they performed their tasks to use them later as an object lesson in the first chapter of Scouting for Boys. The siege was lifted on 16 May 1900. Baden-Powell was promoted to Major-General, and became a national hero.[19] After organising the South African Constabulary, the national police force, he returned to England to take up a post as Inspector General of Cavalry in 1903. In 1907 he was appointed to command a division in the newly-formed Territorial Force.[20] In 1910 Lieutenant-General Baden-Powell decided to retire from the Army, reputedly on the advice of King Edward VII, who suggested that he could better serve his country by promoting Scouting.[21][22] On the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Baden-Powell put himself at the disposal of the War Office. No command was given him, for, as Lord Kitchener said: "he could lay his hand on several competent divisional generals but could find no one who could carry on the invaluable work of the Boy Scouts."[23] It was widely rumoured that Baden-Powell was engaged in spying, and intelligence officers took great care to spread the myth.[24]

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Scouting movement
Pronunciation of Baden-Powell /bednpo.l/ Man, Nation, Maiden Please call it Baden. Further, for Powell Rhyme it with Noel Verse by B-P

On his return from Africa in 1903, Baden-Powell found that his military training manual, Aids to Scouting, had become a best-seller, and was being used by teachers and youth organisations.[25] Following his involvement in the Boys' Brigade as Brigade Secretary and Officer in charge of its scouting section, with encouragement from his friend, William Alexander Smith, Baden-Powell decided to re-write Aids to Scouting to suit a youth readership. In August 1907 he held a camp on Brownsea Island to test out his ideas. About twenty boys attended: eight from local Boys' Brigade companies, and about twelve public school boys, mostly sons of his friends. Baden-Powell was also influenced by Ernest Thompson Seton, who founded the Woodcraft Indians. Seton gave Baden-Powell a copy of his book The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians and they met in 1906.[26][27] The first book on the Scout Movement, Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys was published in six instalments in 1908, and has sold approximately 150 million copies as the fourth best-selling book of the 20th century.[28] Boys and girls spontaneously formed Scout troops and the Scouting Movement had inadvertently started, first as a national, and soon an international phenomenon. The Scouting Movement was to grow up in friendly parallel relations with the Boys' Brigade. A rally for all Scouts was held at Crystal Palace in London in 1909, at which Baden-Powell discovered the first Girl Scouts. The Girl Guide Movement was subsequently formalised in 1910 under the auspices of Baden-Powell's sister, Agnes Baden-Powell. Baden-Powell's friend Juliette Gordon Low was encouraged by him to bring the Movement to the United States, where she founded the Girl Scouts of the USA.

In 1920, the 1st World Scout Jamboree took place in Olympia, and Baden-Powell was acclaimed Chief Scout of the World. Baden-Powell was created a Baronet in 1921 and Baron Baden-Powell, of Gilwell, in the County of Essex, on 17 September 1929, Gilwell Park being the International Scout Leader training centre.[29] After receiving this honour, Baden-Powell mostly styled himself "Baden-Powell of Gilwell".

Reviewing the Boy Scouts of Washington D.C. from the portico of the White House: Baden-Powell, President Taft, British ambassador Bryce (1912)

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Statue of Robert Baden-Powell in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Three Scouting pioneers: Robert Baden-Powell (seated), Ernest T. Seton (left), and Dan Beard (right)

In 1929, during the 3rd World Scout Jamboree, he received as a present a new 20-horsepower Rolls-Royce car (chassis number GVO-40, registration OU 2938) and an Eccles Caravan.[30] This combination well served the Baden-Powells in their further travels around Europe. The caravan was nicknamed Eccles and is now on display at Gilwell Park. The car, nicknamed Jam Roll, was sold after his death by Olave Baden-Powell in 1945. Jam Roll and Eccles were reunited at Gilwell for the 21st World Scout Jamboree in 2007. Recently it has been purchased on behalf of Scouting and is owned by a charity, B-P Jam Roll Ltd. Funds are being raised to repay the loan that was used to purchase the car.[30][31] Baden-Powell also had a positive impact on improvements in youth education.[32] Under his dedicated command the world Scouting movement grew. By 1922 there were more than a million Scouts in 32 countries; by 1939 the number of Scouts was in excess of 3.3million.[33]

At the 5th World Scout Jamboree in 1937, Baden-Powell gave his farewell to Scouting, and retired from public Scouting life. 22 February, the joint birthday of Robert and Olave Baden-Powell, continues to be marked as Founder's Day by Scouts and Thinking Day by Guides to remember and celebrate the work of the Chief Scout and Chief Guide of the World. In his final letter to the Scouts, Baden-Powell wrote: ...I have had a most happy life and I want each one of you to have a happy life too. I believe that God put us in this jolly world to be happy and enjoy life. Happiness does not come from being rich, nor merely being successful in your career, nor by self-indulgence. One step towards happiness is to make yourself healthy and strong while you are a boy, so that you can be useful and so you can enjoy life when you are a man. Nature study will show you how full of beautiful and wonderful things God has made the world for you to enjoy. Be contented with what you have got and make the best of it. Look on the bright side of things instead of the gloomy one. But the real way to get happiness is by giving out happiness to other people. Try and leave this world a little better than you found it and when your turn comes to die, you can die happy in feeling that at any rate you have not wasted your time but have done your best. 'Be Prepared' in this way, to live happy and to die happy stick to your Scout Promise

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell always even after you have ceased to be a boy and God help you to do it.[34]

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Personal life
In January 1912, Baden-Powell was en route to New York on a Scouting World Tour, on the ocean liner Arcadian, when he met Olave St Clair Soames.[35][36] She was 23, while he was 55; they shared the same birthday, 22 February. They became engaged in September of the same year, causing a media sensation due to Baden-Powell's fame. To avoid press intrusion, they married in secret on 31 October 1912, at St Peter's Church in Parkstone.[37] The Scouts of England each donated a penny to buy Baden-Powell a wedding gift, a car (note that this is not the Rolls-Royce they were presented with in 1929). There is a monument to their marriage inside St Mary's Church, Brownsea Island. Baden-Powell and Olave lived in Pax Hill near Bentley, Hampshire from about 1919 until 1939.[38] The Bentley house was a gift of her father.[39] Directly after he had married, Baden-Powell began to suffer persistent headaches, which were considered by his doctor to be of psychosomatic origin and treated with dream analysis.[7] The headaches disappeared upon his moving into a makeshift bedroom set up on his balcony. The Baden-Powells had three children, one son (Peter) and two daughters. Peter succeeded in 1941 to the Baden-Powell barony.[29] Arthur Robert Peter (Peter), later 2nd Baron Baden-Powell (19131962). He married Carine Crause-Boardman in 1936, and had three children: Robert Crause, later 3rd Baron Baden-Powell; David Michael (Michael), current heir to the titles, and Wendy. Heather Grace (19151986), who married John King and had two children: Michael, who died in the sinking of SS Heraklion, and Timothy; Betty (19172004), who married Gervas Charles Robert Clay in 1936 and had a daughter: Gillian, and three sons: Robin, Nigel and Crispin.
Baden-Powell with wife and three children, 1917

Olave Baden-Powell

In addition, when Olave's sister Auriol Davidson ne Soames died in 1919, Olave and Robert took her three nieces, Christian (19121975), Clare (19131980), and Yvonne, (19181995?), into their family and brought them up as their own children.[40]

Baden-Powell grave

In 1939, Baden-Powell and Olave moved to a cottage he had commissioned in Nyeri, Kenya, near Mount Kenya, where he had previously been to recuperate. The small one-room house, which he named Paxtu, was located on the grounds of the Outspan Hotel, owned by Eric Sherbrooke Walker, Baden-Powell's first private secretary and one of the first Scout inspectors.[7] Walker also owned the Treetops Hotel, approx 17km out in the Aberdare Mountains, often visited by Baden-Powell and people of the Happy Valley set. The Paxtu cottage is integrated into the Outspan Hotel buildings and serves as a small Scouting museum.

Baden-Powell died on 8 January 1941 and is buried in Nyeri, in St. Peter's Cemetery[41] His gravestone bears a circle with a dot in the centre "", which is the trail sign for "Going home", or "I have gone home":[42] When his wife Olave died, her ashes were sent to Kenya and interred beside her husband. Kenya has declared Baden-Powell's grave

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell a national monument.[43]

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Personal beliefs
Tim Jeal, who wrote the biography Baden-Powell, argued that Baden-Powell's distrust of Communism led to his implicit support, through navet, of fascism. In 1939 Baden-Powell noted in his diary: "Lay up all day. Read Mein Kampf. A wonderful book, with good ideas on education, health, propaganda, organisation etc. and ideals which Hitler does not practise himself."[7]:550 Baden-Powell admired Benito Mussolini early in the Italian fascist leader's career. Some very early Scouting "Thanks" badges had a swastika symbol on them.[44] According to biographer Michael Rosenthal, Baden-Powell used the swastika because he was a Nazi sympathiser. Jeal, however, argues that Baden-Powell was ignorant of the symbol's growing association with Nazism and that he used the symbol for its centuries-old meaning of "good luck" in India. Also, Baden-Powell was named by the Nazis in "The Black Book of people to be arrested during the conquest of Great Britain. Scouting was regarded as a dangerous spy organisation by the Nazis.[45] Finally, when Nazi use of the swastika became well-known, the Scouts stopped using it.

A World War I propaganda poster drawn by Baden-Powell

Artist and writer


Baden-Powell made paintings and drawings almost every day of his life. Most have a humorous or informative character.[7] He published books and other texts during his years of military service both to finance his life and to educate his men.[7] Baden-Powell was regarded as an excellent storyteller. During his whole life he told "ripping yarns" to audiences.[7] After having published Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell kept on writing more handbooks and educative materials for all Scouts, as well as directives for Scout Leaders. In his later years, he also wrote about the Scout movement and his ideas for its future. He spent the last decade of his life in Africa, and many of his later books had African themes. Currently, many pages of his field diary, complete with drawings, are on display at the National Scouting Museum in Irving, Texas.

Sexuality
Early discussion of Baden-Powell's sexuality focused on his relationship with his close friend Kenneth McLaren.[46]:217218[47]:48 Tim Jeal's later biography discusses the relationship and finds that there is no conclusive evidence that this friendship was physical.[7]:82 Jeal then examines Baden-Powell's views on women, his appreciation of the male form, his military relationships, and his marriage, concluding that Baden-Powell might have been a repressed homosexual.[7]:103 Jeal's conclusion is shared by some biographers and disputed by others, but is not yet examined in any detail by other scholars.[48]:6

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

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Works
Military books 1884: Reconnaissance and Scouting 1885: Cavalry Instruction 1889: Pigsticking or Hoghunting 1896: The Downfall of Prempeh 1897: The Matabele Campaign 1899: Aids to Scouting for N.-C.Os and Men 1900: Sport in War 1901: Notes and Instructions for the South African Constabulary 1914: Quick Training for War Other books 1905: Ambidexterity (co-authored with John Jackson) 1915: Indian Memories [49] 1915: My Adventures as a Spy 1916: Young Knights of the Empire: Their Code, and Further Scout [50] Yarns 1921: An Old Wolf's Favourites 1927: Life's Snags and How to Meet Them 1933: Lessons From the Varsity of Life 1934: Adventures and Accidents 1936: Adventuring to Manhood 1937: African Adventures 1938: Birds and beasts of Africa 1939: Paddle Your Own Canoe 1940: More Sketches Of Kenya [51]

Cover of first part of Scouting for Boys, January 1908

Sculpture Scouting books 1908: Scouting for Boys 1909: Yarns for Boy Scouts 1912: The Handbook for the Girl Guides or How Girls Can Help to Build Up the Empire (co-authored with Agnes Baden-Powell) 1913: Boy Scouts Beyond The Sea: My World Tour 1916: The Wolf Cub's Handbook 1918: Girl Guiding 1919: Aids To Scoutmastership [52] 1921: What Scouts Can Do: More Yarns 1922: Rovering to Success 1929: Scouting and Youth Movements [53] est 1929: Last Message to Scouts 1935: Scouting Round the World 1905 John Smith

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

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Awards
In 1937 Baden-Powell was appointed to the Order of Merit, one of the most exclusive awards in the British honours system, and he was also awarded 28 decorations by foreign states, including the Grand Officer of the Portuguese Order of Christ,[54] the Grand Commander of the Greek Order of the Redeemer (1920),[55] the Commander of the French Lgion d'honneur (1925), the First Class of the Hungarian Order of Merit (1929), the Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog of Denmark, the Grand Cross of the Order of the White Lion, the Grand Cross of the Order of the Phoenix, and the Order of Polonia Restituta. The Silver Wolf Award worn by Robert Baden-Powell is handed down the line of his successors, with the current Chief Scout, Bear Grylls, wearing this original award. The Bronze Wolf Award, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting, was first awarded to Baden-Powell by a unanimous decision of the then International Committee on the day of the institution of the Bronze Wolf in Stockholm in 1935. He was also the first recipient of the Silver Buffalo Award in 1926, the highest award conferred by the Boy Scouts of America. In 1927, at the Swedish National Jamboree he was awarded by the sterreichischer Pfadfinderbund with the "Groes Dankabzeichen des PB.[56]:113

Statue of Baden-Powell by Don Potter in front of Baden-Powell House in London

Memorial to Baden-Powell, "Chief Scout of the World", at Westminster Abbey

In 1931 Baden-Powell received the highest award of the First Austrian Republic (Groes Ehrenzeichen der Republik am Bande) out of the hands of President Wilhelm Miklas.[56]:101 Baden-Powell was also one of the first and few recipients of the Goldene Gemse, the highest award conferred by the sterreichischer Pfadfinderbund.[57] In 1931, Major Frederick Russell Burnham dedicated Mount Baden-Powell[58] in California to his old Scouting friend from forty years before.[59][60] Today their friendship is honoured in perpetuity with the dedication of the adjoining peak, Mount Burnham.[61] Baden-Powell was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize on numerous occasions, including 10 separate nominations in 1928.[62] As part of the Scouting 2007 Centenary, Nepal renamed Urkema Peak to Baden-Powell Peak.

Styles
The family name legally changed from Powell to Baden-Powell by Royal Licence on 30 April 1902.[29] 18571860: Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell 18601876: Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell 1876: Sub-Lieutenant Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell 18761884: Lieutenant Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell 18841892: Captain Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell

18921896: Major Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell 1896-25 April 1897: Major (Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel) Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell 25 April 7 May 1897: Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell 7 May 18971901: Lieutenant-Colonel (Bvt. Colonel) Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell 19011902: Major-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell 19021907: Major-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, CB 190712 October 1909: Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, CB 12 October 9 November 1909: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCVO, CB 9 November 19091912: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCB, KCVO 19121923: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCB, KCVO, KStJ 19231927: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Bt, GCVO, KCB, KStJ 19271929: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Bt, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, KStJ 19291937: Lieutenant-General The Right Honourable The Lord Baden-Powell, Bt, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, KStJ 19371941: Lieutenant-General The Right Honourable The Lord Baden-Powell, Bt, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, KStJ

165

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] "Ashanti Campaign, 1895" (http:/ / pinetreeweb. com/ bp-ashanti. htm). The Pine Tree Web. . Retrieved 17 June 2009. "Matabele Campaign" (http:/ / pinetreeweb. com/ bp-matabele. htm). The Pine Tree Web. . Retrieved 2 December 2006. "Queen's South Africa Medal" (http:/ / pinetreeweb. com/ bp-qsam. htm). The Pine Tree Web. . Retrieved 2 December 2006. "Kings's South Africa Medal" (http:/ / pinetreeweb. com/ bp-ksam. htm). The Pine Tree Web. . Retrieved 2 December 2006.

[5] "Fact Sheet: The Silver Buffalo Award" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060429084702/ http:/ / www. bsa14. org/ FactSheetSupport/ 02-532. html). Fact sheet. Boy Scouts of America, Troop 14. 1926. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. bsa14. org/ FactSheetSupport/ 02-532. html) on 29 April 2006. . Retrieved 2 December 2006. [6] "The Library Headlines" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ headline/ 981113aa. htm). ScoutBase UK. . Retrieved 2 December 2006. [7] Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN0-09-170670-X. [8] "The life of Robert Stephenson A Timeline" (http:/ / www. robertstephensontrust. com/ page24. html). Robert Stephenson Trust. . Retrieved 13 October 2009. [9] Palstra, Theo P.M. (April 1967). Baden-Powel, zijn leven en werk. Den Haag: De Nationale Padvindersraad. [10] Drewery, Mary (1975). Baden-Powell: The Man Who Lived Twice. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN0-340-18102-8. [11] Baden-Powell, Sir Robert (1915). "My Adventures As A Spy" (http:/ / pinetreeweb. com/ bp-adventure02. htm). Pine Tree Web. . Retrieved 17 June 2009. [12] Baden-Powell, Robert (1897). The Matabele Campaign, 1896. Greenwood Press. ISBN0-8371-3566-4. [13] Proctor, Tammy M. (July 2000). "A Separate Path: Scouting and Guiding in Interwar South Africa". Comparative Studies in Society and History 42 (3). ISSN3548-1356. [14] Barrett, C.R.B. (1911). History of The XIII. Hussars (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ bp-hussars. htm). Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons. . Retrieved 2 January 2007. [15] Latimer, Jon (2001). Deception in War. London: John Murray. pp.325. [16] Conan-Doyle, Sir Arthur (1901). "The Siege of Mafeking" (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ conan-doyle-mafeking. htm). Pine Tree Web. . Retrieved 17 November 2006. [17] Pakenham, Thomas (1979). The Boer War. New York: Avon Books. ISBN0-380-72001-9. [18] Pakenham, Thomas (2001). The Siege of Mafeking. [19] "Robert Baden-Powell: Defender of Mafeking and Founder of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides" (http:/ / www. npg. org. uk/ whatson/ display/ 2004/ robert-baden-powell. php). Past Exhibition Archive. National Portrait Gallery. . Retrieved 2 November 2010. [20] Reported as "a Yorkshire division" in The Times, 29 October 1907, p.6; the Dictionary of National Biography lists it as the Northumbrian Division, which encompassed units from the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire as well as Northumbria proper. [21] Baden-Powell, Robert; Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell Baden-Powell of Gilwell, Robert; Boehmer, Elleke (2005). Scouting for Boys: A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ej0P_lyMEFkC& pg=PR55). Oxford University Press. p.lv. ISBN978-0-19-280246-0. . [22] "Lord Robert Baden-Powell "B-P" Chief Scout of the World" (http:/ / www. wivenhoe. gov. uk/ Orgs/ WSGA/ about_badenpowell. htm). The Wivenhoe Encyclopedia. . Retrieved 17 November 2006. [23] Saint George Saunders, Hilary (1948). "Chapter II, ENTERPRISE, Lord Baden-Powell" (http:/ / pinetreeweb. com/ bp-memorial. htm). The Left Handshake. . Retrieved 2 January 2007. [24] Baden-Powell, Sir Robert (1915). "My Adventures as a Spy" (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ bp-adventure01. htm). PineTree.web. . Retrieved 17 November 2006. [25] Peterson, Robert (2003). "Marching to a Different Drummer" (http:/ / www. scoutingmagazine. org/ issues/ 0310/ d-wwas. html). Scouting. Boy Scouts of America. . Retrieved 2 January 2007.

Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell


[26] "Ernest Thompson Seton and Woodcraft" (http:/ / www. infed. org/ thinkers/ seton. htm). InFed. 2002. . Retrieved 7 December 2006. [27] "Robert Baden-Powell as and Educational Innovator" (http:/ / www. infed. org/ thinkers/ et-bp. htm). InFed. 2002. . Retrieved 7 December 2006. [28] Extrapolation for global range of other language publications, and related to the number of Scouts, make a realistic estimate of 100 to 150 million books. Details from Jeal, Tim. Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN0-09-170670-X. [29] "Family history, Person Page 876" (http:/ / www. thepeerage. com/ p876. htm#i8753). The Peerage. . Retrieved 1 January 2007. [30] "What ever happened to Baden-Powell's Rolls Royce?" (http:/ / www. jamroll. org/ ). . Retrieved 8 November 2008. [31] ""Johnny" Walker's Scouting Milestones" (http:/ / www. scouting. milestones. btinternet. co. uk/ jamroll. htm). . Retrieved 3 September 2008. [32] "Baden-Powell as an Educational Innovator" (http:/ / www. infed. org/ thinkers/ et-bp. htm). Infed Thinkers. . Retrieved 4 February 2006. [33] Nagy, Lszl (1985). 250million Scouts. Geneva: World Scout Foundation. [34] Baden-Powell, Sir Robert. "B-P's final letter to the Scouts" (http:/ / guidinguk. freeservers. com/ B-P. html). Girl Guiding UK. . Retrieved 4 August 2007. [35] Baden-Powell, Olave. "Window on My Heart" (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ bp-olave-00. htm). The Autobiography of Olave, Lady Baden-Powell, G.B.E.as told to Mary Drewery. Hodder and Stoughton. . Retrieved 16 November 2006. [36] "Fact Sheet: The Three Baden-Powell's: Robert, Agnes, and Olave" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080309134457/ http:/ / www. girlguides. ca/ media/ pdfs/ 14-3/ 14. 3. 1. 7. pdf) (PDF). Girl Guides of Canada. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. girlguides. ca/ media/ pdfs/ 14-3/ 14. 3. 1. 7. pdf) on 9 March 2008. . Retrieved 2 January 2007. [37] "Olave St Clair Baden-Powell (ne Soames), Baroness Baden-Powell; Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell" (http:/ / www. npg. org. uk/ collections/ search/ portrait. php?mkey=mw83490). National Portrait Gallery. . Retrieved 16 November 2006. [38] "Wey people, the big names of the valley" (http:/ / www. weyriver. co. uk/ theriver/ people_3_names. htm). Wey River freelance community. . Retrieved 29 April 2007. [39] Wade, Eileen K.. "Pax Hill" (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ bp-pax-hill. htm). PineTree Web. . Retrieved 16 November 2006. [40] A tribute to Betty St. Clair Clay ne Baden-Powell (http:/ / www. spanglefish. com/ bettyclay/ ) [41] ""B-P" Chief scout of the world" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070930183638/ http:/ / www. euro. scout. org/ wsrc/ fs/ bp_e. shtml). Baden-Powell. World Organization of the Scout Movement. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. euro. scout. org/ wsrc/ fs/ bp_e. shtml) on 30 September 2007. . Retrieved 16 November 2006. [42] Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (http:/ / www. findagrave. com/ cgi-bin/ fg. cgi?page=gr& GRid=1271) at Find a Grave [43] Olave St. Clair Baden-Powell (http:/ / www. findagrave. com/ cgi-bin/ fg. cgi?page=gr& GRid=1272) at Find a Grave [44] "Boy Scout medal with fleur-de-lis and swastika, 1930s" (http:/ / elearning. scgs. qld. edu. au/ learningfederation/ drs/ R2944/ description. html). The Learning Federation. . Retrieved 3 September 2008. [45] Schellenberg, Walter (2000). Invasion, 1940: The Nazi Invasion Plan for Britain. London: St Ermin's Press. [46] Brendon, Piers (1979). Eminent Edwardians. Martin Secker & Warburg. ISBN0-436-06810-9. [47] Rosenthal, Michael (1986). The Character Factory: Baden-Powell and the Origins of the Boy Scout Movement. Pantheon Books. ISBN0-394-51169-7. [48] Block, Nelson R.; Proctor, Tammy M., eds. (2009). Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movements First Century. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p.6. ISBN1-4438-0450-9. My Adventures as a Spy (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 15715) at Project Gutenberg

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Young Knights of the Empire: Their Code, and Further Scout Yarns (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 6673) at Project Gutenberg [51] "John Smith" (http:/ / www. lva. virginia. gov/ exhibits/ treasures/ arts/ art-p1. htm). The Library of Virginia. . Retrieved 29 July 2007. [52] Lord Baden-Powell of Gilwell (1921). What Scouts Can Do: More Yarns (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ bp-can1. htm). . Retrieved 1 August 2007. [53] http:/ / scout. org/ en/ about_scouting/ facts_figures/ history/ b_p_s_last_message [54] "Supplement to the London Gazette" (http:/ / www. london-gazette. co. uk/ issues/ 31928/ supplements/ 6176). London Gazette. 1 June 1920. . Retrieved 17 June 2009. [55] "Decoration Conferred by His Majesty the King of the Hellenes" (http:/ / www. london-gazette. co. uk/ issues/ 32095/ pages/ 10197/ page. pdf). The London Gazette. 22 October 1920. . Retrieved 10 February 2010. [56] Pribich, Kurt (2004) (in German). Logbuch der Pfadfinderverbnde in sterreich. Vienna: Pfadfinder-Gilde-sterreichs. [57] Wilceczek, Hans Gregor (1931) (in German). Georgsbrief des Bundesfeldmeisters fr das Jahr 1931 an die Wlflinge, Pfadfinder, Rover und Fhrer im .P.B.. Vienna: sterreichischer Pfadfinderbund. p.4. [58] "Mount Baden-Powell" (http:/ / geonames. usgs. gov/ pls/ gnispublic/ f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:255344). USGS. . Retrieved 17 April 2006. [59] "Dedication of Mount Baden-Powell" (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ dedication. htm). The Pine Tree Web. . Retrieved 23 April 2006. [60] Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Haynes. xxvxxix. ISBN1-879356-32-5. [61] "Mapping Service" (http:/ / geonames. usgs. gov/ pls/ gnispublic/ f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:255383). Mount Burnham. . Retrieved 17 April 2006. [62] "Nomination Database: Baden-Powell" (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ peace/ nomination/ nomination. php?action=show& showid=1589). The Nomination Database for the Nobel Peace Prize, 19011956. . Retrieved 2 November 2010.

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Related readings: biographies


Begbie, Harold (1900). * The story of Baden-Powell: The Wolf that never Sleeps (http://www.gutenberg.org/ etext/17300) at Project Gutenberg. London: Grant Richards. Kiernan, R.H. (1939). Baden-Powell. London: Harrap. Saunders, Hilary St George (1948). The Left Handshake. Palstra, Theo P.M. (April 1967). Baden-Powel, zijn leven en werk. Den Haag: De Nationale Padvindersraad. Drewery, Mary (1975). Baden-Powell: the man who lived twice. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN0-340-18102-8. Brendon, Piers (1980). Eminent Edwardians. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN0-395-29195-X. Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN0-09-170670-X. Hillcourt, William; Olave, Lady Baden-Powell (1992). Baden-Powell: The Two Lives Of A Hero. New York: Gilwellian Press d/b/a Scouter's Journal Magazine. ISBN0-8395-3594-5. "Robert Baden-Powell, Founder of the World Scout Movement, Chief Scout of the World" (http://www. pinetreeweb.com/B-P.htm). Pine Tree Web. Retrieved 29 July 2007.

External links
Works by Robert Baden-Powell (http://www.gutenberg.org/author/ Robert_Baden-Powell_Baron_(18571941)) at Project Gutenberg What would Baden-Powell do? (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/6918066.stm)

Scout and Guide Graduate Association


The Scout and Guide Graduate Association (SAGGA) is an association in the United Kingdom of Scouts and Guides who, largely, were former members of University or College Scout and Guide Clubs. It exists to provide skilled service to Scouting and Guiding. SAGGA's membership mainly resides in the UK, with some members overseas.

History
SAGGA was formed on 21 April 1957, and was originally nicknamed the "Peter Pan Club". The Association was an affiliated organisation of both Girlguiding UK and the Scout Association, but in 1988 it was de-affiliated by both Associations. However, it continues to work closely with both Associations. SAGGA celebrated their 50th anniversary in 2007, with special celebrations at the association's Annual Gathering and AGM.

Organisation
SAGGA as an organisation views itself as a framework within which its members can organise activities for the benefit of themselves or the movement. This framework lets them choose what to do: building up skills and experiences, trying something new, joining activities such as camping, winter walking, sailing and crafts. While most members are graduates and members or former members of the Associations, these are not conditions of joining. Their only criteria for membership being sympathy with their aims, and undertaking a CRB check.

Scout and Guide Graduate Association

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SAGGA's Aims
SAGGA's aims are: To provide service to the Scout and Guide Movement To enable its members to use their skills in giving service To promote Scout and Guide co-operation To promote discussion and development of ideas relevant to Scouting and Guiding To maintain communication between SAGGA and other related organisations To encourage equal opportunities in the Movement To encourage members and their families to be involved in Scouting and Guiding Activities

Major Activities
In the 1960s it was particularly active in pressing for co-educational Scouting and Guiding. To promote this it organised many events, particularly SAGA '61, the first joint Scout and Guide camp, and then SAGA '65, which was a joint Scout and Guide activity in Norway. Members were also involved in introducing modern youth work methods into Scout and Guide Leader Training, such as Wood Badge training courses. More recently SAGGA decided to revisit its roots with the GaSCiT events of 2000 and 2003, and while they brought together members of both halves of the Scout and Guide Movement, the aim this time was to support and train leaders lacking in the skills needed to organise their own camps.
SAGGA Members working on a Scout Campsite in Sweden in 2006

In the Summer of 2007 SAGGA supported the 21st World Scout Jamboree by running 1 in 10 of the community projects referred to on the Jamboree programme as "Starburst". In years where there is no special project SAGGA usually runs a week long camp using its member's skills to improve facilities at a Scout or Guide camp site. SAGGA continues to run major projects to support the Scout and Guide movement.

External links
SAGGA web site [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. sagga. org. uk/ index. asp

Scout method

169

Scout method
The Scout method is the informal educational system used by Scouting. The aim of Scouting is character training with the goal of helping participants become independent and helpful,[1]and thereby become "healthy, happy, helpful citizens".[2] The Scout method uses appealing games in the primitive outdoors to generate challenges which a Scout learns to solve by himself.[1] Through the training and the example of the leader, Scouts are taught independence, leadership, the ambition to learn by himself, and a moral code with positive goals. According to founder Robert Baden-Powell, the Scout method works naturally and unconsciously: naturally in the way that it follows the natural impulses of the Scout, and unconsciously because the Scout is not aware of the education. Hands-on orientation provides a practical method of learning and helps the Scout build confidence. Activities and games provide a fun way to develop skills and provide contact with nature and the environment when pursued in an outdoor setting. Scouts learn in small groups to build unity and a brotherly atmosphere. Developing the charactersitics of responsibility, self-reliance, self-confidence, and readiness, the Scouts eventually learn collaboration and leadership skills. An attractive program of varying activities expands a Scout's horizons and bonds the Scout even more to the group.
British Scouts in Detroit

World War II Era Boy Scout

The seven elements


The World Organization of the Scout Movement's (WOSM) definition of the Scout method has changed over the years. Through the 1980s it was composed of four elements: Scout Law and Scout Promise (Scout Oath), learning by doing, development of small groups, and a progressive and attractive programs of different activities. This changed in the 1990s. WOSM now divides the method into seven elements:[3]
American Scouts

Scout method

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Law and promise


The Scout law is a personal code of living to guide the way each Scout lives his or her life. It is not a repression of faults, so was not framed as a list of prohibitions. It states what is good form and what is expected of a Scout.[4] The Scout Law is at the heart of the Scout method. With the Scout promise a Scout is engaged to do his best to obey the Scout law. The main principles are:[4] Duty to God Duty to others Duty to self Prohibition Scouting does not prohibit bad habits, but instead gives better alternatives that will absorb the Scout's attention and gradually lead him to forget the old habit.[5]:31 The reasoning is that "prohibition generally invites evasion, since it challenges the spirit inherent in every red-blooded boy. The boy is not governed by DON'T, but is led on by DO."[4]
Brazilian Scouts Spanish Scouts

Spirituality A Scout should be spiritual but Scouting is open to all religions. Scouting deals with religions in the practical way: by nature study (to see what God is) and helping others (which is what God asks for). According to Baden-Powell this is part of all religions. Scouting develops the spiritual side through teaching life-saving techniques and by promoting the daily good deed. Today religious practice is not a duty any more, as long as the Scout follows the Scout law and promise. Good deeds The good deed is a key component of the law and promise. Baden-Powell felt this is the main duty God asks for, and fulfilling our duty to others makes us happy, which fulfills the duty to ourselves. The point is not so much the deed itself, which could be minor, but to teach the Scout to always pay attention and recognise if he could help someone.[5]:36, 64, 65

Learning by doing
Scouts games are full of practical action. This holds the participant's attention and gives the Scout hands-on experience in how the theory works. Although Baden-Powell put emphasis on practical work and independent learning, he did not rule out the need for instruction by leaders or in books. The phrase "Learning by doing" is nowadays much used in Scouting.
Toronto Scouts

Scout method

171

Team system
The Patrol System is the one essential feature in which Scout training differs from that of all other organizations, and where the System is properly applied, it is absolutely bound to bring success. It cannot help itself! The formation of the boys into Patrols of from six to eight and training them as separate units each under its own responsible leader is the key to a good Troop. Robert Baden-Powell[6] Patrol system Sometimes called the 'patrol method', Scouts are organised in small groups (about five to seven Scouts) because this is the natural way boys work together.[5]:18 These patrols are therefore more important than the Scout troop. Patrols must be kept intact under all circumstances, including working, tenting, learning, cooking, and surviving together.[5]:49 In a Patrol the Scouts learn to work with Baden-Powell others, while the Patrol leader learns responsibility for others. Both have to give up part of their personal interest for this.[5]:24 However, Scouting deals with the individual, not with the Company.[5]:21, 15 A Scout has his own identity within the group and learns as an individual. The Patrol serves as the character school for the individual.[5]:24 Younger sections, such as Cub Scouts and Beaver Scouts, are divided into sixes (Cubs) or lodges (Beavers). While Beaver lodges have no leader structure, Cub sixes have a sixer and seconder. Honour Court Called the "Patrol Leaders' Council" in some quarters. The Scout patrols are subject to an Honour Court formed by the Patrol leaders, with the Scout leader as advisor.[5] This is a peer system in which Scouts discuss each other's behaviour and is part of the self-governing aspect of Scouting.

Symbolic framework
Imagination Scouting plays on the imagination of the Scout, who loves to "make-believe" and live in the imaginative world of adventurers, such as backwoodsmen, pioneers, sailors, and airmen.[5]:21 The Scout identifies with the personal qualities of his heroes. Drawing on his experience as an amateur actor, Baden-Powell built into Scouting a theatrical and non-serious environment, using words with strange meanings, yells, songs, and unique customs. The common uniform is also part of this theatre.

Scout method Rituals Scouting has a number of rituals. They are designed to be short, simple, and attractive for Scouts, but with underlying symbolism. For instance, the cub yell during the opening ritual is "We DOB, DOB, DOB". It is a funny yell for the cubs, but at same time it is an abbreviation for "we Do Our Best".

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Personal progression
Self-reliance Baden-Powell wanted a Scout to learn to make his own decisions, as he felt this would help the children grow and mature. Baden-Powell wrote that a Scout should paddle his own canoe, metaphorically speaking. He should travel not in a rowing boat, with his back to where he goes, rowed by others and someone else at the rudder, but alone in a canoe: facing the future, paddling and steering by himself.[7] Scouting teaches self-reliance by bringing the Scouts into a challenging, somewhat risky environment, without help in the direct neighbourhood. Therefore the program is based on an adult, adventurous, and appealing outdoor life. "A man's job cut down to boy's size."[5]:32, 15 Self-governing Giving responsibility to the Scouts is a keystone of the Scout method: Polish Scouts "Expect him to carry out his charge faithfully. Don't keep prying to see how he does. Let him do it his own way. Let him come a howler over it if need be, but in any case leave him alone." The Patrol is almost independent, while the Troop is run by the Patrol Leaders in the Patrols' Leaders Council and Court of Honour.[5]:24, 32 Self-learning Education in Scouting should give a Scout the ambition and desire to learn by himself, which is more valuable than receiving instruction from leaders. This is done by having the Scout undertake activities that attract him individually from the selection offered in Scouting for Boys.[5]:16, 60 Badge system The "Personal Progressive Scheme" is based on two complementary elements: Proficiency (Merit) badges are intended to encourage the Scout to learn a subject which could be his work or hobby, and cover many different types of activities not always related to Scouting. Class badges or Progress system: Class badges are successive stages in which the Scout learns the techniques needed for the Scout game. An important final (first Class) test for the Scout or Guide section is making a journey on their own, proving their independence. The personal progress system was introduced by the World Organization of the Scout Movement as an alternative to the Class badges. The programme uses successive stages which young people go through in order to reach the educational objectives for each age group. The system puts more emphasis on personal objectives of physical, intellectual, affective, social, spiritual, and character development.[8] Badges are not a final goal, but a first step, to give a Scout encouragement.[5]:56-57 The Scout should then decide by himself to proceed if he likes the activity, without further need of standards. Scouting should not be

Scout method a high standard of knowledge.[2]:331 This spart of the method has is no longer emphasized, as today's standards are higher than in the past, and there are additional levels in the United States above the class badges. Non-competitive Education in Scouting is non-competitive because Scouts should learn because they like the subject, not just in competition or to be better than others.[5]:28 Individual Education in Scouting is individual, because every Scout, no matter what their capabilities, must be inspired to learn. The goal is not the quality of the whole group. Scouts should proceed on their own level. The badges signify not a certain quality of knowledge or skill as "the amount of effort the Scout puts into his work." The standards were therefore purposely not clearly defined.[5]:28

173

Nature
Nature as the learning school The Scouting game mostly takes place in Nature, because it is an adventurous environment with challenges, which Scouts want to conquer. In this way the Scout and the Patrol learn to overcome difficulties and learn to make their own decisions. God in nature According to Baden-Powell, the Scout could find God in Nature when he realised the complexity and beauty of Nature. Love of outdoors Scouts see Nature as an adventurous place, and it is expected that when they get older the experience from their youth will make them nature lovers.
Brownsea Island

Adult support
Example of the leader An important part of Scouting education is the personal example of the leader. The Scout is impressed by the leader because of his age, his knowledge, and his position as a leader. If the leader is popular, leadership will be seen as an attractive goal, and the Scout will follow the example of the leader. The Scoutmaster living the Scout law will have more influence than one who simply talks about it. In the boys' eyes it is what a man does that counts and not so much what he says.[5]:4, 38

Leaders

Scout method Guide The self-governing of the boys changes the role of the leader: "I had stipulated that the position of Scoutmaster was to be neither that of a schoolmaster nor of a commander Officer, but rather that of an elder brother among his boys, not detached or above them individually, able to inspire their efforts and to suggest new diversions when his finger on their pulse told him the attraction of any present craze was wearing off."[4] Scouting leaders should not direct, but guide (and check on safety).

174

Girl Guide variation


Service in the community
While community service is a major element of both the World Organization of the Scout Movement and World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts programmes, Girl Guides include it as an extra element of the Scout method.[9]

References
[1] Baden-Powell, Robert. B.-P's Outlook (http:/ / www. usscouts. org/ history/ BPoutlook1. asp). October, 1913. . Girl Guides

[2] Baden-Powell, Robert (1926). Scouting for Boys. p.331. [3] "Scouting: An Educational System" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 3899/ 34684/ file/ ScoutEducSyst_E. pdf) (PDF). World Organization of the Scout Movement. 1998. p.19. . Retrieved 2007-01-13. [4] Baden-Powell, Robert (1933). Lessons from the Varsity of Life, Chapter X (http:/ / www. pinetreeweb. com/ bp-varsity10-1. htm). . Retrieved 2007-01-07. [5] Baden-Powell, Robert (1919) (PDF). Aids to Scoutmastership, World Brotherhood Edition (http:/ / www. wakan. cz/ download/ Knihy/ Aids_to_Scoutmastership. pdf). The National Council Boy Scouts of Canada. . Retrieved 2007-01-07. [6] Baden-Powell, Robert (943). Aids to Scoutmastership a Guidebook for Scoutmasters on the Theory of Scout Training. The National Council Boy Scouts of Canada. p. 16. [7] Baden-Powell, Robert (1930). Rovering to Success. p.22., [8] "The RAP User's Guide" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 5944/ 56692/ file/ rap. pdf) (PDF). World Organization of the Scout Movement. 2007. . Retrieved 2007-07-26. p. 119-121 [9] "Article 6b" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ grab/ 1109/ 1/ 1ConstitutionbookletEnglish. pdf) (PDF). Constitution Booklet. World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. 2005. . Retrieved 2007-09-15.

Scouting

175

Scouting
Scouting

Country

Worldwide United Kingdom (origin)

Founded 1907 Founder Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell

Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement with the stated aim of supporting young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society. Scouting began in 1907 when Robert Baden-Powell, Lieutenant General in the British Army, held the first Scouting encampment on Brownsea Island in England. Baden-Powell wrote the principles of Scouting in Scouting for Boys (London, 1908), based on his earlier military books, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham (Chief of Scouts in British Africa), Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, and his publisher Pearson. During the first half of the 20th century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups each for boys (Cub Scout, Boy Scout, Rover Scout) and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls (Brownie Guide, Girl Guide and Girl Scout, Ranger Guide). The movement employs the Scout method, a program of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking, and sports. Another widely recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as merit badges and other patches. In 2011, Scouting and Guiding together had over 41 million members worldwide. The two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), for boys-only and co-educational organizations, and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), primarily for girls-only organizations but also accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting world wide, and member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion.

Scouting

176

History
Origins
As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India and Africa in the 1880s and 1890s. Since his youth, he had been fond of woodcraft and military scouting, andas part of their trainingshowed his men how to survive in the wilderness. He noticed that it helped the soldiers to develop independence rather than just blindly follow officers' orders.[1] In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War, and it was here that he first met and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American born Chief of Scouts for the British.[2][3] This would become a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance Stone on Brownsea Island commemorating the first Scout camp missions into enemy territory, but because many of his later Boy Scout ideas took hold here.[4] During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham began teaching Baden-Powell woodcraft, inspiring him and giving him the plan for both the program and the code of honor of Scouting for Boys.[5][6] Practiced by frontiersmen of the American Old West and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was generally unknown to the British, but well known to the American scout Burnham.[2] These skills eventually formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were changing markedly and the British Army needed to adapt; so during their joint scouting missions, Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training programme in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, fieldcraft, and self-reliance.[7] It was also during this time in the Matobo Hills that Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, and it was here that Baden-Powell acquired his Kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he later used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses.[8][9][10] Three years later, in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafeking by a much larger Boer army (the Siege of Mafeking).[11] The Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defense of the town (18991900), and were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.[12][13][14] Each member received a badge that illustrated a combined compass point and spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis that Scouting later adopted as its international symbol.[15] In the United Kingdom, the public followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking through newspapers, and when the siege was broken, he had become a national hero. This rise to fame fueled the sales of a small instruction book he had written about military scouting, Aids to Scouting.[16] On his return to England, he noticed that boys showed considerable interest in the book, which was used by teachers and youth organizations.[17] He was suggested by several to rewrite this book for boys, especially during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drilled with military precision. Baden-Powell thought this would not be attractive and suggested that it could grow much larger when scouting would be used.[18] He studied other schemes, parts of which he used for Scouting. In July 1906, Ernest Thompson Seton sent Baden-Powell a copy of his book The Birchbark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians. Seton, a British-born Canadian living in the United States, met Baden-Powell in October 1906, and they shared ideas about youth training programs.[19][20] In 1907 Baden-Powell wrote a draft called Boy Patrols. In the same year, to test his ideas, he gathered 21 boys of mixed social backgrounds (from boy's schools in the London area

Scouting and a section of boys from the Poole, Parkstone, Hamworthy, Bournemouth, and Winton Boys' Brigade units) and held a week-long camp in August on Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour, Dorset, England.[21] His organizational method, now known as the Patrol System and a key part of Scouting training, allowed the boys to organize themselves into small groups with an elected patrol leader.[22] In the autumn of 1907, Baden-Powell went on an extensive speaking tour arranged by his publisher, Arthur Pearson, to promote his forthcoming book, Scouting for Boys. He had not simply rewritten his Aids to Scouting, but left out the military aspects and transferred the techniques (mainly survival) to non-military heroes: backwoodsmen, explorers (and later on, sailors and airmen).[1] He also added innovative educational principles (the Scout method) by which he extended the attractive game to a personal mental education.[20] Scouting for Boys first appeared in England in January 1908 as six fortnightly installments, and was published in England later in 1908 in book form. The book is now the fourth-bestselling title of all time,[23] and is now commonly considered the first version of the Boy Scout Handbook.[24] At the time, Baden-Powell intended that the scheme would be used by established organizations, in particular the Boys' Brigade, from the founder William A. Smith.[25] However, because of the popularity of his person and the adventurous outdoor game he wrote about, boys spontaneously formed Scout patrols and flooded Baden-Powell with requests for assistance. He encouraged them, and the Scouting movement developed momentum. As the movement grew, Sea Scout, Air Scout, and other specialized units were added to the program.[26][27]

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Growth
The Boy Scout movement swiftly established itself throughout the British Empire soon after the publication of Scouting for Boys. The first recognized overseas unit was chartered in Gibraltar in 1908, followed quickly by a unit in Malta. Canada became the first overseas dominion with a sanctioned Boy Scout program, followed by Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Chile was the first country outside the British dominions to have a recognized Scouting program. The first Scout rally, held in 1909 at The Crystal Palace in London, attracted 10,000 boys and a number of girls. By 1910, Argentina, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Malaya, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States had Boy Scouts.[28][29] The program initially focused on boys aged 11 to 18, but as the movement grew, the need became apparent for leader training and programs for younger boys, Girl Guiding/Scouting pioneer Olave older boys, and girls. The first Cub Scout and Rover Scout programs were in Baden-Powell place by the late 1910s. They operated independently until they obtained official recognition from their home country's Scouting organization. In the United States, attempts at Cub programs began as early as 1911, but official recognition was not obtained until 1930.[29][30][31] Girls wanted to become part of the movement almost as soon as it began. Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes Baden-Powell introduced the Girl Guides in 1910, a parallel movement for girls, sometimes named Girl Scouts. Agnes Baden-Powell became the first president of the Girl Guides when it was formed in 1910, at the request of the girls who attended the Crystal Palace Rally. In 1914, she started Rosebudslater renamed Browniesfor younger girls. She stepped down as president of the Girl Guides in 1920 in favor of Robert's wife Olave Baden-Powell, who was named Chief Guide (for England) in 1918 and World Chief Guide in 1930. At that time, girls were expected to remain separate from boys because of societal standards, though co-educational youth groups did exist. By the 1990s, two thirds of the Scout organizations belonging to WOSM had become co-educational.[32]

Scouting Baden-Powell could not single-handedly advise all groups who requested his assistance. Early Scoutmaster training camps were held in London in 1910 and in Yorkshire in 1911. Baden-Powell wanted the training to be as practical as possible to encourage other adults to take leadership roles, so the Wood Badge course was developed to recognize adult leadership training. The development of the training was delayed by World War I, so the first Wood Badge course was not held until 1919.[33] Wood Badge is used by Boy Scout associations and combined Boy Scout and Girl Guide associations in many countries. Gilwell Park near London was purchased in 1919 on behalf of The Scout Association as an adult training site and Scouting campsite.[34] Baden-Powell wrote a book, Aids to Scoutmastership, to help Scouting Leaders, and wrote other handbooks for the use of the new Scouting sections, such as Cub Scouts and Girl Guides. One of these was Rovering to Success, written for Rover Scouts in 1922. A wide range of leader training exists in 2007, from basic to program-specific, including the Wood Badge training.

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Influences
Important elements of traditional Scouting have their origins in Baden-Powell's experiences in education and military training. He was a 50-year-old retired army general when he founded Scouting, and his revolutionary ideas inspired thousands of young people, from all parts of society, to get involved in activities that most had never contemplated. Comparable organizations in the English-speaking world are the Boys' Brigade and the non-militaristic Woodcraft Folk; however, they never matched the development and growth of Scouting.[35]
U.S. President Calvin Coolidge greeting 1500 Boy Scouts making an annual pilgrimage to the Capitol, 1927

Aspects of Scouting practice have been criticized as too militaristic.[36] Military-style uniforms, badges of rank, flag ceremonies, and brass bands were commonly accepted in the early years because they were a part of normal society, but since then have diminished or been

abandoned in both Scouting and society. Local influences have also been a strong part of Scouting. By adopting and modifying local ideologies, Scouting has been able to find acceptance in a wide variety of cultures. In the United States, Scouting uses images drawn from the U.S. frontier experience. This includes not only its selection of animal badges for Cub Scouts, but the underlying assumption that American native peoples are more closely connected with nature and therefore have special wilderness survival skills which can be used as part of the training program. By contrast, British Australian Scouts attend Scouts' Own, an Scouting makes use of imagery drawn from the Indian subcontinent, informal, spiritual Scouting ceremony because that region was a significant focus in the early years of Scouting. Baden-Powell's personal experiences in India led him to adopt Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book as a major influence for the Cub Scouts; for example, the name used for the Cub Scout leader, Akela (whose name was also appropriated for the Webelos), is that of the leader of the wolf pack in the book.[37] The name "Scouting" seems to have been inspired by the important and romantic role played by military scouts performing reconnaissance in the wars of the time. In fact, Baden-Powell wrote his original military training book, Aids To Scouting, because he saw the need for the improved training of British military-enlisted scouts, particularly in initiative, self-reliance, and observational skills. The book's popularity with young boys surprised him. As he adapted the book as Scouting for Boys, it seems natural that the movement adopted the names Scouting and Boy Scouts.[38]

Scouting "Duty to God" is a principle of Scouting, though it is applied differently in various countries.[39][40] The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) take a strong position, excluding atheists.[41] The Scout Association in the United Kingdom permits variations to its Promise, in order to accommodate different religious obligations,[42]. Scouts Canada defines Duty to God broadly in terms of "adherence to spiritual principles" and leaves it to the individual member or leader whether they can follow a Scout Promise that includes Duty to God.[43]

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Movement characteristics
Scouting is taught using the Scout method, which incorporates an informal educational system that emphasizes practical activities in the outdoors. Programs exist for Scouts ranging in age from 6 to 25 (though age limits vary slightly by country), and program specifics target Scouts in a manner appropriate to their age.[44][45]

Scout method
The Scout method is the principal method by which the Scouting organizations, boy and girl, operate their units. WOSM describes Scouting as "...a voluntary nonpolitical educational movement for young people open to all without distinction of origin, race or creed, in accordance with the purpose, principles and method conceived by the Founder..."[44] It is the goal of Scouting "to contribute to the development of young people in achieving their full physical, intellectual, social and spiritual potentials as individuals, as responsible citizens and as members of their local, national and international communities."[44]

Scouting Statue at the Cockrell Scout Center of the Boy Scouts of America in Houston

The principles of Scouting describe a code of behavior for all members, and characterize the movement. The Scout method is a progressive system designed to achieve these goals, comprising seven elements: law and promise, learning by doing, team system, symbolic framework, personal progression, nature, and adult support.[46] While community service is a major element of both the WOSM and WAGGGS programs, WAGGGS includes it as an extra element of the Scout method: service in the community.[47] The Scout Law and Promise embody the joint values of the Scouting movement worldwide, and bind all Scouting associations together. The emphasis on "learning by doing" provides experiences and hands-on orientation as a practical method of learning and building self-confidence. Small groups build unity, camaraderie, and a close-knit fraternal atmosphere. These experiences, along with an emphasis on trustworthiness and personal honor, help to develop responsibility, character, self-reliance, self-confidence, reliability, and readiness; which eventually lead to collaboration and leadership. A program with a variety of progressive and attractive activities expands a Scout's horizon and bonds the Scout even more to the group. Activities and games provide an enjoyable way to develop skills such as dexterity. In an outdoor setting, they also provide contact with the natural environment.[45] Since the birth of Scouting in 1907, Scouts worldwide have taken a Scout Promise to live up to ideals of the movement, and subscribe to the Scout Law. The form of the promise and laws have varied slightly by country and over time, but must fulfil the requirements of the WOSM to qualify a National Scout Association for membership.[44] The Scout Motto, 'Be Prepared', has been used in various languages by millions of Scouts since 1907. Less well-known is the Scout Slogan, 'Do a good turn daily'.[48]

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Activities
Common ways to implement the Scout method include having Scouts spending time together in small groups with shared experiences, rituals, and activities, and emphasizing good citizenship and decision-making by young people in an age-appropriate manner. Weekly meetings often take place in local centres known as Scout dens. Cultivating a love and appreciation of the outdoors and outdoor activities is a key element. Primary activities include camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking, and sports.[49][50] Camping is most often arranged at the unit level, such as one Scout troop, but there are periodic camps (known in the US as "camporees") and "jamborees". Camps occur a few times a year and may involve several groups from a local area or region camping together for a weekend. The events usually have a theme, such as pioneering. World Scout Moots are gatherings, originally for Rover Scouts, but mainly focused on Scout Leaders. Jamborees are large national or international events held every four years, during which thousands of Scouts camp together for one or two weeks. Activities at these events will include games, scoutcraft competitions, badge, pin or patch trading, aquatics, woodcarving, archery and activities related to the theme of the event.[51]

Girl Guides in front of a Catholic church in Poland

In some countries a highlight of the year for Scouts is spending at least a week in the summer engaging in an outdoor activity. This can be a camping, hiking, sailing, or other trip with the unit, or a summer camp Sculpture erected in 1982 to commemorate the with broader participation (at the council, state, or provincial level). 1979 Jamboree at Perry Lakes Western Australia and 75 years of Scouting Scouts attending a summer camp work on merit badges, advancement, and perfecting scoutcraft skills. Summer camps can operate specialty programs for older Scouts, such as sailing, backpacking, canoeing and whitewater, caving, and fishing.[52][53] At an international level Scouting perceives one of its roles as the promotion of international harmony and peace.[54] Various initiatives are in train towards achieving this aim including the development of activities that benefit the wider community, challenge prejudice and encourage tolerance of diversity. Such programs include co-operation with non-scouting organisations including various NGOs, the United Nations and religious institutions as set out in The Marrakech Charter.[55]

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Uniforms and distinctive insignia


Individual national or other emblems may be found at the individual country's Scouting article. The Scout uniform is a widely recognized characteristic of Scouting. In the words of Baden-Powell at the 1937 World Jamboree, it "hides all differences of social standing in a country and makes for equality; but, more important still, it covers differences of country and race and creed, and makes all feel that they are members with one another of the one great brotherhood".[56] The original uniform, still widely recognized, consisted of a khaki button-up shirt, shorts, and a broad-brimmed campaign hat. Baden-Powell also wore shorts, because he believed that being dressed like a Scout helped to reduce the age-imposed distance between adult and youth. Uniform shirts are now frequently blue, orange, red or green and shorts are frequently replaced by long trousers all year or only in winter. While designed for smartness and equality, the Scout uniform is also practical. Shirts traditionally have thick seams to make them ideal for use in makeshift The R. Tait McKenzie sculpture Ideal Scout depicts a Scout in proper stretchersScouts were trained to use them in this way with their staves, a uniform traditional but deprecated item. The leather straps and toggles of the campaign hats or Leaders' Wood Badges could be used as emergency tourniquets, or anywhere that string was needed in a hurry. Neckerchiefs were chosen as they could easily be used as a sling or triangular bandage by a Scout in need. Scouts were encouraged to use their garters for shock cord where necessary.[56] Distinctive insignia for all are Scout uniforms, recognized and worn the world over, include the Wood Badge and the World Membership Badge. Scouting has two internationally known symbols: the trefoil is used by members of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) and the fleur-de-lis by member organizations of the WOSM and most other Scouting organizations.[57][58] The swastika was used as an early symbol by the British Boy Scouts and others. Its earliest use in Scouting was on the Thanks Badge introduced in 1911.[59] Lord Baden-Powell's 1922 design for the Medal of Merit added a swastika to the Scout fleur-de-lis to symbolize good luck for the recipient. Like Rudyard Kipling, he would have come across this symbol in India. In 1934, Scouters requested a change to the design because of the later use of the swastika by the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi Party). A new British Medal of Merit was issued in 1935.[59]

Age groups and sections


Scouting and Guiding movements are generally divided into sections by age or school grade, allowing activities to be tailored to the maturity of the group's members. These age divisions have varied over time as they adapt to the local culture and environment.[60] Scouting was originally developed for adolescentsyouths between the ages of 11 and 17. In most member organizations, this age group composes the Scout or Guide section. Programs were developed to meet the needs of young children (generally ages 6 to 10) and young adults (originally 18 and older, and later up to 25). Scouts and Guides were later split into "junior" and "senior" sections in many member

A group of Hong Kong Cub Scouts

Scouting organizations, and some organizations dropped the young adults' section. The exact age ranges for programs vary by country and association.[61][62][63]

182

The traditional age groups as they were between 1920 and 1940 in most organizations:
Age range Scouting section 8 to 10 11 to 17 18 and up Wolf Cubs Boy Scout Rover Scout Guiding section Brownie Guide Girl Guide or Girl Scout Ranger Guide

The national programs for younger children include Tiger Cubs, Cub Scouts, Brownies, Daisies, Rainbow Guides, Beaver Scouts, Joey Scouts, Keas, and Teddies. Programs for post-adolescents and young adults include the Senior Section,[64] Rover Scouts, Senior Scouts, Venture Scouts, Explorer Scouts, and the Scout Network. Many organizations also have a program for members with special needs. This is usually known as Extension Scouting, but sometimes has other names, such as Scoutlink. The Scout Method has been adapted to specific programs such as Air Scouts, Sea Scouts, Rider Guides and Scoutingbands .[65] In many countries, Scouting is organized into neighborhood Scout Groups, or Districts, which contain one or more sections. Under the umbrella of the Scout Group, sections are divided according to age, each having their own terminology and leadership structure.[66]

Adults and leadership


Adults interested in Scouting or Guiding, including former Scouts and Guides, often join organizations such as the International Scout and Guide Fellowship. In the United States and the Philippines, university students might join the co-ed service fraternity Alpha Phi Omega. In the United Kingdom, university students might join the Student Scout and Guide Organisation, and after graduation, the Scout and Guide Graduate Association. Scout units are usually operated by adult volunteers, such as parents and carers, former Scouts, students, and community leaders, including teachers and religious leaders. Scout Leadership positions are often divided into 'uniform' and 'lay' positions. Uniformed leaders have received formal training, such as the Wood Badge, and have received a warrant for a rank within the organization. Lay members commonly hold part-time roles such as meeting helpers, committee members and advisors, though there are a small number of full-time lay professionals.[67]

Robert Baden-Powell, founder of the Scouting movement

A unit has uniformed positionssuch as the Scoutmaster and assistantswhose titles vary among countries. In some countries, units are supported by lay members, who range from acting as meeting helpers to being members of the unit's committee. In some Scout associations, the committee members may also wear uniforms and be registered Scout leaders.[68] Above the unit are further uniformed positions, called Commissioners, at levels such as district, county, council or province, depending on the structure of the national organization. Commissioners work with lay teams and professionals. Training teams and related functions are often formed at these levels. In the UK and in other countries, the national Scout organization appoints the Chief Scout, the most senior uniformed member.[69][70][71]

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Around the world


Following its foundation in the United Kingdom, Scouting spread around the globe. The first association outside the British Empire was opened in Chile, was founded after a visit to Baden Powell and the founding date is May 21, 1909[72]. In most countries of the world, there is now at least one Scouting (or Guiding) organization. Each is independent, but international cooperation continues to be seen as part of the Scout Movement. In 1922 the WOSM started as the governing body on policy for the national Scouting organizations (then male only). In addition to being the governing policy body, it organizes the World Scout Jamboree every four years.[73] In 1928 the WAGGGS started as the equivalent to WOSM for the then female-only national Scouting/Guiding organizations. It is also responsible for its four international centres: Our Cabaa in Mexico, Our Chalet in Switzerland, Pax Lodge in the United Kingdom, and Sangam in India.[74] Today at the international level, the two largest umbrella organizations are: World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), for boys-only and co-educational organizations. World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), primarily for girls-only organizations but also accepting co-educational organizations.

Co-educational
There have been different approaches to co-educational Scouting. Countries such as the United States have maintained separate Scouting organizations for boys and girls.[75] In other countries, especially within Europe, Scouting and Guiding have merged, and there is a single organization for boys and girls, which is a member of both the WOSM and the WAGGGS.[76][77] In others, such as Australia and the United Kingdom, the national Scout association has opted to admit both boys and girls, but is only a member of the WOSM, while the national Guide association has remained as a separate movement and member of the WAGGGS. In some countries like Greece, Slovenia and Spain there are separate associations of Scouts (members of WOSM) and guides (members of WAGGGS), both admitting boys and girls.[78]

Scouts and Guides from several different countries meet at World Scout Moot in Sweden, 1996

The Scout Association in the United Kingdom has been co-educational at all levels since 1991, but this has been optional for groups, and currently 52% of groups have at least one female youth member. Since 2000 new sections have been required to accept girls. The Scout Association has decided that all Scout groups and sections will become co-educational by January 2007, the year of Scouting's centenary.[79] The traditional Baden-Powell Scouts' Association has been co-educational since its formation in 1970. In the United States, the Cub Scout and Boy Scout programs of the BSA are for boys only; however, for youths age 14 and older, Venturing is co-educational. The Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) is an independent organization for girls and young women only. Adult leadership positions in the BSA and GSUSA are open to both men and women.[80][81] In 2006, of the 155 WOSM member National Scout Organizations (representing 155countries), 122 belonged only to WOSM, and 34 belonged to both WOSM and WAGGGS. Of the 122 which belonged only to WOSM, 95 were open to boys and girls in some or all program sections, and 20 were only for boys. All 34 that belonged to both WOSM and WAGGGS were open to boys and girls.[82] WAGGGS had 144Member Organizations in 2007 and 110 of them belonged only to WAGGGS. Of these 110, 17 were coeducational and 93 admitted only girls.[83][84][85]

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Membership
As of 2008, there are over 31million registered Scouts and 10million registered Guides around the world, from 216countries and territories.[86][87] Top 20 countries with Scouting and Guiding, sorted by total male and female membership of all organisations.[88][32][89][90] Scouting Guiding Membership[86][87] introduced introduced 17,100,000 1912 7,500,000 1910 4,150,000 1909 2,150,000 1910 1,300,000 1911 1,050,000 1920 1,000,000 1907 575,000 1909 480,000 1910 270,000 1922 250,000 1910 230,000 1915 220,000 1910 220,000 1908 200,000 1913 200,000 1910 170,000 1911 160,000 1910 160,000 1915 160,000 1914 1912 1912 1911 1918 1957 1928 1909 1911 1920 1946 1912 1914 1912 1910 1919 1911 1915 1910 1919 1916

Country Indonesia United States India Philippines Thailand Bangladesh United Kingdom Pakistan Kenya Korea Germany[91] Uganda Italy[92] Canada Japan France[93] Belgium[94] Poland[95] Nigeria Hong Kong

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[44] "Constitution of WOSM" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ information_events/ resource_centre/ institutional_documents/ constitution_of_w_o_s_m) (PDF). World Organization of the Scout Movement. April 2000. pp.215. . Retrieved 2006-07-10. [45] "Scouting: An Educational System" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 3899/ 34684/ file/ ScoutEducSyst_E. pdf) (PDF). World Organization of the Scout Movement. 1998. p.9. . Retrieved 2006-07-10. [46] "Scouting: An Educational System" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 3899/ 34684/ file/ ScoutEducSyst_E. pdf) (PDF). World Organization of the Scout Movement. 1998. p.19. . Retrieved 2007-01-13. [47] "Constitution Booklet" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ grab/ 1109/ 1/ 1ConstitutionbookletEnglish. pdf) (PDF). World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. 2005. p.Article 6b. . Retrieved 2007-09-15. [48] "What Is Boy Scouting?" (http:/ / www. scouting. org/ media/ factsheets/ 02-503. aspx). Boy Scouts of America. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [49] "Mission Statement and Vision Statement" (http:/ / www. scouting. org/ Legal/ mission. aspx). Boy Scouts of America. . Retrieved 2006-10-10. [50] "Boy Scout Aims and Methods" (http:/ / www. meritbadge. com/ info/ aims. htm). Meritbadge.com. . Retrieved 2006-10-27. [51] "2007 One World One Promise" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061221141208/ http:/ / eng. scouting2007. org/ activities/ ). World Centenary Activities. World Organization of the Scout Movement. 2006. Archived from the original (http:/ / eng. scouting2007. org/ activities/ ) on 2006-12-21. . Retrieved 2006-12-07. [52] "Pipsico Scout Reservation" (http:/ / www. tidewaterbsa. com/ pipsico/ summercamp. html). Tidewater Council. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [53] "Blue Ridge Mountains Scout Reservation" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080730083410/ http:/ / www. bsa-brmc. org/ camp. htm). Blue Ridge Mountains Council. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. bsa-brmc. org/ camp. htm) on July 30, 2008. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [54] "The Vision for Scouting" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ about_scouting/ mission_vision/ the_vision). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2006-07-08. [55] "Introduction to Partnerships in Scouting" (http:/ / scout. org/ index. php/ en/ about_scouting/ partners/ marrakech/ introduction). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2006-07-08. [56] Wade, E.K. (1957). "27 Years With Baden-Powell" (http:/ / pinetreeweb. com/ wade12. htm). Why the Uniform?, ch 12. Pinetree.web. . Retrieved 2006-07-24. [57] "World Scout Emblem" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ about_scouting/ facts_figures/ baden_powell/ b_p_gallery/ scout_emblem). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [58] "The World Trefoil" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061231034510/ http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ resources/ photos/ 54). World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ resources/ photos/ 54) on December 31, 2006. . Retrieved 2006-12-07. [59] "The Fleur-de-lis and the Swastika" (http:/ / www. scouting. milestones. btinternet. co. uk/ badges. htm). Scouting milestones. btinternet.co.uk. . Retrieved 2006-01-10. [60] "Educational Objectives of the Scout Movement" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 3590/ 32850/ file/ EduObj. pdf) (PDF). World Organization of the Scout Movement. 1994. . Retrieved 2009-01-17.p. 12 [61] "Boy Scouts of America, National Council" (http:/ / www. scouting. org/ ). Boy Scouts of America. . Retrieved 2006-12-07. [62] "The Scout Association, Official UK Website" (http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ ). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2006-12-07. [63] "Girlguiding UK Home and welcome" (http:/ / www. girlguiding. org. uk/ ). Girl Guiding UK. . Retrieved 2006-12-07. [64] "Girlguiding in the UK The Senior Sections" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ dna/ h2g2/ A499269). British Broadcasting Corporation. 2001. . Retrieved 2006-12-03. [65] "Soorten Scoutinggroepen" (http:/ / www. scouting. nl/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=45& Itemid=77). Scouting Nederland. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [66] "The Green Island" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 3596/ 32878/ file/ The Green Island. pdf) (PDF). World Organization of the Scout Movement. 2007. . Retrieved 2009-01-17.p. 210 [67] "Troop Organization" (http:/ / scoutmaster. org/ usscouts/ boyscouts/ bstroop. asp). US Scouts.org. April 2000. . Retrieved 2006-07-26., p. 215 [68] BSA Troop Committee Guidebook. Irving, TX: Boy Scouts of America. 1990. ISBN0-8395-6505-4. [69] "The Council of the Scout Association" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ por/ 2006/ 6_3. htm#part_1). POR: Chapter 6: The Structure of the Headquarters of The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [70] "The Chief Scout's Committee" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ por/ 2006/ 6_9. htm#part_1). POR: Chapter 6: The Structure of the Headquarters of The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [71] "Awards, Decorations and Recognition of Service" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ badges/ ). Badges. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [72] "Short history about Chilean Scouting" (http:/ / scoutchile. blogspot. com/ 2007/ 11/ short-history-of-scouts-in-chile. html). Scout+Chile. . Retrieved 2011-07-18. [73] "World Scout Jamborees History" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ information_events/ events/ world_events/ world_jamboree/ jamborees_history). World Organization of the Scout Movement. 2006. . Retrieved 2006-12-05. [74] "World Centres" (http:/ / wagggs. org/ en/ world/ centres). World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [75] "BSA and Girls in Scouting" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ girls-top. html). BSA Discrimination.org. 2005. . Retrieved 2006-12-04.

186

Scouting
[76] "Scouts Canada Policy on Girls" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ gender_policy. html). BSA Discrimination.org. 2005. . Retrieved 2006-12-04. [77] "Scouting in Germany" (http:/ / n2zgu. 50megs. com/ GER. htm). 50megs.com. 2005. . Retrieved 2006-12-04. [78] Trefoil Round the World (11 ed.). London, England: World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Bureau. 2002. ISBN0-900827-75-0. [79] "CESAN" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070621194643/ http:/ / www. edinburgh-scout. org. uk/ cesan/ cesan-2005-10. pdf) (PDF). City of Edinburgh Scout Association Newsletter. City of Edinburgh Scout Association. Oct 2005. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. edinburgh-scout. org. uk/ cesan/ cesan-2005-10. pdf) on June 21, 2007. . Retrieved 2006-12-07. [80] "Scouting for All Ages" (http:/ / www. scouting. org/ CubScouts/ AboutCubScouts/ Boys/ scouting. aspx). Boy Scouts of America. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [81] "For Adults Volunteering" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ for_adults/ volunteering/ ). Girl Scouts of the USA. 2008. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [82] "National Scout Organisations" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ around_the_world/ countries/ national_scout_organisations). World Organization of the Scout Movement. Sep 2006. . Retrieved 2007-02-04. [83] "Scouting in Sweden" (http:/ / www. faqs. org/ faqs/ scouting/ worldwide/ part1/ section-15. html). Scouting Around the World. rec.scouting. . Retrieved 2007-09-15. [84] "International Scouting Organizations" (http:/ / www. troop97. net/ intscout. htm). Troop 97. Nov 2006. . Retrieved 2007-09-15. [85] "Argentina" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ world/ organisations?mo=10). World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. . Retrieved 2007-09-15. [86] "Triennal review: Census as at 1 December 2010" (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 22261/ 199900/ file/ Census. pdf). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2011-01-13. [87] "Our World" (http:/ / www. wagggs. org/ en/ world). World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. 2006. . Retrieved 2006-12-07. [88] Full tables on List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members and List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members. [89] Scouting 'round the World. Le scoutisme travers le monde (11th ed.). World Scout Bureau. 1979. ISBN2-88052-001-0. [90] Trefoil Round the World (11th ed.). World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Bureau. 1997. ISBN0-900827-75-0. [91] Including 90,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in Germany [92] Including 30,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in Italy [93] Including 60,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in France [94] Including 5,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in Belgium [95] Including 20,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in Poland

187

Nonaligned and Scout-like organizations


Fifteen years passed between the first publication of Scouting for Boys and the creation of the current largest supranational Scout organization, WOSM, and millions of copies had been sold in dozens of languages. By that point, Scouting was the purview of the world's youth, and several Scout associations had already formed in many countries.[1][2] Alternative groups have formed since the original formation of the Scouting "Boy Patrols". They can be a result of groups or individuals who maintain that the WOSM and WAGGGS are currently more Girl Guides from the Polish ZHR, an associate member of the CES political and less youth-based than envisioned by Lord Baden-Powell. They believe that Scouting in general has moved away from its original intent because of political machinations that happen to longstanding organizations, and want to return to the earliest, simplest methods.[3][4] Others do not want to follow all the original ideals of Scouting but still desire to participate in Scout-like activities.[5] In 2008, there were at least 539independent Scouting organizations around the world,[84] 367 of them were a member of either WAGGGS or WOSM. About half of the remaining 172Scouting organizations are only local or national orientated. About 90national or regional Scouting associations have felt the need to create alternative international Scouting organizations to set standards for Scouting and to coordinate activities among member associations. Those are served by four international Scouting organizations:[84] Order of World Scouts the first international Scouting organisation, founded in 1911.

Scouting Confdration Europenne de Scoutisme, established in 1978. Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe, an independent faith-based Scouting organization founded in 1956. World Federation of Independent Scouts, formed in Laubach, Germany, in 1996. Some Scout-like organizations are also served by international organizations for example: Pathfinders Royal Rangers

188

Controversy and conflict


Since the inception of Scouting in the early 1900s, the movement has sometimes been entangled in social controversies such as the civil rights struggle in the American South and in nationalist resistance movements in India. Scouting was introduced to Africa by British officials as a way to strengthen their rule, but turned to challenge the legitimacy of the British Empire, as African Scouts used the Scout Law's principle that a Scout is a brother to all other Scouts to collectively claim full imperial citizenship.[6][7] More recently, the Scout Movement has been a focus of criticism in the USA for not allowing the participation of atheists, agnostics, or homosexuals.[8][9] In the United Kingdom the organisation has been criticised for its insistence on the use of a religious oath.[10] Due to Scouting's strong anti-authoritarian stance[11] and reinforcing of individuality values, authoritarian regimes have either absorbed it into government-controlled organizations, and/or banned it.

In film and the arts


Scouting has been a facet of culture during most of the 20th century in many countries; numerous films and artwork focus on the subject.[12] It is especially prevalent in the United States, where Scouting is tied closely to the ideal of Americana. Movie critic Roger Ebert mentioned the scene in which the young Boy Scout, Indiana Jones, discovers the Cross of Coronado in the movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, as "when he discovers his life mission."[13] The works of painters Norman Rockwell, Pierre Joubert and Joseph Csatari and the 1966 film Follow Me, Boys! are prime examples of this idealized ethos. Scouting is often dealt with in a humorous manner, as in the 1989 film Troop Beverly Hills, the 2005 film Down and Derby, and the film Scout Camp and is often fictionalized so that the audience knows the topic is Scouting without any mention of Scouting by name. In 1980, Scottish singer and songwriter Gerry Rafferty recorded I was a Boy Scout as part of his Snakes and Ladders album.[14] The Boy Scouts of America are quite particular about how and when the Scout uniforms and insignia may be used in film and other portrayals, however, and for that reason, most films and television productions made in the U.S. utilize "ersatz" Scouting organizations. Examples of this include the "Order of the Straight Arrow," portrayed in the King of the Hill cartoon series, and the "Indian Guides" depicted in the 1995 Chevy Chase film Man of the House. A notable exception to this policy, is the final scene of The Sopranos television show, where Tony Soprano (apparently about to be murdered) sits down to dinner in a restaurant. At another table, several Bear-rank Cub Scouts, in full uniform, are seated.

Scouting

189

References
[1] "CHUMS" (http:/ / www. netpages. free-online. co. uk/ sha/ chums. htm). The Scout History Society. 2006. . Retrieved 2008-12-20. [2] "The Italian Boy Scouts (The Ragazzi Esploratori Italiani)." (http:/ / www. netpages. free-online. co. uk/ worldscouts/ ital. htm). The Scout History Society. 2006. . Retrieved 2008-12-20. [3] "Traditional Scouting" (http:/ / www. inquiry. net/ traditional/ index. htm). American Traditional Scouting. 2006. . Retrieved 2006-12-04. [4] "The Baden-Powell Scouts' Association" (http:/ / www. traditionalscouting. co. uk/ ). The Baden-Powell Scouts' Association. 2006. . Retrieved 2006-12-04. [5] Vercamer, Arvo L. (2003-10-03). "Hitlerjugend: An In-Depth History: HJ Organizational structure" (http:/ / www. axishistory. com/ index. php?id=3029). Youth Organizations. Axis History. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [6] Foster, Rev. Michael (2001). "The Growing Crisis in the Scout Movement" (http:/ / www. netpages. free-online. co. uk/ sha/ crisis. htm). Scout History. Scout History Association. . Retrieved 2006-12-09. [7] Parsons, Timothy. "Race, Resistance, and the Boy Scout Movement in British Colonial Africa" (http:/ / www. ohioswallow. com/ book/ 0821415956). Ohio University Press and Swallow Press. . Retrieved 2006-12-25. [8] "BSA and Religious Belief" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070120110841/ http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ god-top. html). BSA Discrimination. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ god-top. html) on January 20, 2007. . Retrieved 2006-02-06. [9] "BSA and Homosexuality" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ gays-top. html). BSA Discrimination. . Retrieved 2006-02-06. [10] Sanderson, Terry (2008-02-04). "Scouting Without God" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ commentisfree/ 2008/ feb/ 04/ scoutingwithoutgod). London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 2009-12-23. [11] Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. pp.404, 410, 416. [12] Dubill, Andy (2005). "Scouts On The Silver Screen". International Scouting Collectors Association Journal 5 (2): 2831. [13] Ebert, Roger (1989-05-24). "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" (http:/ / mobile. rogerebert. com/ device/ article. php?mid=& CALL_URL=http:/ / rogerebert. suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 19890524/ REVIEWS/ 905240301/ 1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved 2008-07-29. [14] "Gerry Rafferty I was a Boy Scout" (http:/ / www. thelyricarchive. com/ song/ 781952-105849/ I-Was-a-Boy-Scout). Song lyrics. 1980. . Retrieved 2006-12-08.

Further reading
Lszl Nagy, 250 Million Scouts, The World Scout Foundation and Dartnell Publishers, 1985 World Organization of the Scout Movement, Scouting 'round the World. Facts and Figures on the World Scout Movement. 1990 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0 Block, Nelson R.; Proctor, Tammy M. (2009). Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement's First Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN1-4438-0450-9. World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Bureau, Trefoil Round the World. 11thed. 1997. ISBN 0-900827-75-0

External links
Milestones in World Scouting (http://www.scout.org/en/about_scouting/facts_figures/history/ milestones_of_world_scouting) Scouting Milestones - Scouting history site (http://www.scouting.milestones.btinternet.co.uk/) World Scouting infopage by Troop 97 (http://www.troop97.net/intscout.htm) The World Scout Emblem by Pinetree Web (http://www.pinetreeweb.com/crest.htm) Scoutwiki - international wiki for Scouting (http://www.scoutwiki.org) The Scouting Pages - All sorts of Scouting Facts (http://www.thescoutingpages.org.uk) Scouting (http://www.dmoz.org/Recreation/Scouting/) at the Open Directory Project

Scouting and Guiding in Anguilla

190

Scouting and Guiding in Anguilla


Scouting and Guiding in Anguilla exist as branches of the parent organisations in the United Kingdom.

The Scout Association of Anguilla


The Scout Association of Anguilla
Location P.O. Box 1167, The Valley Country Anguilla

The Scout Association of Anguilla operates as a branch of the United Kingdom Scout Association, due to Anguilla's status as a British Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. The Anguillan Scout Oath and Law, as well as other Scouting requirements, closely follow that of the United Kingdom. Although the program activities are taken from the British system, Anguilla Scouting is geared to the Caribbean way of life. Training for Wood Badge and leader training are conducted with the help of British and nearby Caribbean Scout associations. Anguillan Scouts participate in numerous Caribbean camps and events.

Girlguiding Anguilla
Girlguiding Anguilla
Country Founded Membership Chief Guide Branch Commissioner Anguilla 1933 100 Liz Burnley Oluwakemi M. Linda Banks

Girlguiding Anguilla (formerly Anguilla Girl Guide Association) is a Guiding organization in Anguilla, founded in 1933. It is one of the nine branch associations of Girlguiding UK. It is represented by Girlguiding UK at World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) level and Girlguiding UK's Chief Guide is also Chief Guide for Girlguiding Anguilla. Girlguiding Anguilla is part of the Caribbean Link for Guiding.[1] In 1968, Anguilla issued a set of four postage stamps celebrating the 35th anniversary of Girl Guiding in Anguilla. The program is a modified form of Guiding in the United Kingdom, adapted to suit local conditions, with the same Promise, and Rainbow, Brownie, Guide and Ranger groups.

External links
http://scouts.elysiumgates.com/anguilla.html

References
[1] "Face to face with globalization" (http:/ / western. wagggsworld. org/ en/ news/ 389). WAGGGS. 2006-06-15. . Retrieved 2006-10-30.

Scouting and Guiding in France

191

Scouting and Guiding in France


The Scout movement in France consists of about 80 different associations and federations with about 180,000 Scouts and Girl Guides.[1] Next to Germany, France is the country with the most fragmented Scout movement. According to French law, all youth organizations working on the national level can be recognized by the Ministre de la Jeunesse et des Sports (Minister of Youth and Sports). Only nine of the above mentioned 80 organizations have this status. The vast majority is non-recognized associations: their operation is not illegal under French law, but State doesn't help it.

National recognized organizations


The national recognized organizations are grouped in two federations and one independent organization.

Fdration du scoutisme Franais


The Fdration du Scoutisme Franais (Federation of French Scouting) is the national member of both the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS). The federation has about 120,000 members grouped in five co-educational associations. Scoutisme Franais was founded in 1940, with the help of Vichy regime, by the Eclaireurs de France, the Eclaireurs Unionistes de France, the Scouts de France, the Guides de France, the Eclaireurs Isralites de France and the Fdration franaise des claireuses. The Members of the federation are: Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (founded in 1911, interreligious, 35,000 members) Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs unionistes de France (founded in 1911, Protestant, 5,000 members) Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France (founded in 1923, Jewish) Scouts et Guides de France (founded in 2004 after the merger of Scouts de France (1920) and Guides de France (1923), Catholic, 70,000 members) Scouts Musulmans de France (founded in 1990, Muslim)
French Scouting uniform (Scouts de France)

Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme


The Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme (French Conference on Scouting) has about 35,000 members grouped in three co-educational associations: Association des Guides et Scouts d'Europe (founded in 1958, Catholic, 25,000 members). The association is affiliated to the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe Eclaireurs Neutres de France (founded in 1947, interreligious, 3,000 to 4,000 members). Affiliated is a number of smaller associations, some of them Catholic: Europa Scouts Scouts et Guides Saint-Louis Scouts et Guides de Riaumont (Traditionalist Catholic, with connections to the Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter)

Scouting and Guiding in France Fdration des Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs (founded in 1989 as split-off of the Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France, interreligious, 2,000 members). This federation groups about 15 to 20 independent local associations, some of them Protestant or Orthodox.

192

Scouts unitaires de France


The Scouts Unitaires de France (Unitary Scouts of France) were founded in 1971 in reaction to a pedagogic renewal within the Scouts de France splitting the former Scout troops (units) in two new sections and implementing coeducation. The association is Catholic and counts about 23,000 members.

Regional or local recognized organizations


There are at least 50 independent Scouting associations in France outside the above mentioned federations. Most of them are recognized by regional or local authorities, some via religious communities. They have an estimated membership of about 5,000 Scouts and Guides. Notable among them are: Association Franaise de Scouts et Guides Catholiques (Traditionalist Catholic) Scouts de Doran (Split-off of the former, Catholic), working towards national recognition Scouts et Guides Godefroy de Bouillon (Traditionalist Catholic, with connections to the Society of St. Pius X) Ecuyers Saint-Michel (Fencing Scouts) Fdration du Scoutisme Evanglique Franais (Protestant). Affiliated are a number of smaller associations.

Old Scouts
The Fdration des Associations d'Anciens du Scoutisme (FAAS) is the national member of the International Scout and Guide Fellowship. The Members of the federation are: Les Amitis de France Anciens Scouts et Guides (ADF) Association des Anciens claireurs et claireuses (A.A.E.E.) A3-Association des Anciens et Amis des claireurs et claireuses Isralites de France Les Tisons, Anciens des claireurs et claireuses Unionistes Rseau des Parents et Amis des Guides et Scouts de France[2]

International Scouting units in France


Boy Scouts of America, served by the Transatlantic Council in Paris[3] Girl Scouts of the USA, served by USAGSO headquarters[4] The Scout Association,served by British Scouts Western Europe[5] Girlguiding UK, served by British Guides in Foreign Countries[6] Armenian Scouting, served by Homenetmen[7] Greek Scouting in Paris[8][9] Klfldi Magyar Cserkszszvetsg operates one troop in Paris[10] Polish Scouting and Guiding, served by ZHP pgK (ZHP aboard)[11] Russian Scouting, served by National Organization of Russian Scouts (NORS)[12][13] and Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders[14]

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193

History
At the end of 1937, France sent Scoutmaster Raymond Schlemmer to the Cambodian, Laotian and Vietnamese areas of Indochina to oversee the setting up of the Fdration Indochinoise des Associations du Scoutisme (FIAS, Indochinese Federation of Scouting Associations) in all three regions.

Notes
The French language knows two words both for Boy Scout and Girl Guide/Girl Scout. Boy Scout is translated as scout in Catholic and Muslim associations, and as claireur in Protestant, Jewish and interreligious associations. Girl Guide/Girl Scout is translated as guide in the Catholic associations, and as claireuse in Protestant, Jewish and interreligious associations.

References
[1] "La carte du scoutisme" (http:/ / www. latoilescoute. net/ 2005-La-carte-du-scoutisme) (in French). La toile scoute. 2005. . Retrieved 2006-12-07. [2] "les Associations" (http:/ / www. faas. fr/ 3. html) (in French). FAAS. . Retrieved 2009-09-30. [3] "TAC-Districts" (http:/ / www. tac-bsa. org/ Districts. html). TAC-BSA. . Retrieved 2009-09-30. [4] "Overseas Committees" (http:/ / www. girlscouts. org/ who_we_are/ overseas/ committees/ europe. asp). Girl Scouts of the USA. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [5] "Districts-France" (http:/ / scoutbswe. org/ content/ france). BSWE. . Retrieved 2009-09-30. [6] "Girlguiding BGIFC - Benelux & France" (http:/ / www. bgifc. org. uk/ benelux. html). British Guides in Foreign Countries. . Retrieved 2009-09-30. [7] "Scoutisme" (http:/ / www. homenetmen. fr/ index. php?l1=8) (in French). Homenetmen France. . Retrieved 2009-09-30. [8] "Scouts Hellenes en France" (http:/ / scouts. grecs. pagesperso-orange. fr/ index. html) (in French). Scouts Hellenes en France. . Retrieved 2011-06-27. [9] "Scouts hellenes" (http:/ / jeunesseorthodoxe. free. fr/ spip. php?article11) (in French). Festival de la Jeunesse Orthodoxe. . Retrieved 2011-06-27. [10] "Our Troops, by Region and City" (http:/ / www. kmcssz. org/ contents/ visitors/ ourlocations_byregion. html) (in English,Hungarian). KMCSSZ. . Retrieved 2011-06-27. [11] "Okrgi na wiecie" (http:/ / www. zhppgk. org/ Main/ okregi_na_swiecie. htm) (in Polish). ZHP pgK. . Retrieved 2009-09-30. [12] "Scouts russes de France" (http:/ / jeunesseorthodoxe. free. fr/ spip. php?article12) (in French). Festival de la Jeunesse Orthodoxe. . Retrieved 2011-06-27. [13] "Russian Scouts-Scouts Russes" (http:/ / www. scouts-russes. org/ ) (in French, Russian). Scouts Russes. . Retrieved 2011-06-27. [14] "Organisation des jeunes claireurs russes" (http:/ / jeunesseorthodoxe. free. fr/ spip. php?article14) (in French). Festival de la Jeunesse Orthodoxe. . Retrieved 2011-06-27.

External links
Overview chart of the French Scout Movement (http://www.latoilescoute.net/s-informer/zoom/ carte_du_scoutisme/) (French) Presentation of the ten major organizations (http://www.scoutisme.net/) (French) Fdration du scoutisme franais (http://www.scoutisme-francais.org/) (French) Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme (http://www.scoutisme.org/) (French) Scouts Unitaires de France (http://www.scouts-unitaires.org/) (French) Association Franaise des Collectionneurs de Timbres Scouts (AFCTS)-French Scouts on Stamps Association (http://www.afcts.org/) (French)

Scouting and Guiding in French Guiana

194

Scouting and Guiding in French Guiana


Scouts de Guyane
Location Bote Postale 10, 97321 Cayenne Cdx, Guyane Franaise Country French Guiana

Scouting in French Guiana mainly follows the program of the Scouts et Guides de France (SGdF), but there are also groups of the claireuses et claireurs de France.[1]. The SGdF's Rgion Guyane (also known as Scouts et Guides de Guyane) is an associate member of the Interamerican Scout Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement.[2]

History
Scouting came to French Guiana in the 1930s. The first group of the Scout de France (SdF) was founded in spring 1934 in Cayenne, inspired by the Eclaireurs de France who were started a couple of years earlier by Samuel Chambaud.[3] It wasn't until the mid of the 1950s that a second group of the Scout de France was formed. In 1958, the movement was large enough to be organised in some districts, but Scouting in French Guiana still was not really stable. The following years saw again the loss of some groups.[4]

Program
Program, sections, Scout Law and Promise of Scouting in French Guyana are the same as in the corresponding organizations in France. The Scout Motto is Sois Prt (Be Prepared) or Toujours Prt (Always Prepared) in French, depending on the organization. There are slight alterations in the uniform due to climate. The Scout emblem incorporates elements of the old coat of arms of French Guiana, as well as the old arms of Guadeloupe and Martinique.

Groups
Scouts et Guides de France has five groups in French Guiana: three in Cayenne; one in Cacao; one in Matoury.[5]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Site internet du CIJ Guyane - Centre vacances (http:/ / perso. orange. fr/ cijguyane/ emploi/ encevalo. html) http:/ / www. wsb-osi. cl/ index. php?module=ContentExpress& func=display& ceid=182& theme=quienes_somos Lexique (http:/ / perso. orange. fr/ redris/ HTML/ dico. htm) Histoire Du Scoutisme En Guyane Francaise (http:/ / perso. orange. fr/ redris/ HTML/ nuit. html) (http:/ / 72. 14. 221. 104/ search?q=cache:mVrJfxy1DOYJ:catholique-cayenne. cef. fr/ pages/ 6_mouv_jeunesse_scout. php+ "scouts+ de+ france"+ guyane+ -wikipedia& ct=clnk& cd=16)

Scouting and Guiding in Guadeloupe and Saint Martin

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Scouting and Guiding in Guadeloupe and Saint Martin


Scouts et Guides de France, Territoire de Guadeloupe et Saint Martin
Location Country Imm. Capitaine Pint Esc. 2 - Trave 2103, 97142 Abymes Guadeloupe

Scouting is active on Guadeloupe and on Saint Martin, connected administratively in the Territoire de Guadeloupe et Saint Martin of the Scouts et Guides de France. The Scouts of the islands participate in many Caribbean regional Scout camps, jamborees and other Scout activities. Scouting closely follows the program of the Scouts et Guides de France. The Scouts et Guides de Saint Martin and the Scouts et Guides de Guadeloupe are subsections of the larger regional entity. The Scout emblem incorporates elements of the old coat of arms of Guadeloupe, as well as the old arms of French Guiana and Martinique.

Scouting and Guiding in Haiti


The Scout and Guide movement in Haiti is served by Association Nationale des Guides d'Hati, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Scouts d'Hati, member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement

Scouting and Guiding in the British Virgin Islands

196

Scouting and Guiding in the British Virgin Islands


Scouting and Guiding in the British Virgin Islands exist as branches of the parent organisations in the United Kingdom.

The Scout Association of the British Virgin Islands


The Scout Association of the British Virgin Islands
Location Country P.O. Box 3348, Road Town, Tortola British Virgin Islands

The Scout Association of the British Virgin Islands operates as a branch of the United Kingdom Scout Association, due to the British Virgin Islands' affiliation as a British Overseas Territory. The BVI Scout Oath and Law, as well as other Scouting requirements, closely follow that of the United Kingdom. Although the program activities are taken from the British system, BVI Scouting is geared to the Caribbean way of life. Training for Wood Badge and leader training are conducted with the help of British and nearby Caribbean Scout associations. BVI Scouts participate in numerous Caribbean camps and events.

The British Virgin Islands Girl Guide Association


British Virgin Islands Girl Guide Association
Country Founded Chief Guide Branch Commissioner British Virgin Islands 1928 Liz Burnley Bernadine Louis

The British Virgin Islands Girl Guide Association is a Guiding organization in the British Virgin Islands. It is one of the nine branch associations of Girlguiding UK. It is represented by Girlguiding UK at World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) level and Girlguiding UK's Chief Guide is also Chief Guide for British Virgin Islands Girlguiding. British Virgin Islands Girlguiding is part of the Caribbean Link for Guiding.[1] The program is a modified form of Guiding in the United Kingdom, adapted to suit local conditions, with the same promise, and Rainbow, Brownie, Guide and Ranger groups.

References
[1] "Face to face with globalization" (http:/ / western. wagggsworld. org/ en/ news/ 389). WAGGGS. 2006-06-15. . Retrieved 2006-10-30.

Scouting and Guiding in the Cayman Islands

197

Scouting and Guiding in the Cayman Islands


Scouting and Guiding in the Cayman Islands exist as branches of the parent organisations in the United Kingdom.

The Scout Association of the Cayman Islands


The Scout Association of the Cayman Islands
Location P.O. Box 1160 - George Town, Grand Cayman Country Cayman Islands Stuart Jack

The Scout Association of the Cayman Islands operates as a branch of the United Kingdom Scout Association, due to the Cayman Islands' affiliation as a British Overseas Territory. The Cayman Islands' Scout Oath and Law, as well as other Scouting requirements, closely follow that of the United Kingdom. Membership is about 500 Scouts. In October 2006, Governor Stuart Jack was installed as Chief Scout.[1] Scouting has existed in the Cayman Islands since the early 1920s. There has been rapid growth since 1990, mainly due to a full time Scouting Executive, improved public image and more Scouters including expatriates becoming involved. There has been a move to bring Scouting to all communities and islands. Although the program activities are taken from the British system, Cayman Scouting is geared to the Caribbean way of life. Training for Wood Badge and leader training are conducted with the help of British and nearby Caribbean Scout associations. The government of the Cayman Islands supports Scouting, providing meeting places, as well as funding for an executive commissioner. Camping is illegal throughout the Cayman Islands. Cayman Scouts participate in numerous Caribbean camps and events, and Scouts from the Cayman Islands participated in the 1998 World Jamboree in Chile. The Scout emblem incorporates elements of the coat of arms of the Cayman Islands.

Girlguiding Cayman Islands


Girlguiding Cayman Islands
Headquarters P.O. Box 31 George Town Grand Cayman Cayman Islands 200 Liz Burnley Mellony Bryan

Country Membership Chief Guide Branch Commissioner

Girlguiding Cayman Islands (formerly The Cayman Islands Girl Guide Association) is a Guiding organization in the Cayman Islands. It is one of the nine branch associations of Girlguiding UK. It is represented by Girlguiding UK at World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) level and Girlguiding UK's Chief Guide is also Chief Guide for Cayman Islands Girlguiding. Cayman Islands Girlguiding is part of the Caribbean Link for

Scouting and Guiding in the Cayman Islands Guiding.[2] The program is a modified form of Guiding in the United Kingdom, adapted to suit local conditions, with the same promise, and Rainbow, Brownie, Guide and Ranger groups.

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References
[1] McGowan, Cliodhna (2006-10-26). "Governor Jack becomes Chief Scout in Cayman" (http:/ / www. caycompass. com/ cgi-bin/ CFPnews. cgi?ID=1017490). Caymanian Compass News Online. . Retrieved 2006-11-04. [2] "Face to face with globalization" (http:/ / western. wagggsworld. org/ en/ news/ 389). WAGGGS. 2006-06-15. . Retrieved 2006-10-30.

Scouting and Guiding in the Turks and Caicos Islands


Scouting and Guiding in the Turks and Caicos Islands exist as branches of the parent organisations in the United Kingdom.

The Scout Association of the Turks and Caicos


The Scout Association of the Turks and Caicos
Location Country Grand Turk Turks and Caicos

The Scout Association of The Turks and Caicos operates as a branch of the United Kingdom Scout Association, due to the Turks and Caicos Islands' affiliation as a British Overseas Territory. The Turks and Caicos Scout Oath and Law, as well as other Scouting requirements, closely follow that of the United Kingdom. Although the program activities are taken from the British system, Turks and Caicos Scouting is geared to the local way of life. Training for Wood Badge and leader training are conducted with the help of British and nearby affiliated Scout associations. Turks and Caicos Scouts participate in numerous camps and events.

Turks and Caicos Girlguiding


Turks and Caicos Girlguiding
Country Turks and Caicos Islands Chief Guide Liz Burnley

Turks and Caicos Girlguiding (formerly The Turks and Caicos Girl Guide Association) is a Guiding organization in the Turks and Caicos Islands. It is one of the nine branch associations of Girlguiding UK. It is represented by Girlguiding UK at World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) level and Girlguiding UK's Chief Guide is also Chief Guide for Turks and Caicos Girlguiding. Turks and Caicos Girlguiding is part of the Caribbean Link for Guiding.[1] The program is a modified form of Guiding in the United Kingdom, adapted to suit local conditions, with the same promise, and Rainbow, Brownie, Guide and Ranger groups.

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References
[1] "Face to face with globalization" (http:/ / western. wagggsworld. org/ en/ news/ 389). WAGGGS. 2006-06-15. . Retrieved 2006-10-30.

Scouting Antiano
Scouting Antiano
Antillean Scouting

Headquarters Arowakenweg 41 A, Willemstad, Curaao Country Founded Membership Netherlands Antilles 1930 / 1997 1,600

Scouting Antiano (Papiamento: Antillean Scouting) is the national Scouting organization of the former Netherlands Antilles. It serves 1,600 members in 25 Scout groups, 21 Scout groups on Curaao, 2 on Sint Maarten, 2 on Bonaire, none on Saba and Sint Eustatius. Scouting Antiano is an Full Member of the Interamerican Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement [1]. In 1997 the two Scout associations, Antilliaanse Padvinders Vereniging (APV, Antillean Scout Association), and the Katholieke Verkenners Nederlandse Antillen (KVNA, the Catholic Scouts of the Netherlands Antilles) merged. On April 15, 2000 Aruba got its own organisation, Scouting Aruba. Scouting Antiano primarily follows the Dutch system of Scouting. The Scout Motto is Ser Prepara, Be Prepared in Papiamento, and Wees Paraat in Dutch. Scouting Antiano share their headquarters with the "Padvindstersvereniging van de Nederlandse Antillen" and other Netherlands Antillean youth organisations.

References
[1] http:/ / scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 21388/ 193199/ file/ 24Conference%20Resolutions%20final. pdf

External links
Curacao Youth Center Foundation (http://www.jcc-curacao.com) (Dutch)

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Scouting Aruba
Scouting Aruba
Location Country President National Council Chief Commissioner Affiliation Sabana Basora 147, Pos Chiquito, Savaneta Aruba Sharlyn Tromp-Farro Elson R. Barry World Organization of the Scout Movement Website [1] www.scoutingaruba.com

Scouting in Aruba shared a common history with the other Netherlands Antilles until the political separation of the island from the Netherlands. Scouting Aruba is an Associate Member of the Interamerican Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Scouting Aruba consists of 13 groups, divided into 3 districts. There is one Scout group for people with mental and physical limitations. Scouts in Aruba participate in many Caribbean camps, often travelling by boat to camp on nearby islands with Scouts from neighbouring countries.

Program and ideals


Beavers-ages 5 to 7 (boys and girls) Cubs-ages 7 to 10 (mixed sections exist) Scouts-ages 10 to 14 (mixed sections exist) Explorers-ages 15 to 18 (boys and girls) Rovers-ages 18 to 23 (boys and girls)

The Scout Motto is Be Prepared, Semper Prepara in Papiamento, and Weest Paraat in Dutch. The Scouting Aruba Logo consists of scouting symbols and colours corresponding with the flag of Aruba. The two five-point stars are taken off the Fleur-de-lis and placed upon each other. The logo is designed by Mr. Juan Martijn.[2]

Promise
Beavers
(Dutch) Ik beloof lief voor God en mijn land te zijn. (Papiamento) Mi ta primiti di stima Dios y mi pais. (English) I promise to love God and my country

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Cubs
(Dutch) Ik beloof mijn best te zullen doen . Mijn plicht te doen tegenover God en mijn land,de wet vande welpen horde te gehoorzamen en iedere dag een goede daadte zullen doen . (Papiamento) Mi ta primiti di hasi mi best pa cu cumpli cu mi deber pa cu Dios i mi pais obedese e ley di welp y di hasi bon obra tur dia. (English) I promise to do my best to do my duty to God and my country to keep the pack law to do a good deed every day.

Scouts
(Dutch) Op mijn erewoord beloof ik ernstig te zullen trachten mijn plicht te doen tegen over God en mijn land iedereen te helpen waar ik kan en het padvinderswet te gehoorzamen (Papiamento) Riba mi palabra di honor mi ta primiti di hasi tur esfuerso pa cumpli cu mi deber pa cu Dios I mi pais yuda tur hende tur caminda cu mi por i obedese lei scout (English) On my honour I promise that I will do my best to do my Duty to God and my country to help other people at all time and obey the scout law

Scout Law
Beavers
(Dutch) Een bever heeft plezier, werkt hard en helpt zijn familie en vrienden (Papiamento) Un bever tin plaser, e ta traha duru y ta yuda su famia y amigunan. (English) A beaver plays with joy, works hard and helps his family and friends.

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Cubs
(Dutch) De welp volgt de oude wolf De welp is moedig en houdt vol. (Papiamento) Un welp ta sigui e wolf Un welp ta honesto tin brio y ta persevere (English) The Cub follows the wolf. The Cub is honest, has courage and perseverance.

Scouts
(Dutch) 1. Een padvinder is eerlijk. 2. Een padvinder is trouw. 3. Een padvinder dient zich nuttig te maken en anderen te helpen. 4. Een padvinder is een vriend voor allen en een broeder voor alle andere padvinders. 5. Een padvinder is voorkomend en beleefd. 6. Een padvinder beschermt dieren en planten. 7. Een padvinder weet te gehoorzamen. 8. Een padvinder zet door alle omstandigheden. 9. Een padvinder is spaarzaam. 10. Een padvinder is rein in gedachten, woord en daad. (Papiamento) Un scout ta honesto. Un scout ta file. Un scout ta yuda otro. Un scout ta un amigo pa tur otro scout. Un scout tin bon manera. Un scout ya proteha mata y bestia. Un scout ta obedese. Un scout tur ora ta sigui pa dilanti. Un scout ta spaar. Un scout ta un bon ehempel. (English) 1. A Scout's honor is to be trusted. 2. A Scout is loyal. 3. A Scout is to be useful and to help others. 4. A Scout is a brother is every other scout. 5. A Scout is courteous. 6. A Scout protects animals and plants. 7. A Scout is obedient. 8. A Scout perseveres. 9. A Scout is thrifty. 10. A Scout is clean in his thoughts, words and deeds.

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Explorers
(Dutch) Op mijn erewoord beloof ik dat ik mij zodanig zal ontwikkelen zodat ik beter God kan lief hebben en dienen Mijn medemensen kan respecteren en helpen Mijn land ten dienste kan zijn En mijn best te doen mij te houden aan het Huishoudelijke Reglement van mijn afdeling (Papiamento) Riba mi palabra di honor mi ta primiti cu lo mi desaroya mi mes pa stima y sirbi Dios miho. Pa respeta y yuda otro personanan pa sirbi mi pais y pa hasi lo miho pa obedese e reglanan di mi seccion (English) On my honour I promise that I will develop my self so that I may love and serve God better. To respect and help others. To be in service of my country. And to do my best to keep to the regulations of my crew.

References
[1] http:/ / www. scoutingaruba. com [2] Discription of the Scouting Aruba Logo (http:/ / www. scoutingaruba. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=48& Itemid=66)

External links
Official Homepage (http://www.scoutingaruba.com)

Scouting controversy and conflict

204

Scouting controversy and conflict


Scouting has sometimes become entangled in social controversies such as the civil rights struggle in the American South and in nationalist resistance movements in India. Scouting was introduced to Africa by British officials as an instrument of colonial authority but became a subversive challenge to the legitimacy of the British Empire as Scouting fostered solidarity amongst African Scouts.[1] There are also controversies and challenges within the Scout Movement itself such as current efforts to turn Scouts Canada into a democratic organization. This article discusses historical and contemporary Scouting controversies and difficulties, with examples from various countries.

Breakaway Scouting organizations


Further information: List of non-aligned Scouting organizations Over the years, Scouting organizations have broken away from the mainstream Scout Movement, which is now served by the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) and the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM). This sometimes results from groups or individuals who believe that the large international organizations have fallen away from the original ideals and seek to regain them or, conversely, they may consist of groups that refuse to follow the original ideals of Scouting but still desire to participate in Scout-like activities. There is a Traditional Scouting movement that rejects the worldwide trend to "modernize" Scouting and supports a back to basics effort to return to Baden-Powell's model of Scouting.

Religious conflict
Religion in Scouting and Guiding is an aspect of the Scout method which has been practiced differently and given different interpretations over the years. In contrast to the Christian-only Boys' Brigade which was started two decades earlier, Baden-Powell founded the Scout movement as a youth organization (with boys as 'Scouts' and girls as 'Guides') which was independent of any single faith or religion, yet still held that spirituality and a belief in a higher power were key to the development of young people. Scouting organizations are free to interpret the method as laid down by the founder. As the modern world has become more secular and as many societies have become more religiously diverse, this has caused misunderstandings and controversies in some of the national member organizations. There are Scouting associations in some countries, such as France and Denmark, that are segregated on the basis of religious belief.

The Netherlands
In 1933 some Scout groups broke away from the national Boy Scout organization De Nederlandse Padvinders (NPV, Netherlands Pathfinders) to form the Padvinders Vereniging Nederland (PVN, Pathfinder Association of the Netherlands), because difficulties concerning the Scout Promise arose. The problem was that boys who did not recognize a god still had to promise "To do my duty to God" and the groups were concerned that this could turn those boys into hypocrites. A Roman Catholic organization was founded in 1938, the Katholieke Verkenners (KV, Catholic Scouts) because the Dutch Roman Catholic bishops decided that Catholic youth cannot be under the control of an association whose governing board was not all Catholic. The NPV and the PVN almost reunited in 1940. All Dutch Scout and Guide organizations merged in 1973 into Scouting Nederland (SN). The Dutch Scout Promise is one of the few in the world where the reference to God is optional as it has been granted an exception under WOSM guidelines.

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Governmental banning of Scouting


Scouting has been banned in certain nations and remains banned in some of them. Scouting was banned in nearly all Communist countries, most Fascist countries, and some other countries with authoritarian regimes such as Afghanistan under the Taliban, Malawi and Iran. Banning has caused Scouting to go underground in countries such as Poland, Franco's Spain, and Yugoslavia. The USSR banned Scouting in 1922, creating a separate Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union, which gave birth to the Pioneer Movement, still existing in some fashion in the People's Republic of China, Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, and Tajikistan. Prior to World War II, Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, and Romania disbanded Scouting. Instead, Germany created the Hitler-Jugend (Hitler Youth) organization; Mussolini had a fascist youth organization, the Balilla; and Romania under King Carol II of Romania had the Strjeria. Currently, there are no externally recognized Scouting organizations in Cuba, North Korea, Laos, Myanmar, and the People's Republic of China (except for the special administrative regions Hong Kong and Macau).

Cuba
In 1914, the first Scout groups in Cuba were founded. In the following years more local groups emerged, but they were not connected through a national association until 1927 when the Asociacin de Scouts de Cuba (ASC) was founded. In the same year the association became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM). During its first years, Cuban Scouting followed mainly the model of the Boy Scouts of America. Scouting existed in Cuba itself until the 1960s, when Cuban Scouting ceased operations after the Cuban revolution of 1959. Cuban Scouts rendered service during those times, directing traffic, collecting rations, helping in hospitals and establishing first aid stations. In 1961, the World Scout Conference terminated the WOSM membership of ASC claiming that they had ceased to exist. Communist leaders replaced the association with the Jos Mart Pioneer Organization. There is a Cubans-in-exile Association. Cuba is now one of only six of the world's independent countries that do not have Scouting. Cuba was also a former member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, with the Asociacin de Guas de Cuba last mentioned in 1969.

Germany
German Scouting started in 1909. German Scouting later became involved with the German Youth Movement, of which the Wandervogel was a part. German Scouting flourished until 1934-35, when nearly all associations were closed and their members had to join the Hitler Youth. In West Germany and West Berlin, Scouting was reestablished after 1945, but it was banned in East Germany until 1990 in favor of the Thlmann Pioneers and the Free German Youth (FDJ). Currently, Scouting is present in all parts of the unified Federal Republic of Germany and consists of about 150 different associations and federations with about 260,000 Scouts and Girl Guides.

Russia
In 1908, Baden-Powell's book Scouting for Boys came out in Russia by the order of Tsar Nicholas II. In 1909, the first Russian Scout troop was organized and in 1914, a society called Russian Scout, was established. Scouting spread rapidly across Russia and into Siberia. After the October Revolution of 1917 and during the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1921, most of the Scoutmasters and many Scouts fought in the ranks of the White Army and interventionists against the Red Army. Some Scouts took the Bolsheviks' side, which would lead to the establishment of ideologically-altered Scoutlike organizations, such as ( , or young communists; pronounced as yuk) and others. Between 1918 and 1920, the second, third, and fourth All-Russian Congresses of the Russian Union of the Communist Youth decided to eradicate the Scout movement and create an organization of the communist type that

Scouting controversy and conflict would take youth under its umbrella. In 1922, the second All-Russian Komsomol Conference decided to create Pioneer units all over the country; these units were united later that year as the Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union (USSR), which included Russia, was established in 1922 and dissolved in 1991. In 1990, the Russian Congress of People's Deputies with Boris Yeltsin as its chairman declared Russia's sovereignty over its territory. The Young Pioneer organization was broken up in 1990 and the same year the Scout Movement began to reemerge when relaxation of government restrictions allowed youth organizations to be formed to fill the void left by the Pioneers, with various factions competing for recognition. Some former Pioneer leaders have formed Scout groups and there is some controversy as to their motivations in doing so (see Eurasian Scout Region controversies). The Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators is now a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM). It is co-educational and has 13,920 members as of 2004.

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Exclusion of Scouting associations from international organizations


Most national Scouting associations have created international Scouting organizations to set standards for and to coordinate activities amongst member associations. There are at least six international organizations that serve several hundred national associations around the world. The largest international Scouting organization is the World Organization of the Scout Movement, founded in 1920. Scouting associations have been excluded or expelled from international Scouting organizations for various reasons.

Iraq
Iraq was one of the first Arab nations to embrace the Scouting movement, launching its program in 1921, just two years after the League of Nations had created the country out of the old Ottoman Empire. Iraq was a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1922 to 1940, and again from 1956 to 1999. After the Baath Party took control in 1968 and especially after Saddam Hussein seized power in 1979, youth groups were retooled to serve the state. One replacement program, Saddam Cubs, offered "summer camps" where 10 to 15 year-old boys had up to 14-hour days filled with hand-to-hand fighting drills.[2] In 1990, during the period when the Iraq Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Council was recognized by WOSM, there were 12,000 Scouts, however by 1999, Iraq had been expelled from the WOSM. An Iraqi Scouts Initiative committee was formed by Americans in 2004 to formally re-establish a legal, recognized, and fully functioning Scouting program in Iraq. Since then, the movement has been taken over by Iraqis and is now run exclusively by them. The Scout program is open to boys and girls of all ethnic and cultural backgrounds, and allows for local nuances to shape various regional program options. Iraqi Scouts are involved in community service such as helping police with traffic control, giving first aid, cultivating cotton, planting trees and helping during natural disasters. A National Iraqi Scouting Headquarters is envisioned for Baghdad and five national Scout camps are also planned.

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Exclusion of individuals from Scouting membership


Controversies have arisen from the exclusion of certain people, including atheists, agnostics, and/or LGBT people, from membership of some Scouting organisations; these are detailed below:

Atheists and agnostics


"Duty to God" is a principle of Scouting worldwide, though it is applied differently among countries.[3][4] The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) takes a strong position, excluding atheists and agnostics,[5][6] while Girl Scouts of the USA takes a more neutral position. The United Kingdom Scout Association requires adult leaders to acknowledge a higher power, but does not necessarily exclude atheists from roles in Scouting, as long as the local Commissioner is satisfied that the applicant leader will support the values of Scouting and the investigation of faith by the young people in the movement. Scouts Canada defines Duty to God broadly in terms of "adherence to spiritual principles" and does not require members to be part of an organized religion, but does require that they have some form of "personal spirituality".[7] In other countries, especially in Europe, some Scouting organizations may be secularist or religiously neutral (such as Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France and Corpo Nazionale Giovani Esploratori ed Esploratrici Italiani).

Co-education
Scouting was traditionally broken into separate boys and girls programs but worldwide there are now different approaches. There is a trend towards mixed programs in most WOSM member organizations. Most WAGGGS member organizations remain girls-only. See Co-educational Scouting for more information.

Homosexual people
In countries where homosexuality is legal, there is usually at least one Scouting association that does not restrict homosexual people from membership or leadership positions. An exception is the United States where "avowed homosexuals" are not allowed to be adult leaders or youth members; the national administration of the Boy Scouts of America, the country's only WOSM member, believes that Scouting should reflect traditional family values.[8] The Girl Scouts of the USA, by contrast, maintain a more neutral "don't ask, don't tell" policy. Homosexual people are not restricted from membership or leadership positions in Scouts Canada, Scouts Australia, and most European associations, including The Scout Association of the United Kingdom, Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbnde of Germany (German Scout Federation), and the Swedish Guide and Scout Association.[9]

United States
The Boy Scouts of America, the largest youth organization in the United States, has policies which prohibit atheists, agnostics, and known or avowed homosexuals from membership in its Scouting program; both youths and adults have had their memberships revoked as a result. The BSA contends that these policies are essential in its mission to instill in young people the values of the Scout Oath and Law.[5][10] The BSA also prohibits girls from participating in Cub Scouting and Boy Scouting. These policies are controversial and are considered by some to be discriminatory.[11][12] The organization's legal right to have these policies has been upheld repeatedly by both state and federal courts. The Supreme Court of the United States in its Boy Scouts of America v. Dale decision, affirmed that as a private organization, the BSA can set its own membership standards. In recent years, the policy disputes have led to litigation over the terms under which the BSA can access governmental resources including public lands.[13] In 1914, the BSA gave local councils the power to treat African Americans differently in Scouting, such as following local school practice. Until 1974, some southern councils of the Boy Scouts of America were still racially segregated.

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World Organization of the Scout Movement


The World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) has a membership of 155 National Scout Organizations with more than 28 million individuals. [14] [15] Only one national Scouting organization per country is recognized by WOSM. In some countries the National Scout Organization is a federation composed of more than one Scout association. The groups represented by a federation are sometimes divided on the basis of religion (e.g., Denmark and France), ethnicity (e.g., Bosnia and Israel), or native language (e.g., Belgium).[16] WOSM requires member National Scout Organizations to reference "duty to God" in their Scout Promises (see WOSM Scout Promise requirements). This requirement causes difficulties for atheists and agnostics seeking Scouting membership.

Eurasian Scout Region


There is some controversy because several members of the Eurasian Scout Region's top hierarchy are former Pioneer leaders. The primary goal of the Pioneers, whose membership was compulsory, was the indoctrination of youth into Communism. To complicate matters, these organizations adopted many of the trappings of the Scout organizations they supplanted. Because of the negative experience with the Communist youth organizations, Scouting in the Eurasian Region is having a slow rebirth. Proponents see the inheritance of Pioneer work and properties in a positive light. Opponents have seen the Eurasian Region as a tool that would allow former Pioneers to keep their influence over postSoviet youth movements, and use their newfound connections outside the region for their own gain. Even the placement of the Regional headquarters at the historic Pioneer Camp Artek at Yalta appears to many to point to this Pioneer dominance. Opponents also question the fact that authoritarian Belarus was a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, against WOSM's stated guidelines, while democratic neighbor Ukraine is not a WOSM member. In the years following its creation, the Eurasian Region was considered by some to have stagnated in its purpose: among other things, the official website was not updated between 2004 and February 2006. Alternate solutions proposed at the time of the Soviet breakup, and still considered viable options by the critics of the Eurasian Region, would be to divide the Region into the previously existing European, Asia-Pacific, or Arab Scout Regions, along cultural lines and national preference, to provide Scouts fresh perspective. As the Baltic states-Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia-have joined the European Region, there is precedence for this solution. In addition, there is no corresponding Eurasian Region for the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, the republics are divided geographically between WAGGGS' Europe Region and Asia Pacific Region. Besides their shared tsarist and Soviet past, the 12 members of the Eurasian Region have little in common. Some, like Armenia and Azerbaijan, have waged war on each other, some like Georgia and Ukraine, allow open opposition, while others, like Belarus and Turkmenistan, have turned to authoritarianism reminiscent of Soviet times. Further, as none of the republics have had their Scout movements returned for much more than a decade, it is viewed that they would benefit from the expertise of the neighboring Scout associations in those Regions.

Other Scouting organization conflict


Scouting organizations have been involved in other types of conflict and controversy both internally and externally.

Canada
Canada is the only country with more than one Scouting organization separately recognized by WOSM, Scouts Canada and Association des Scouts du Canada, which are divided by language. Some members of Scouts Canada are upset with Scouts Canada's restructuring, including a loss of voting rights at the local level. In response, SCOUT eh! was founded in 2004, an organization consisting of "registered Scouts Canada members from across Canada dedicated to transforming Scouts Canada into a democratic association".[17]

Scouting controversy and conflict In 1998, the Baden-Powell Scouts of Canada (B-PSAC) were established in Canada, rejecting the modernization of the Scout method by WOSM and Scouts Canada.[18] Scouts Canada challenged the association and successfully argued that the word "Scout", in the context of a youth organization in Canada, is a trademark held by Scouts Canada. Part of the 1999 action also attempted, unsuccessfully, to deny the B-PSAC permission to use Baden-Powell's name. Scouts Canada refuse to recognise B-PSAC members as Scouts, stating of Scout associations that "every country has only one that's how Baden Powell set up scouting",[19] despite the fact that there are two WOSM recognised associations in Canada, and that Baden-Powell originally intended for Scouts Patrols to operate in a range of organisations.[20] The B-PSAC no longer use the title Scout, and have reformed as the Baden-Powell Service Association Federation of Canada. Scouts Canada continue to monitor the B-PSA, and will not allow their members to share resources, equipment or personnel with them.[21]

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Militarism in early Scouting movement


Before the start of Scouting there was criticism about a possible military goal of Scouting. It culminated in a schism where Sir Francis Vane and Battersea Scout District formed the British Boy Scouts in 1909, partly due to a suspicion of a too close involvement with military organizations.[22] Baden-Powell always strongly denied this.[23][] The base of Scouting, the book "Scouting for boys ", was not a rewrite of the popular "Aids to Scouting", a small instruction book Baden-Powell wrote about military Scouting. Baden-Powell transferred only the techniques to non-military heroes: backwoodsman, explorers, sailors and airmen.[24] "Scouting for Boys" has no military content. Some refer to a military hierarchy, but in contrary Scouting has an anti-authoritarian streak.[] The Patrol leader is a leader, but should originally be elected by members of the patrol. About the Scoutmaster Baden-Powell "stipulated that the position of Scoutmaster was to be neither that of a schoolmaster nor of a commander Officer, but rather that of an elder brother among his boys, not detached or above them individually".[24] These are no military hierarchy. Baden-Powell did support to learn shooting with a rifle, which even resulted in a few pages of instruction in "Scouting for Boys". This had however no military aim, but would be useful if boys really became frontiersmen by settling in the colonies, which Baden-Powell advertised.[] The uniform was and still is the strongest suggestion of a military Scouting. Baden-Powell gave three reasons for the uniform: the boys like it, it gives a group feeling and it covers differences in wealth. The first reason he explains as giving the boys a direct connection to their heroes, so as part of the theatrical side of the Scouting game.[24] However in reality, most of those heroes did not wear uniforms. Despite the above, Baden-Powell announced in the Headquarter's Gazette in November 1914 that he was forming the Scout Defence Corps. Although he stated that this was non-militaristic, the Corps was intended to provide boys able to do "whatever was necessary" in the event of a German invasion, with Scouts being mostly trained as general infantry. Officers of the Scout Training Corps were encouraged to have links with officers in the regular army, and were urged to use the War Office's 1914 'Infantry Training Manual' alongside Baden-Powell's 'Aids to Scouting'.[25] The standards for the award of the Red Feather were laid out in a publication Marksmanship for Boys, written by Baden-Powell. The booklet included instruction in marksmanship and military drill, and concluded with a statement about changes in uniform that would take place should the Corps be accepted by the War Office,[26] although this recognition was denied in March 1915. The absence of many military aspects does not mean that Baden-Powell was anti-military. His efforts for peace became stronger in time, making him anti-war, but he disapproved of anti-militarism. He even did not see any harm in training in a military way.[23][27] One reason for not using military items can been seen from his reaction on the Boys Brigade. It was the intention of Baden-Powell to make an attractive boys game and he thought that the military

Scouting controversy and conflict was not attractive enough.[] The second reason was that some parents would object military training, which would limit the reach of Scouting.[28] There was probably another reason. The centre of his Scout method was individuality (opposite to the group), making own decisions (opposite to following the commander), doing good turns, self-learning (opposite to instruction by drill)[28] and a game based on theatre and "make believe". These would never survive in a military scheme. Baden-Powell did use some parts of his profession which he found useful, like the uniform and some names, but these are always externals, rarely the essential fighting intention of military or specific military techniques.

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References
[1] Parsons, Timothy. "Race, Resistance, and the Boy Scout Movement in British Colonial Africa" (http:/ / www. ohioswallow. com/ bookinfo. php?book_id=0821415956). Ohio University Press and Swallow Press. . Retrieved 2006-12-25. [2] (http:/ / georgewbush-whitehouse. archives. gov/ infocus/ iraq/ decade/ sect4. html) [3] "What was Baden-Powell's position on God and Religion in Scouting?" (http:/ / www. faqs. org/ faqs/ scouting/ rec. scouting. issues/ section-11. html). Faqs. 1998. . Retrieved 2006-12-03. [4] Baden-Powell, Robert (1912). "Baden-Powell on Religion" (http:/ / www. inquiry. net/ ideals/ b-p/ religion. htm). Inquiry.net. . Retrieved 2006-12-03. [5] "Duty to God" (http:/ / www. bsalegal. org/ dutytogo-155. htm). BSA Legal Issues. Boy Scouts of America. . Retrieved 2006-12-03. [6] "BSA and Religious Belief" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ god-top. html). BSA Discrimination.org. . Retrieved 2006-10-16. [7] "Scouts Canada FAQ" (http:/ / www. scouts. ca/ dnn/ AboutUs/ FAQs/ tabid/ 345/ Default. aspx). Scouts Canada. . Retrieved 2010-01-04. [8] "World Scouting Movement" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ html/ wosm. html). BSA Discrimination. . Retrieved 2006-07-14. [9] Scout UK Equal Opportunity Policy for young people (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ eqopps/ eo-sbe-y. htm) and for adults (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ eqopps/ eo-sbe-a. htm). [10] "Core Values" (http:/ / www. bsalegal. org/ core-values-286. asp). BSA Legal. . Retrieved 2006-10-02. [11] "Boy Scouts & Public Funding: Defending Bigotry as a Public Good" (http:/ / atheism. about. com/ b/ a/ 258300. htm). . Retrieved 2006-11-14. [12] "Discrimination in the BSA" (http:/ / www. bsa-discrimination. org/ ). BSA Discrimination. . Retrieved 2006-09-04. [13] "Supreme Court Won't Review Berkeley Sea Scouts' Case" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061025035955/ http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ n/ a/ 2006/ 10/ 16/ state/ n075532D70. DTL). The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original (http:/ / sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ n/ a/ 2006/ 10/ 16/ state/ n075532D70. DTL) on 2006-10-25. . Retrieved 2006-10-17. [14] http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ around_the_world/ countries/ national_scout_organisations [15] http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ about_scouting/ facts_figures [16] List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members#Table of World Organization of the Scout Movement members [17] Scout Eh! (http:/ / scouteh. ca/ ) [18] Scouts Canada strays from tradition (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ news/ story/ 2000/ 09/ 07/ ott_scout000907. html) [19] Scouts organization ordered to change name (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ news/ story/ 1999/ 12/ 08/ badenpowel991208. html) [20] Scouting Milestones: Brother Organisations - The Boys' Brigade, the YMCA and the Church Lads' Brigade (http:/ / www. scouting. milestones. btinternet. co. uk/ brigade. htm) [21] Scouts Canada letter regarding B-PSA, September 10 2004 (pdf) (http:/ / gtc. scouts. ca/ resources/ council_notes/ 09sep BPSA letter. pdf) [22] Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. pp.404, 410, 416. [23] Baden_Powell, Robert (1908). Scouting for Boys. pp.284, 300. [24] Baden_Powell, Robert (1933). Lessons from the Varsity of Life, chapter X. [25] The Scouts Defence Corps and the Red Feather (http:/ / www. scouting. milestones. btinternet. co. uk/ redfeather. htm) [26] Marksmanship for Boys (http:/ / www. thedump. scoutscan. com/ marksboys. pdf) [27] Baden_Powell, Robert (1926). Scouting for Boys. pp.326327. [28] Baden_Powell, Robert (1945). Aids to Scoutmastership. p.45.

Scouting in Puerto Rico

211

Scouting in Puerto Rico


Scouting in Puerto Rico has a long history, from the 1920s to the present day, serving both boys and girls. Troops, Venturing Crews and Sea Scouting units are part of the Boy Scouts of America, for both boys and girls, or the Girl Scouts of the USA, for girls. Several campsites are owned and maintained by these organizations.

Boy Scouting in Puerto Rico today


Puerto Rico Council

Puerto Rico Council


Concilio De Puerto Rico Owner Boy Scouts of America

Country United States

Puerto Rican Boy Scouting is served by the Puerto Rico Council or Concilio De Puerto Rico of the Boy Scouts of America. Originally founded in 1927 as the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Council and part of the Northeast Region of the Boy Scouts of America, the political entities were separated administratively in 1960. Thousands of youth and volunteers participate in four programs, Cub Scouting, Boy Scouts, Venturing (Boy Scouts of America) and Exploring, with the mission of preparing youth to make correct choices ethically and morally for their future by learning the Scout Law and Scout Promise.

Ideals
Puerto Rico is the only entity of the BSA to translate the ideals officially into Spanish. The Scout Law, or Ley del Escucha is Un escucha es: Trustworthy - Honrado Loyal - Leal Helpful - Servicial Friendly - Amigable Corteous - Corts Kind - Bondadoso Obedient - Obediente Cheerful - Alegre Thrifty - Ahorrativo or Economico Brave - Valiente Clean - Limpio Reverent - Reverente

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Organization
Geographic divisions include six districts: Guaitiao District, the northeast part of Puerto Rico, from Fajardo to Dorado. Boriken District, the east part of Puerto Rico, from Ceiba to Aibonito. Arasibo District, the north and central part of Puerto Rico, from Vega Baja to Quebradillas. Caribe District, the south part of Puerto Rico from Patillas to Yauco. Yageka District, the West part of Puerto Rico. Majagua District, north of Puerto Rico, Bayamn

All districts bear Indian names from the Tanos, Puerto Rican Indians. The council serves more than 6,200 youth and 3,500 volunteers in more than 300 units.

Guajataka Scout Reservation

Guajataka Scout Reservation


Owner Puerto Rico Council Location Guajataca Lake, San Sebastin, Puerto Rico Country Puerto Rico

Founded 1938

Guajataka Scout Reservation is the Puerto Rico Council's camp reservation, it is on the northwest part of the island, at San Sebastin by Guajataca Lake. Camp Guajataka, or "Santuario de Amistad" (Sanctuary of Friendship), is where the Scouts learn how to care for nature and preserve it. 1938 marked the inauguration of Guajataka Scout Reservation, Puerto Rico's main camp center. It is located in the municipality of San Sebastian and on the shores of Guajataca Lake, from which the Camp takes its name. Since then the Camp has evolved, and has seen many changes both in structure and program. Scouts and Scouters that visit are lodged in one of the 11 campsites areas of the Camp. These campsites feature a series of wood shelters that house its campers. Some campsites have very simple names (such as Campsite A, B, C, D and M), while others are named in honor of distinguished figures (Paquito Joglar and Manolin) or are named based on location, flora or physical characteristics (SP or Swimming Pool Campsite area, Palomar, Cobana Negra). The council is in the process of assigning Indian names to the A, B, C, D and M areas. The camp's operations are divided into two seasons, Summer and Christmas. The main program is presented during the summer, in which ten weeks are divided for Cub scouts, Boy Scouts and Venturers. During the Christmas season a single week summarizes the summer's offerings, and it is open for Cub and Boy Scouts alike. The camp also operates off-season for special troop activities or external groups that wish to experience the outdoor spirit of the reservation. Guajataka is the official home of the council's Order of the Arrow lodge. Most of Yokahu Lodge's activities are celebrated in the camp, and for years the order has given service to the facilities. The OA has its own campsite, called "The Cabin". This campsite is currently closed, due to structural damages, but it's scheduled to re-open after some modifications. In the past, the Paquito Joglar campsite area was considered the official gathering place for the lodge, but it became a campers area due to the need of space for the many Scouts that attended camp in summer.[1]

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Staff
The staff of the camp are structured based on Scouting's patrol system. These patrols are based on different specialization areas in the camp's program. The current patrols are known as Program Aide (Scoutcraft/Scout skills), Nature Team (Ecology/Conservation), Aquatics Team, Sports Team, Staff Administrativo and Voyagers (High Adventure, Treks and Project C.O.P.E.). Other former patrols are Administration Team, Order of the Arrow Patrol, Guas de Expedicin and Ranger Team. The patrols are led by a Director, which serves as an administrative official, and a Patrol Leader, in charge of the patrol's specific program. In the past, each patrol had its own campsite in which they pitched their own tents and worked on pioneering gates that awed campers and visitors alike. As of 2006, new Council policies abolished this practice and all staff members were located in a single cabin called "Casa Staff" (Staff House). The Counselor In Training (CIT) program works in a special way, compared to other camps. Any Scout or Venturer that becomes a Staff member, regardless of age, is considered a CIT during his or her first year in camp. During this first year, the CIT learns the basics of the patrol and gets to know the "traditions" on which it is based. After successfully completing the CIT year, the Scout or Venturer is considered a full Staff Member. Staff members are known for their passion and loyalty toward their patrol, and it is very rare in current times to see a Scout that actually transfers from one patrol to another. Due to its long history, the patrol system has served to develop a series of traditions inside each patrol. A tradition shared by all patrols is a simple recognition, symbolized by a neckerchief. The neckerchief symbolizes a Staff member that has truly served the patrol and the camp, demonstrates and shares his knowledge, and, most of the times, has been a member of the patrol for two or more years. Each patrol has its own prerequisites for this recognition, and each has its own induction ceremony. The neckerchiefs have different colors, each color representing a specific patrol: red (Program Aide), green (Nature Team), light blue (Aquatics), purple (Sports), yellow (Administrative Staff), and navy blue (Voyageurs).

Yokahu Lodge
Puerto Rico Council's Yokahu Lodge was founded in 1954 by Luis Matias Ferrer, Dr. Frank H. Wadsworth and other fellow Scouters that were inspired after seeing the service potential of the Order of the Arrow at a National Scout Jamboree. In the beginning the lodge literally translated the OA ceremonies and used American Indian attire, but decided later to slightly modify the ceremony to reflect the "taino" heritage on the island. The lodge is divided into eight chapters that are organized based on the geographical regions on the island. The chapters, like the council's districts, are named based on words or names in the "taino" language. The chapters are: Arasibo Cayniabon Yagueka Majagua Guaitiao Guarionex Guani Guaraka Boriken

There are four main activities in the lodge's calendar. The Retorno is celebrated on a weekend of the first months of the year, its purpose is to reunite the arrowmen and also serves as a chance to meet that years new Lodge Executive Committee. Halfway through the year, the lodge celebrates its high adventure activity, in order to challenge each arrowmen's outdoor skills. In October the lodge celebrates its Guateke, a fellowship activity in which youths nominate themselves for positions in the Lodge Executive Committee. And finally in December, the Convencion

Scouting in Puerto Rico serves as the conclusion of the lodge's year, serves as a "Court of Honor" in which different recognitions are handed out based on service during the year and the youth elections for the Executive Committee are held during the weekend. Inductions are celebrated usually four times a year, during two weekends in May and two in August. The induction weekends are called Ordi-Bros since both ceremonies take place at the same time (Ordeal and Brotherhood). The Vigil Honor is celebrated as an independent activity on the last weekend of November (right after Thanksgiving). The lodge has its own recognitions for distinguished service to the OA. The Cemi de Bronce and the Premio del Alegre Servicio (The Cheerful Service Award) or three W's for short, are earned by youth and adults respectively. Like the Vigil Honor, these awards cannot be earned by a set of requirements, but instead are decided by a recognitions Committee composed of fellow arrowmen (all youth). These awards have their own quota and are traditionally only given out during the Convencion. Currently the Lodge has only one recipient of the Distinguished Service Award, Dr. Frank H. Wadsworth (1965), and is an active participant in Section and National activities. The 2008 NE-2A Section Conclave took place at the Guajataka Scout Reservation in Puerto Rico, marking the first time that the Yokahu Lodge hosted such activity. Yokahu is confirmed for a second Conclave on 2014 with Arawak Lodge from the United States Virgin Islands.

214

Girl Scouting in Puerto Rico


Caribe Girl Scout Council
Girl Scouting in Puerto Rico is administered by the Caribe Girl Scout Council of the Girl Scouts of the USA. It is headquartered in San Juan. The first troop was formed in 1926 in Cabo Rojo by Elisa Colberg. The Council owns three campsites. These are Campamento Elisa Colberg, near Rio Grande; Campamento Mara Emilia, near Aasco and Campamento Provi Biaggi, near Ponce.[2] Campamento Elisa Colberg was established in 1948.[3] The Puerto Rican Spanish phrase for a Girl Scout is Nia Escucha, but the phrase Girl Scout is widely understood and used. The Council's newsletter is called Nia Escucha. Girl Scouts in this council can earn the badge called Los Faros de Puerto Rico (meaning the lighthouses of Puerto Rico). Moiss Fragela donated one of his pictures, Quedo en Nada, to the Caribe Council.[4] The picture was to be sold by auction in 2006 to raise money to be used, in part, to improve the council's campsites.[4]

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References
[1] "Guajataka Scout Reservation" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20091024204248/ http:/ / geocities. com/ Yosemite/ 9920/ guajataka. htm). Guajataka Scout Reservation. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. geocities. com/ Yosemite/ 9920/ guajataka. htm) on 2009-10-24. . Retrieved 2009-05-25. [2] "Campamentos" (http:/ / www. caribegirlscouts. org. pr/ campamentos. html). Caribe Girl Scouts Council. . Retrieved 2008-08-18. [3] "El Yunque National Forest Centennial Timeline" (http:/ / www. fs. fed. us/ r8/ caribbean/ about/ centennial_text_only. shtml). USDA Forest Service. . Retrieved 2008-08-18. [4] "Arte a beneficio de nuestro Concilio" (in Spanish). Nia Escucha (Caribe Girl Scouts Council): 10. January March 2006.

External links
Puerto Rico Council, BSA (http://www.bsapr.org) (dead link) Elisa Colberg (http://www.elisacolberg.com) (in Spanish) Girl Scouts Caribe Council (http://cgspr.org/) (in Spanish)

Scoutisme Franais

216

Scoutisme Franais
Fdration du Scoutisme Franais
Federation of French Scouting

Headquarters Country Founded Membership President Vice-President Secretary Affiliation

Paris France 1940 134,000 Michel Payen Hassan Bouazza ; Daniel Sereno Franck Chekroun World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Organization of the Scout Movement Website [1] scoutisme-francais.org

The Fdration du Scoutisme Franais (Federation of French Scouting) is an umbrella organization that combines the efforts of the several Scouting and Guiding associations in France and also represents the Scouting movement in French Guiana, Martinique, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, New Caledonia, Runion, Wallis and Futuna and Guadeloupe. Until 2012 The Muslim Scouts of France are presiding the Fdration with Dr. Youns F. Aberkane as President. The federation serves about 134,000 members (as of 2008) and is a member of both the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts and the World Organization of the Scout Movement.

Member organizations
Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (EEdF) - for persons of any religion, oldest Scouting organization in the country, formed in 1911 Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France (EEIdF) - for Jewish scouts, formed in 1923 Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs unionistes de France (EEUdF) - for Protestant Scouts, formed in 1911 Scouts et Guides de France (SGdF) - formed on September 1, 2004 from the merger of two Roman Catholic Scouting organizations: the Guides de France (founded in 1923) and the Scouts de France (founded in 1920) Scouts Musulmans de France (SMdF) - for Muslim Scouts, formed in 1990 Scouts Vietnamiens de France (ASVD) - for youth of Vietnamese descent; associate members[2] Non-sovereign territories with Scouting run by Scoutisme Franais include French Guiana - Scouting in French Guiana Guadeloupe and Saint Martin - Scouting in Guadeloupe et Saint Martin Martinique - Scouts et Guides de Martinique Mayotte - Scouting in Mayotte New Caledonia - Scouting in New Caledonia Runion - Scouting on Runion Saint Pierre and Miquelon - Scouting in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna - Scouting in Wallis and Futuna

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217

References
[1] http:/ / www. scoutisme-francais. org [2] Scoutisme Franais: Les Scouts Vietnamiens de France (http:/ / www. scoutisme-francais. org/ Scouts-Vietnamiens-de-France)

External links
http://www.scoutisme-francais.org Official Website (French) http://www.jamboree1947.com World Scout Jamboree of 1947 in Moisson, France (French)

Scouts d'Hati

218

Scouts d'Hati
Scouts d'Hati
Founded 1940 Membership 43,618 president Affiliation Gerard-Marie Tardieu World Organization of the Scout Movement Website [1] scoutsdhaiti.org

The Association Nationale des Scouts d'Hati (ANSH, National Association of the Scouts of Haiti; in Haitian Kreyol Eskout Asisyen Scouts d'Hati) is the national Scouting organisation of Haiti. Scouting in Haiti started in 1916 and became a member of the World Organisation of the Scout Movement (WOSM) in 1932 and again in 1940. The coeducational association has 43,618 members (as of 2011).[2] The Scout Motto is Sois Prt (Be Prepared) in French.

Programs
Besides the traditional Scouting program, the ANSH is engaged in the development of the country. Fields of work are fighting illiteracy reforestation environmental protection evening-schools international exchanges services to the community AIDS prevention

Age groups
The association is divided in three age-groups: Lovetaux - Cub Scouts (ages 8 to 11) Scouts (ages 11 to 17) Rovers or Routiers (ages 17 to 22)

History
Origin
The first Scout groups in Haiti began their work in 1916 and formed an association in 1926. In 1932, this association became a member of WOSM, but membership was cancelled in 1939. In 1940, a new association, the Association Nationale des Scouts d'Hati, was created and was recognized by WOSM that same year. In 1962, Haiti became the first country to issue a postage stamp featuring Lady Baden-Powell.[3]

Scouts d'Hati

219

2004 Hurricane Jeanne


After Hurricane Jeanne in 2004, the association helped with the reconstruction of Gonaves. They were supported through donations by the worldwide community of Scouts, especially by the Scouts de France.

2010 Haiti earthquake response


On January 13, 2010, the Asociacion de Scouts Dominicanos organized Scout Solidarity with Haiti to support Scouts d'Hati after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[4] The Asociacion de Scouts Dominicanos have made several deliveries of food, water, tents and tools for the Scouts of Haiti, to support its operations; it is the only tangible aid has been delivered to the Scouts of Haiti from any Scout organization. They are promoting international support for operations of the Scouts of Haiti. On January 15, 2010 the World Organization of the Scout Movement organized Solidarity with Haiti to support Scouts d'Hati after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[5] The World Scout Bureau has been successful in contacting the representatives of the Scouts d'Hati. Hundreds of Scouts visited the association's president, Gerard-Marie Tardieu, regularly, either to offer their assistance or to accept rescue missions.[6] The Scouts of Jacmel have helped the firefighters to find and rescue those trapped under rubble, and in the distribution of food and water to the victims.[7] The Scouts of Logne have helped in the distribution of food and water.[8] The Scouts of Saint-Marc have put in place a makeshift clinic that provides primary care to the injured coming from Port-au-Prince. The Scouts of the Saint-Georges and Caleb groups have helped over 2000 to reach the borders of the Dominican Republic in their personal cars so that the wounded may be treated. Through local committees, the two groups have been able to provide many with food and shelter in their own homes. The Scouts of the Gideon de Carrefour group have pulled out about 300 cadavers from under the debris and saved about 725, have fabricated coffins for the dozen Scouts who died, and they have dug a communal trench to bury 150 of the dead. A mission for the evaluation of the International Scout Aid left Paris to assess and readapt the plan of action designed to the needs of the situation. The mission consists of a volunteer member of the Scouts et Guides de France, a journalist from the French magazine La Vie, and will be supported by the representative of the Movimiento Scout Catlico of Spain. WOSM is also in collaboration with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and UNICEF.[9]

References
[1] http:/ / www. scoutsdhaiti. org/ [2] "Triennal review: Census as at 1 December 2010" (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 22261/ 199900/ file/ Census. pdf). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2011-01-13. [3] Larson, Keith. "Olave Baden-Powell, Chief Girl Guide" (http:/ / www. sossi. org/ girls/ olave. htm). . Retrieved 2011-01-05. [4] Scouts, "Scout Solidarity with Haiti" (http:/ / www. facebook. com/ group. php?gid=290966042435), 13 January 2010 [5] Scouts, "Solidarity with Haiti : Call for international donations" (http:/ / scout. org/ solidarite-haiti), 14 January 2010 [6] Scouts, "Haitian Scouts in action. The scout alliance prepares." (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ information_events/ news/ 2010/ haitian_scouts_in_action_the_scout_alliance_prepares) 18 January 2010 [7] Chronicle Herald, "Its home, at least for now" (http:/ / thechronicleherald. ca/ Front/ 1164140. html), Stephen Maher, 25 January 2010 (accessed 25 January 2010) [8] Huffington Post, "It's the Haitians who Will Rebuild Their Country" (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ patrick-solomon/ its-the-haitians-who-will_b_439037. html), Patrick Solomon, 27 January 2010 (accessed 28 January 2010) [9] http:/ / www. sgdf. fr/ Les-ministeres-de-l-eduction-et-de

World Scout Bureau (1979), Scouting 'Round the World. 1979 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0

Scouts d'Hati World Organization of the Scout Movement (1990), Scoutin 'Round the World. 1990 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0

220

External links
Official website (http://www.scoutsdhaiti.org/) Club of Former Scouts and Guides of Haiti CASEGHA-USA (http://www.caseghausa.org) Solidaridad Scout con Haiti * Scout Solidarity with Haiti (http://www.facebook.com/group. php?gid=290966042435)

Scouts et Guides de France

221

Scouts et Guides de France


Scouts et Guides de France
Scouts and Guides of France

Headquarters Paris Country Founded Membership France 2004 76,000

Website
http:/ / www. scoutsetguides. fr

Scouts et Guides de France (Scouts and Guides of France, SGdF) is the largest Scouting and Guiding association in France. It was formed on 1 September 2004 from the merger of two Roman Catholic Scouting organizations: the Guides de France (founded in 1923) and the Scouts de France (SdF, founded 25 July 1920). Through Scoutisme Franais, SGdF is a member of both WOSM and WAGGGS. SGdF claims 62,000 youth members and 14,000 volunteers in 924 local groups.[1] It is active in the rebirth of Scouting in Ukraine and Belarus and strengthening Scouting in French Polynesia. The National Centre of the association is at Chateau de Jambville which is 50km northwest of Paris.[2]

History
SdF Chief Scouts
General Louis de Maud'huy 1920-16 July 1921)[3] General Arthur Guyot de Salins 1922-11 August 1936) General Joseph Lafont 1936-1944 SdF Chief Scout/Scoutisme Franais Chief Scout 1948 Wilson [4]

Honorary President
Marchal Hubert Lyautey 1925 - 1934 [5]

General Commissioners
Pre Jacques Sevin S.J. 1920 - 1924 [6] undocumented between 19241932 Ren Lhopital 1932-1936 Henri Gasnier 1936 - 1939 Henry Dhavernas 1939 (provisional) Eugne Dary 1940-1944 Pierre Delsuc General Commissioner of zone Nord 1941- 1944 Pierre Delsuc 1944 - 1946 Georges Gaultier 1946-1953 Michel Rigal 1953-1970 Emile-Xavier Visseaux 1970-1975 Dominique Benard 1975 - 1983 Robert Wettstein 1983 - 1989

Scouts et Guides de France Bertrand Chanzy 1989-1995 Philippe Da Costa 1995-2002 Claude Moral 2002-2004

222

Guides de France
Chief Guide Albertine Duhamel 1924 - 1933 Marie Thrse de Kerraoul 1933 - 1954 General Commissioners Andre Dalberto 1948 - 1953 Antoinette Reille 1953 Marie-Thrse Cheroutre 1953-1979 Monique Mitrani 1979-? Caline Forest Claude Mangin ?-1997

Hlne de la Messelire 1997-2003 Vice President delegate Franoise Parmentier 2003-2004 Scouts et Guides de France Claude Moral 2004present

Programme
Programme Sections: Sarabandes (Beavers): ages 6 to 8 Louveteaux/Louvettes/Jeannettes (Cubs): ages 8 to 12 Scouts/Scoutes/Guides: ages 11 to 15 Pionniers/Pionnires/Caravelles (Explorers): ages 14 to 17 Compagnons/JEM (Rovers): ages 17 to 21 Mousses (Sea Scouts): ages 14 to 17 Arc-en-ciel (Rainbow): handicapped division The Scout motto is Toujours Prt, Always Prepared in French. Scout Oath (SdF): Sur mon honneur, et avec la grce de Dieu, je m'engage a servir de mon mieux, Dieu, l'glise et la patrie, aider mon prochain en toutes circonstances et observer la loi scoute. On my honor and with the grace of God, I promise to do my best to serve God, the Church and my country, help my neighbour in any circumstance and to observe the Scout's Law. Scout Law (SdF): Version of 1964:

Uniform of the Scouts de France

Scouts et Guides de France 1. Le scout met son honneur mriter confiance. The Scout must strive to be trustworthy. 2. Le scout est loyal son pays, ses parents, ses chefs et ses subordonns. The Scout is loyal to his country, his parents, his leaders and his subordinates. 3. Le scout est fait pour servir et sauver son prochain. The Scout must serve and save his neighbour. 4. Le scout est l'ami de tous et l'ami de tout autre Scout. The Scout is a friend of everybody and all other Scouts. 5. Le scout est courtois et chevaleresque. The Scout is polite and chivalrous. 6. Le scout voit dans la nature l'oeuvre de Dieu, il aime les plantes et les animaux. The Scout sees God's work in nature. He loves plants and animals. 7. Le scout obit sans rplique et ne fait rien moiti. The Scout obeys without replying and does nothing by halves. 8. Le scout est matre de soi, il sourit et chante dans les difficults. The Scout is his own master, smiling and singing during hardships. 9. Le scout est conome et prend soin du bien d'autrui. The scout is sparing and takes care of what is others. 10. Le scout est pur dans ses penses, ses paroles et ses actes. The Scout must be pure in his thoughts, words and actions. Current version: Le scout tient parole. En patrouille, je maffirme et je fais des choix. The scout keeps his word. In my patrol, I stand my ground and I make decisions. Le scout dveloppe ses talents. En patrouille, jinvente et jexplore. The Scout develops his talents. In my patrol, I invent and I explore. Le scout a lesprit dquipe. En patrouille, jaccueille et je rends service. The Scout has team spirit. In my patrol, I accept everybody and I serve. Le scout prend soin de son corps. En patrouille, je me dpasse. The Scout takes care for his body. In my patrol, I surpass myself. Dieu propose au scout, un chemin. En patrouille, je dcouvre en Jsus un ami. God proposes a way to the Scout. In my patrol, I discover a friend in Jesus. Le scout respecte lautre. Fille ou garon, jexprime mes sentiments. The Scout respects other people. Girl or boy, I express my feelings.

223

Emblems
The red Jerusalem Cross with the fleur-de-lis was the symbol of the Scouts de France. It designed by Father Jacques Svin SJ, co-founder of the Fdration des Scouts de France. The Guides de France used the same Jerusalem Cross with a superimposed trefoil. The emblem of the merged organization combines elements of both predecessors. The round orange background recalls the rope circle, which symbolizes the strength of the Movement.

Literature
Le scoutisme [7], from father Jacques Svin Pour penser scoutement [8], from father Jacques Svin Philippe Laneyrie, Les scouts de France, Editions du Cerf, ISBN 2-204-02318-3

Scouts et Guides de France

224

References
[1] "Rapport dactivits 2006" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071015142450/ http:/ / www. scoutsetguides. fr/ IMG/ pdf_rap-dac. pdf) (PDF). Scouts et Guides de France. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. scoutsetguides. fr/ IMG/ pdf_rap-dac. pdf) on 2007-10-15. . Retrieved 2007-11-10. [2] Jambville [ Scouts et Guides de France ] (http:/ / jambville. sgdf. fr/ ) [3] Les commissaire gnraux des SdF, des GdF et les dlgus Gnraux des SGdF (http:/ / forum. latoilescoute. net/ index. php?topic=4411. 0) [4] p. 121 127 136 147-8 151 289 http:/ / forum. latoilescoute. net/ index. php?topic=4411. 0 [5] Wilson p. 98 115 [6] Wilson p. 52 221 http:/ / www. express. org. au/ article. aspx?aeid=3250 [7] http:/ / www. presses-idf. fr/ Le-scoutisme-Jacques-Sevin [8] http:/ / www. presses-idf. fr/ Pour-penser-scoutement-Jacques

External links
Official website (http://www.scoutsetguides.fr) (French) English content of sgdf.fr (http://www.scoutsetguides.fr/?page=article-tr&lang=en)

Scouts et Guides de Martinique

225

Scouts et Guides de Martinique


Scouts de Martinique
Location Bote Postale 813, 97207 Fort-de-France Country Martinique

Scouting in Martinique is administered by the Scouts et Guides de France as an overseas branch or region known as the Scouts et Guides de Martinique. Scouts participate in many Caribbean activities such as camps and jamborees. The Scout emblem incorporates elements of the old coat of arms of Martinique, as well as the old arms of French Guiana and Guadeloupe.

Scouts unitaires de France

226

Scouts unitaires de France


Scouts unitaires de France
Unitary Scouts of France

Headquarters Paris Country Founded Membership President France 1971 23,000 Thierry Berlizot Website
[1]

The Scouts Unitaires de France (Unitary Scouts of France, SUF) is a French Catholic Scouting movement created in 1971. It is the third largest movement in France. From 1964 to 1970 the Scouts de France prepared and experimented with a new pedagogy, splitting the Scouts troops (units) into two new sections and partly implementing coeducation. Until 1971 the old and the new pedagogies coexisted in the same organisation. In the 1970s the new pedagogy became compulsory. In 1971 around twenty local groups refused to conform and chose to stay with the former unitary pedagogy. These groups created the Scouts Unitaires de France, initially with around 1,000 members. In 1980 the SUF had 10,000 members and by 2006 had grown further to 23,000 members.

External links
Official Website [1] (French)

References
[1] http:/ / www. scouts-unitaires. org

Student Scout and Guide Organisation

227

Student Scout and Guide Organisation


Student Scout and Guide Organisation
Country United Kingdom

The Student Scout and Guide Organisation (SSAGO) exists to support Scouts, Guides, and people who have never been members of a Scout or Guide Association, who are students at Colleges and Universities in the United Kingdom and are interested in the aims, objectives, and methods of The Scout Association and Girlguiding UK. Many universities have a Scout and Guide Club affiliated to the University Student Union, although it is not necessary for a club to be union affiliated to be part of SSAGO. Where a University or College has no club, students can join SSAGO as Individual or "Indie" members. Most clubs run a number of weekend and evening events during term and longer events during vacations. Each term one club organises a weekend open to all Club and Indie members of SSAGO called a Rally. The oldest example of a Scout and Guide Club in the United Kingdom is the Oxford University Scout and Guide Group. After leaving University many members of SSAGO choose to join the Scout and Guide Graduate Association (SAGGA).

History
Informal Scout and Guide Clubs have existed as early as 1915, when the first generation of Scouts grew out of Scouting age yet wanted to keep some sense of fraternity. Some early organizations at colleges were known as Baden-Powell Guilds and Saint George Guilds. A world equivalent to this exists today in the International Scout and Guide Fellowship, or ISGF. Some of the first clubs were set up in university towns, such as Oxford, Cambridge, Manchester and London. Inter-club activities were run intermittently until 1927. By 1920, Rover Scouts had been set up for people over 18 but many people were also part of Scout and Guide clubs. University clubs banded together to form an Inter-Varsity organisation while College based clubs formed a similar set-up. It was not until 1947 that inter-club meetings started again, and even then only for the Varsity clubs (those from universities, rather than colleges). Only two colleges (Loughborough and North Staffordshire) were admitted to Varsity. No other colleges were admitted, partially because of snobbery in the old red-brick establishments. The Federation of Scout and Guide Clubs in Training Colleges was set up in 1956 for colleges, and a year later it formed the Intercollegiate organisation. In 1967, the Intercollegiate and Inter-Varsity merged to form SSAGO due to the dwindling number of colleges as many became universities. SSAGO was 40 in 2007, to celebrate this event a special emblem was designed and the Summer Rally replaced with a Reunion Event held near Lincoln in July. Whilst this event was run as a Rally there were some noticeable differences; there were fireworks on the Friday night, all members old, new and SAGGA (who themselves are celebrating their 50th Anniversary) were invited to attend along with visits from prestigious guests such as Liz Burnley the current Chief Guide. United Kingdom Scout and Guide Clubs and Rovers Crews were responsible for establishing an international Student Scout and Guide event called the Witan, named after the Anglo-Saxon gathering of the wise called a Witan. The first two such events were organised by the Oxford University Scout and Guide Group at Gilwell Park in 1959 and 1961.[1][2]

Student Scout and Guide Organisation

228

Existing clubs
There are currently thirty universities with a SSAGO club, as well as a newly set-up "Indie" branch in London. There are also at least ten that no longer exist. The Universities with a functioning SSAGO club are: Aberdeen (AUSSAGS) Aberystwyth (Aber SSAGO) Bangor (BUGS) Bath (BUGS) Birmingham City (BCU SSAGG) Bournemouth (BUGGAS) Bath Spa Birmingham (BUSAG [3]) Bristol Cambridge (CUSAGC [4]) Cardiff (SSAGS [5]) Durham (DUSAGG [6]) East Anglia (UEA SSAGO) Edinburgh (EUSSAGO) Exeter (SAGE) Heriot-Watt Lancaster (Lancaster SSAGO) Central Lancaster Leeds (LUUSAG) Leicester (SLUGS) Liverpool (SLAGS) London (Indies) (SLIC) London have tried before to have a SSAGO Group, but it never took off. But in 2005 a few people got together and it has now slowly taken off. SLIC started in West and North West London first and is now stretching its wings to the entire of London SLIC [7] Loughborough - The name SCOGUI [8] comes from the words SCOut and GUIde rather than an acronym of the club's full name. SCOGUI's origins have been traced back to 1953. Membership is also open to members of associated colleges. Manchester (MANSSAGO [9]) Northampton (NUSAG) Nottingham (SNoGS) Oxford - Oxford University Scout and Guide Group (OUSGG) Portsmouth (SPROGS) Plymouth (PLUGS) Reading Sheffield (StinGS) Sheffield Hallam (SHaGS) Southampton (Southampton SSAGO) St. Andrews (SAUSAGG) Strathclyde (SUGS) Swansea (SSWIGS) Warwick (Warwick SSAGO)

West of England (SAGUWE [10]) York (SAGGY [11])

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229

References
[1] History of OUSGG, 1955 - 1963 (http:/ / www. ousgg. org. uk/ about/ history#1955) [2] List of Witans (http:/ / witan. org/ events/ ) [3] http:/ / students. bugs. bham. ac. uk/ busag/ html/ index. htm [4] http:/ / www. cusagc. org. uk [5] http:/ / www. cardiffssags. co. uk [6] http:/ / www. dusagg. org. uk [7] http:/ / ssago. org. uk/ london/ [8] http:/ / www. scogui. org. uk [9] http:/ / www. ssago. man. ac. uk/ [10] http:/ / www. world-solutions. co. uk/ saguwe/ [11] http:/ / saggyork. org. uk

External links
SSAGO (http://www.ssago.org.uk) SAGGA (http://www.sagga.org.uk) The Scout Association (http://www.scouts.org.uk) Girlguiding UK (http://www.girlguiding.org.uk/) Witan Event (http://witan.org/)

The Girl Guides Association of Belize

230

The Girl Guides Association of Belize


The Girl Guides Association of Belize
Headquarters Belize City Country Founded Membership President Affiliation Belize 1937 412 (2006) Gilda Lewis World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts

The Girl Guides Association of Belize is the national Guiding organization of Belize. It serves 412 members as of 2006. Founded in 1937, the girls-only organization became an associate member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1987 and a full member in 1993.[1]

References
[1] The Girl Guides Association of Belize (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ world/ organisations?mo=56), World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, , retrieved November 2, 2009

The Saint Lucia Scout Association

231

The Saint Lucia Scout Association


The Saint Lucia Scout Association
Location Country Massade, Gros-Islet, Castries Saint Lucia

Membership 393 Affiliation World Organization of the Scout Movement

The Saint Lucia Scout Association (SLSA) is the national Scouting organization of Saint Lucia. Scouting in Saint Lucia started in 1910 and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) in 1990. The coeducational association has 393 members (as of 2010).[1]

History
Scouting in Saint Lucia started in 1910 as an overseas branch of The Scout Association (UK). In 1935, the Saint Lucia Scout Association was officially founded as a branch of British Scouting. After the independence of Saint Lucia in 1968, the national association worked towards recognition by WOSM, which was received in 1990. The SLSA hosted the Caribbean Jamboree in 2000.

Program and ideals


The association is divided in three age-groups: Cub Scouts (ages 7 to 11) Scouts (ages 12 to 15) Rover Scouts (ages 16 to 20) The membership badge of the Saint Lucia Scout Association incorporates elements of the coat of arms of Saint Lucia, and the top of the design is intended to evoke the Pitons, the island's two large peaks that rise from the ocean and are recognized symbols of the island.

References
[1] "Some statistics" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ around_the_world/ countries/ national_scout_organisations/ some_statistics). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2010-03-30.

World Organization of the Scout Movement (1990), Scouting 'Round the World. 1990 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0

The Scout Association

232

The Scout Association


The Scout Association
The Scout Association logo, featuring the Fleur-de-lis

Headquarters Location Country Founded Founder Membership

Gilwell Park Chingford United Kingdom 1910, incorporated 1912 Baden-Powell 413,223youth 79,037adults [1] (2011) Bear Grylls Derek Twine Prince Edward, Duke of Kent World Organization of the Scout Movement Website
http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/

Chief Scout Chief Executive President Affiliation

The Scout Association is the World Organization of the Scout Movement recognised Scouting association in the United Kingdom. Scouting began in 1907 through the efforts of Robert Baden-Powell. The Scout Association was formed under its previous name, The Boy Scout Association, in 1910 by the grant of a charter by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Boy Scout Association was renamed as The Scout Association in 1967. The stated aim of The Scout Association is to "promote the development of young people in achieving their full physical, intellectual, social and spiritual potential, as individuals, as responsible citizens and as members of their local, national and international communities".[2] The Scout Association provides a Programme to help achieve this aim for young people from the age of 6 to 25[3] The latest census shows that over 410,000 people aged 625 are members of The Scout Association,[1] with a further 33,000 people waiting to join in the movement.[1] Thanks to this work, The Scout Association is a member of The National Council for Voluntary Youth Services (NCVYS).[4] Girls were first admitted in 1976 to the Venture Scouts, and the rest of Sections on an optional basis in 1991. Since 2007 all Scout Groups in Britain must accept girls as well as boys, although religious preferences can be accommodated.[5] Scouting in Great Britain and Northern Ireland is open to all faiths and variations to the Scout Promise are allowed in order to accommodate those of different religious obligations or national allegiances.[6] The Scout Association does not permit an atheist version of the Promise, or a lack of any sort of faith or religion in the programme, and this has attracted criticism from the National Secular Society (NSS) and the British Humanist Association.[7] The association's current Chief Scout is Bear Grylls, with Derek Twine as the Chief Executive. The association's president is HRH Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II is a patron of the organisation.[8][9][10]

The Scout Association

233

History
Birth of the Movement
The roots of The Scout Association come from the fame of Robert Baden-Powell following his exploits during the Second Boer War. In 1907, "B-P", as he is known to members of the Movement, ran a camp on Brownsea Island for boys of varying backgrounds. These boys came from Eaton and Harrow, Parkstone, Hamworthy, and Bournemouth. This camp is now considered to be the start of the Movement.[11] The following year, Baden-Powell wrote a series of magazines, Scouting for Boys, setting out activities and programmes which existing youth organisations could make use of.[12] The reaction was Scouting certificate dated December 3, 1914 phenomenal, and quite unexpected. In very short time, Scout Patrols were created up and down the country, all following the principles of Baden-Powell's book. By the time of the first census in 1910, there were over 100,000 members of the Movement.[12] The Boy Scout Association was created in 1910 in order to provide a national body which could organise and support the rapidly growing number of Scout Patrols. It was also the wish of Baden-Powell to wrest control of Scouting from his book's publishers as it was felt the Movement was not given the status it deserved as the publishers controlled membership of Scouting.[12]

19101920: Growth
Almost immediately, The Boy Scout Association was presented with a dilemma. Many of the boys in the Scout Patrols (at the start, Scouting was for boys between the ages of 10 and 19) had younger brothers who also wanted to participate. There were also many girls who wanted the same thing as well Baden-Powell came across a group of Girl Scouts at the Crystal Palace Rally in 1909.[12] The solution for the younger boys was simple the Wolf Cubs Section was created in 1917.[13] However, Edwardian principles could not allow young girls to participate in the rough and tumble, and "wild" activities of the Scouts, and so the Girl Guides were created by Baden-Powell's sister, Agnes, to provide a more "proper" programme of activities.[12] Many of those who had grown out of Scouts still wanted to be a part of Scouting, so another section was created in 1918 the Rover Scouts.[14] Scouting was now a global phenomenon, with a Royal Charter of 4 January 1912 incorporating The Boy Scout Association throughout the British Empire, with "the purpose of instructing boys of all classes in the principles of discipline loyalty and good citizenship", being granted by George V.[15] The first World Jamboree for Scouts was held in Olympia, London in 1920, and was a celebration and conference of the World Organization of the Scout Movement.[12]
Membership badge of The Scout Association prior to 1967

The Scout Association

234

19672001
Scouting in Britain went largely unchanged until it underwent a major review, The Chief Scouts' Advance Party Report, and change in 1967. The name of the organisation was changed to The Scout Association.[12] Major changes to the sections and their respective programmes were made the youngest section were now named Cub Scouts,[12] the Boy Scout section was renamed simply as the Scout section, Senior Scouts became Venture Scouts[12] (for 1620 year olds), and the Rover Scout section was disbanded.[14] The Scout Uniform was also changed most notably with the inclusion of long trousers for the Scouts (previously they had been wearing knee-length shorts).[12] The Advance Party Report was not welcomed by all members and a rival report, "The Black Report", was produced in 1970 by "The Scout Action Group". This provided alternative proposals for the development of the Movement and asked for Groups that wished to continue to follow Baden-Powell's original scheme to be permitted to do so. The rejection of these proposals resulted in the formation of the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association.[16] Several developments were made over the following years, including the introduction of co-educational units of boys and girls, initially restricted to the Venture Scouts section in 1976, but from 1991 junior sections were allowed to become mixed as well.[12] Parents involved in Scouting in Northern Ireland also began to organise activities for their children who were too young for Cub Scouts. This eventually led to the creation of the Beaver Scout section, officially starting in 1986.[12] Despite these changes, and many other minor ones, Scouting started to fall into a decline through the 1990s with falling membership levels.[17] This spurred a major review into the causes of the decline,[18] followed by a programme change which took effect in 2003.[19] In the late 1990s, a Muslim Scout Fellowship was formed, which by the end of 2007, had assisted the establishment of 13 Muslim Scout Groups in England and Wales.[20]

2001present
Scouting found itself competing for young people's time against many other extracurricular activities and schools themselves, who were increasingly venturing into the same types of activities. The adult leaders became concerned with the growing litigation culture in the UK.[21] Scouting has also been challenged by a negative stereotype as being old fashioned.[22] The programme change in 2002 sought to overcome the growing challenges facing the Movement and saw changes at all levels of British Scouting the most apparent being the suspension of Venture Scouts. To replace this senior section, The Scout Association created the Explorer Scouts for 14- to 18-year-old members, and the Scout Network for 1825-year-olds.[19] The Scout Association also introduced a number of new badges, such as computing skills and skateboarding, to modernise the image of Scouting. These new badges drew mixed reactions from several public figures, with some praising The Scout Association for "moving with the times" and others feeling the changes went "against the Scouting ethos of Baden-Powell".[23] Other changes in 2001 included changes to the leadership training so that it became more flexible, allowing for specific roles in the Movement, rather than the general leadership training which preceded it. New Scout uniforms for all sections and leaders were also introduced in 2001, designed by Meg Andrews, with the aim of being more modern and appealing to young people.[24] There was criticism of some of these changes, mostly citing problems with the implementation, although several years into the new structure the Explorer Scout and Scout Network sections have become well
Explorer Scouts climbing at Stanage Edge

The Scout Association established. Census figures for the last few years show an upturn in membership, with The Scout Association in April 2010 announcing the highest rate of growth in British Scouting since 1972, with total membership reaching just under half a million.[21][25] Scouting in Britain continues to promote the same Principles and Methods as written by Baden-Powell in Scouting for Boys more than 100 years ago. British Scouts played a major role in the centenary celebrations of Scouting in 2007, with celebration events organised on Brownsea Island,[26] as well as hosting the 21st World Scout Jamboree. In 2012, the Duchess of Cambridge announced her intention to become a volunteer leader for the movement with a group near her Anglesey home.[27]

235

Organisation
The Chief Scout is the leader of The Scout Association, and is responsible for determining the direction and policies of Scouting in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Crown Overseas Territories. Bear Grylls is the current Chief Scout after replacing Peter Duncan in July 2009. There is a team of Commissioners who are responsible for the Scouting programme in their respective divisions. At all levels, Scouts are governed by an executive of trustees, known as executive committees[28] these could be volunteers from the local community who have had ties with Scouting, either themselves or through their children. The executive normally consists of a chairman, secretary, treasurer, and a number of other officers. In Group Executive Committees, Group Scout Leaders and Section Leaders also form part of the committee.[29] Their role is to ensure that the best interests of the young people and the community are served by the Group, District, County, or National organisations.[28] Senior volunteers in The Scout Association are called 'Commissioners'. Every County/Area/Region[30][31] and District[32] is headed by a Commissioner who is responsible for ensuring the Districts/Groups under their jurisdiction meet the standards set by The Scout Association. They receive support from Regional Development Officers in England, who are employed by the Regional Development Service and deployed locally to help support The Scout Association's objectives.[33] Commissioners in the other nations receive support from Field Commissioners, employed and directed differently. District Commissioners report to the County/Area/Regional Commissioner, who in turn report to the Chief Commissioner. The Scout Association is divided into four mainland national groupings: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Each of these divisions are further broken up into local Counties (England and Northern Ireland), Areas (Wales), or Regions A Scout parade in Oxford, 2004 (Scotland),[34] which generally follow the boundaries of the ceremonial counties of Great Britain. The County/Area/Region consists of a number of Scout Districts, which are made up of Groups.[34] The Groups are the local organisations for Scouting, and are the direct descendants of the original Scout Patrols. Groups can consist of one or more Beaver Colonies, Cub Packs, and Scout Troops. Groups may also have one or more Group Scout Active Support Units, and have an Explorer Scout Unit attached to it, though Explorer Scouts are managed at the District level.[35] Scout Groups are led by a Group Scout Leader whose main role is handling communication between the local District and the Section Leaders and ensuring the Scout Group meets the minimum standard required by The Scout Association.[36] All leaders work as unpaid volunteers[37], of which there are around 120,000[38]. In addition to this number, the Association employs 198 full-time and part-time staff to support the

The Scout Association work of its adult volunteers.[39]

236

Sections
In the Scout Association, there are five sections to cater for youth aged between 6 and 25 years of age.
Section Ages Controlled by Group Activities Introduced 2008 [40] Membership 101,094 2009 [41] Membership 103,226 2010 [42] Membership 108,018 2011 [43] Membership 112,058

Beaver Scouts Cub Scouts

68

Emphasis on having fun. Introduction to Scoutcraft and activities. Further development of Scouting skills. Emphasis on personal challenge and adventure.

1986

810

Group

1916

137,268

140,621

142,904

144,296

Scouts

1014 Group

1907

107,966

113,058

117,328

118,462

Explorer Scouts

1418

District

2002

30,422

31,948

34,689

36,346

Scout Network

1825

County/Area More flexible with greater personal choice.

2002

1,913

2,048

2,171

2,061

The first four sections (Beavers to Explorers) are led by a Section Leader, who must hold an appointment for the position, and is aided by assistant leaders.[44][45][46] In addition to the leaders, others can assist in the running of the section; Young Leaders, Explorer Scouts trained in leadership techniques, are frequently a part of section meetings as are other volunteers, usually the parents of children in the group, and members of the Group Executive Committee who help operate the Group financially. Scout Networks are mainly member led, but are assisted by a Network Leader who ensures that the Network is working within the rules of the association. In addition to the main programme sections, a parallel Scouting programme, Scoutlink, provides support and involvement for young people and adults with developmental disabilities.

Air and Sea Scouts


Some Scout Groups belong to separate branches called Air Scouts and Sea Scouts. Both branches follow the core programme in all Sections but can add more aeronautical or nautical emphasis depending on the branch, with some Group branches being recognised by the Royal Air Force or Royal Navy. In the United Kingdom there are approximately 400 Sea Scout Groups, of which about 25% (101 Groups) are Royal Navy recognised,[47] whilst of 117 Air Scout Groups, 43 are recognised by the RAF.[48]

The Scout Association

237

Progressive award scheme


Throughout all the sections in scouting, a progressive award scheme operates which forms a major part of the scout programme and promotes a consistent commitment to the scout programme. There are six awards as part of the scheme, five of which are Chief Scout's awards and culminate in the Queen's Scout award (King's Scout prior to 1953). The first three awards, the Chief Scout's Bronze, Silver and Gold award, are the highest possible awards achievable in Beavers, Cubs and Scouts respectively. To achieve these awards, a number of challenge badges must be previously obtained, demonstrating a wide range of skills, in addition to a personal challenge. The final three awards, The Chief Scout's Platinum, Diamond and the Queen's Scout award are all available in the Explorer Scout and Scout Network sections alone. The awards mirror the requirements of the The Duke of Edinburgh's Award at Bronze, Silver and Gold level respectively, consisting of a period of time volunteering in the local community, a prolonged physical activity, the advancement of a skill and the partaking of an expedition, allowing a participant to partake in both the DofE and the award at the same time. In addition, these three awards do not have to be completed in order, and participants can skip straight to a specific award, although additional work is involved. Achieving the Queen's Scout award is seen as a significant event on a national scale; recipients of the award are invited to join the St George's Day service at Windsor Castle the year after completing the scheme, and parade before The Queen. The progressive award scheme was developed from original awards and classifications used since the origin of scouting in 1907. These lay with the award of 'First' and 'Second' class standards within the different sections, and with the creation of the King's Scout award. These awards focused on the values of service and basic scouting skills. Following a review in the 1960s, the class standards were dropped and replaced in Cubs by arrow awards and in Scouts by the 'Scout Standard', 'Advanced Scout Standard', and the 'Chief Scout Award'; meanwhile the renamed 'Queen's Scout' award was changed to focus on long-term service and commitment as well as the completion of an expedition lasting four days and fifty miles. Further changes occurred a few decades later. The Cub arrows were replaced in 1990 with the 'Cub Scout Award', 'Adventure Award' and 'Adventure Crest' award, while the Scout Standards were replaced in 1983 with the 'Scout Award', 'Pathfinder Award', and 'Explorer Award' - the Chief Scout's Award remained the highest award for the Scout Section. The 'Venture Scout Award' was also created for the senior section as an intermediary stage to the Queen's Scout Award, as were additional awards for Beaver Scouts. All these awards were abolished or changed following the introduction of the current 6-25 programme in February 2002.

Promise and Law


The Scout Promise is made by all members of The Scout Association from the Scout section upwards, including Leaders: On my honour, I promise that I will do my best, To do my duty to God and to the Queen, To help other people, And to keep the Scout Law. Additional variations of the promise are used for different faiths or for members from other countries, whose allegance is pledged to the country and not the monarch. For the two younger sections, a simpler promise is used: Cub Scouts utilise the normal promise with the omission of the opening 'On my honour' and a change in the final line "to keep the Cub Scout Law", while beaver scouts use a different promise altogether: I promise to do my best, To be kind and helpful, And to love God.

The Scout Association In addition to the promise, there is a Scout Law which dictates what qualities a scout should hold. The Scout Law is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A Scout is to be trusted. A Scout is loyal. A Scout is friendly and considerate. A Scout belongs to the world-wide family of Scouts. A Scout has courage in all difficulties. A Scout makes good use of time and is careful of possessions and property. A Scout has self-respect and respect for others.

238

This law is used for all sections except Cubs and Beavers. Beaver Scouts have no law, as these values are to be demonstrated through the meetings themselves. The Cub Scout law is different again: Cub scouts always do their best, think of others before themselves and do a good turn every day. The motto of the Scout Association, and of scouting as a whole, is 'Be Prepared'. These were explained in the original Scouting books and was expanded in a series of promotional posters for the sections in the early 2000s.

Fund raising
The Scout Association uses a variety pof ways for fundraising activities. In addition to weekly or monthly subs for activities, many of the Scout groups are registered charities and utilise the Gift Aid scheme.

Gimmie 5
The Gimmie 5 challenge is an annual fundraising event, aimed at Scout Groups in the United Kingdom. Organised by the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Scout Association, it lasts for 9 days in March every year. In 2006, it occurred from 18 to 26 March. Participating groups are required to raise money, in any way, with the proceeds shared between The Scout Association, the WWF and the Group.

Scout Community Week


Re-introduced in 2012, the week involves scouts doing work in the community in exchange for a donation to the group. The scheme was an update to an earlier scheme: "Bob a Job Week", where Scouts raised money by doing jobs for their neighbours and were paid a shilling (a "Bob") for the work.

Campsites
Across the country numerous campsites are owned by members of the Scout Association, usually Scout Districts and Counties, and are run by the individual Scout County or District councils. These campsites are also used by others outside the organisation and gains additional income for the scout county or district. However, eight different sites are run directly from the national levels of the Scout Association. Seven sites are branded and operated as Scout Activity Centres, providing camping sites and adventurous activities alongside. These seven are Gilwell Park on the London/Essex border and headquarters of the organisation, Downe in Kent, Ferney Crofts in the New Forest, Great Tower in the Lake District, Hawkhirst in Northumberland, Woodhouse Park in Gloucestershire and Youlbury in Oxfordshire, the oldest permanent scout campsite in the world. In addition to these sites, the Scout Association runs two conference centres, one within Gilwell Park, and another at a separate site in central London, Baden-Powell House. Baden-Powell House is also a scouting hostel, providing cheap scout accommodation for central London trips.[49]

The Scout Association

239

Notable former Scouts


The Scout Association has had many notable members in the past, with the following selection being the best known: David Beckham England international footballer and former captain[50] Tony Blair former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom[51] Richard Branson Virgin Group Founder[51] John Major former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom[50] Paul McCartney singer/songwriter/bassist of the Beatles and Wings[50] George Michael singer/songwriter[50] Cliff Richard singer[50] Keith Richards member of the Rolling Stones[51] Bear Grylls adventurer and television personality and current Chief Scout Ronnie Corbett actor and comedian who worked with Ronnie Barker in the British television comedy series The Two Ronnies

The Scout Association overseas


As well as controlling for Scouting in the United Kingdom, The Scout Association is also responsible for Scouting in the British overseas territories and Crown Dependencies, as well as some small independent nations.[52] Non-sovereign territories with Scouting run by The Scout Association include:
Anguilla Bermuda Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Saint Helena and Ascension Island British Virgin Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Isle of Man

Sovereign countries with Scouting run by The Scout Association, as they are without independent Scouting organisations, include: Antigua and Barbuda Solomon Islands Saint Kitts and Nevis Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

The British Scout programme is also offered to British citizens living outside of the United Kingdom. British Scouts in Western Europe serves Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands[53] while British Groups Abroad covers the rest of the world.[54]

The Scout Association

240

References
[1] "Making Our Mark" (http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ documents/ annual_report/ 379. 1 CC Annual Report_copy 13-7-11. pdf). Annual Report and Accounts 2010/11. The Scout Association. . Retrieved 10 January 2012. [2] "Mission Statement" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070816064638/ http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ aboutus/ mission. htm). The Scout Association. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ cms. php?pageid=131) on August 16, 2007. . Retrieved 2011-04-04. [3] "The 6-25 Programme" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ 6to25/ ). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [4] Full list of NCVYS members (http:/ / www. ncvys. org. uk/ index. php?page=392) [5] "Rule 3.6.g: Mixed Membership" (http:/ / scouts. org. uk/ documents/ por/ 2011updates/ Chap_03_2011. pdf). Policy, Organisation and Rules. The Scout Association. 2005. . Retrieved 2007-02-14. [6] "Rule 1.1: Variations to the wording of the Promises" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ por/ 2005/ 1_5. htm#rule_1. 1). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2009-12-23. [7] Sanderson, Terry (2008-02-04). "Scouting Without God" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ commentisfree/ 2008/ feb/ 04/ scoutingwithoutgod). London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 2009-12-23. [8] "Chapter 6 - The Structure of the Headquarters of The Scout Association" (http:/ / scouts. org. uk/ documents/ por/ 2011updates/ Chap_06_2011. pdf). Policy, Organisation and Rules. The Scout Association. . Retrieved 10 January 2012. [9] "Search Charities and Patronages" (http:/ / www. royal. gov. uk/ CharitiesandPatronages/ Search Charities and Patronages. aspx). royal.gov.uk - The Official website of the British Monarchy. . Retrieved 8 October 2011. [10] "HM Queen unveils centenary bronze" (http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ news/ 62/ hm-queen-unveils-centenary-bronze). The Scout Association. 6 May 2008. . Retrieved 8 October 2011. Contains reference in text to the fact of the Queens patronage. [11] "Brownsea Island" (http:/ / eng. brownsea2007. org/ ). Brownsea Island. . Retrieved 2007-08-19. [12] "The History of Scouting" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ history/ ). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [13] "Cub Scouts" (http:/ / www. scouting. milestones. btinternet. co. uk/ cubs. htm). Scouting Milestones. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [14] "Rover Scouts" (http:/ / www. scouting. milestones. btinternet. co. uk/ rovers. htm). Scouting Milestones. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [15] "Royal Charter of The Boy Scouts Association" (http:/ / scoutdocs. ca/ Scouts_Canada_Act_/ Royal_Charter. php). Scoutdocs. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [16] Baden-Powell Scouts' Association (http:/ / www. traditionalscouting. co. uk) [17] "The growing crisis in the Scout movement" (http:/ / www. netpages. free-online. co. uk/ sha/ crisis. htm). Scout History Association. . Retrieved 2007-08-17. [18] "UK Scouting plans its future" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ headline/ 991227aa. htm). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-17. [19] "New activity programme for UK Scouts" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ headline/ 020222aa. htm). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-17. [20] Youth Citizenship and Religious Difference: Muslim Scouting in the United Kingdom, Sarah Mill, pds. 190-206, in Block, Nelson R.; Tammy M. Proctor (2009,). Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement's First Century. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN1-4438-0450-9. [21] Copping, Jasper (2007-07-15). "The Gameboy generation returns to the Scouts" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2007/ 07/ 15/ nscout115. xml). London: Daily Telegraph. . Retrieved 2007-08-20. [22] "The Scout movement today" (http:/ / www. saga. co. uk/ magazine/ people/ reallives/ ScoutsToday. asp). Saga. . Retrieved 2007-08-17. [23] Copping, Jasper (2006-07-09). "Computing, faith and even PR, the Scout badges leading the pack" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2006/ 07/ 09/ nscout09. xml). London: Daily Telegraph. . Retrieved 2007-08-19. [24] "Chapter 10 - Uniform, Badges and Emblems" (http:/ / scouts. org. uk/ documents/ por/ 2011updates/ Chap10_2011_v2. pdf). Policy, Organisation and Rules. The Scout Association. . Retrieved 10 January 2012. [25] "A growing membership" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060928153641/ http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ review/ GrowingMembership. html). The Scout Association. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ review/ GrowingMembership. html) on September 28, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [26] "Arriving at Brownsea" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ southtoday/ content/ articles/ 2007/ 07/ 25/ scouts_arrivals_feature. shtml). BBC South Today. 2007-08-01. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [27] "The Telegraph- 'Here's one Duchess who won't be tied up in knots" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ uknews/ kate-middleton/ 8995239/ Heres-one-Duchess-who-wont-be-tied-up-in-knots. html). . Retrieved 3 June 2012. [28] "Executive Committees" (http:/ / scouts. org. uk/ supportresources/ search/ ?cat=55,594). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2007-08-19. [29] "The Group Executive Committee" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ facts/ pdfs/ fs330077. pdf) (PDF). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [30] "Role description for an Area Commissioner" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ facts/ pdfs/ fs330075. pdf) (PDF). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2007-08-19. [31] "Role description for a County Commissioner" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ facts/ pdfs/ fs330074. pdf) (PDF). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2007-08-19. [32] "Role description for a District Commissioner" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ facts/ pdfs/ fs330076. pdf) (PDF). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2007-08-19.

The Scout Association


[33] "Development Policy" (http:/ / scouts. org. uk/ documents/ por/ 2011updates/ Chap_02_2011. pdf). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2012-01-10. [34] "How we operate" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070810062635/ http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ aboutus/ Structure. htm). The Scout Association. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ aboutus/ Structure. htm) on August 10, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [35] "The Scout Group: Introduction" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ por/ 2006/ chapter_3. htm#part_1). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [36] "The Scout Group: Responsibilities of Appointments in the Scout Group" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ por/ 2006/ 3_43. htm#rule_3. 42). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-18.{{dead link|date=January 2012)) [37] "Facts about adults in Scouting- The Scout Association" (https:/ / members. scouts. org. uk/ cms. php?pageid=1812|). June 7 2012. . [38] "Bad volunteers are like a cancer, says Scout Association director- Third Sector" (http:/ / www. thirdsector. co. uk/ Volunteering/ article/ 1132691/ Bad-volunteers-cancer-says-Scout-Association-director/ |). June 7 2012. . [39] "Scouting in the United Kingdom-Scouts" (http:/ / scouts. org. uk/ cms. php?pageid=1828). . Retrieved June 8 2012. [40] "The Scout Association's Annual Report & Accounts 2007-08" (http:/ / www. charity-commission. gov. uk/ registeredcharities/ ScannedAccounts/ Ends01\0000306101_ac_20080331_e_c. pdf) (PDF). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2009-05-04. (taken from the Charity Commission's website) [41] "The Scout Association's Annual Report & Accounts 2008-09" (http:/ / scouts. org. uk/ documents/ annual_report/ how_we've_grown. pdf) (PDF). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2010-02-09. [42] "The Scout Association's Annual Report & Accounts 2010" (http:/ / issuu. com/ ukscouting/ docs/ annual_report_2010_indise_web?mode=embed& layout=http:/ / skin. issuu. com/ v/ color/ layout. xml& backgroundColor=FFFFFF& showFlipBtn=true). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2011-11-02. [43] "The Scout Association's Annual Report 2011" (http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ documents/ annual_report/ 379. 1 CC Annual Report_copy 13-7-11. pdf). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2011-11-02. [44] "The Scout Group: The Beaver Scout Colony" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ por/ 2006/ 3_7. htm#rule_3. 7). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [45] "The Scout Group: The Cub Scout Pack" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ por/ 2006/ 3_8. htm#rule_3. 8). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [46] "The Scout Group: The Scout Troop" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ por/ 2006/ 3_9. htm#rule_3. 9). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [47] "Scouting Afloat" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ facts/ pdfs/ fs295108. pdf) (pdf 96kb). The Scout Association. November 2004. . Retrieved 2007-08-16. [48] "Air Scout Groups and Units" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ 6to25/ scout/ airscout/ airlist. htm). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2007-08-16. [49] "Scout Activity Centres" (http:/ / www. scouts. org. uk/ nationalcentres/ ). The Scout Association. . Retrieved 2009-09-26. [50] Scout Association list of famous UK Scouts (http:/ / www2. scouts. org. uk/ cms. php?pageid=1668) [51] "Scouting for Boys: The original 'dangerous' book for boys - This Britain, UK" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ uk/ this-britain/ scouting-for-boys-the-original-dangerous-book-for-boys-459340. html). London: The Independent. 2007-07-28. . Retrieved 2009-12-30. [52] "Overseas Branches of The Scout Association" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ facts/ pdfs/ fs260014. pdf) (PDF). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [53] "BSWE Districts" (http:/ / scoutbswe. org). British Scouts Western Europe. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [54] "British Groups Abroad" (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ ps/ inter/ uk/ bga/ index. htm). ScoutBase. . Retrieved 2007-08-18.

241

Further reading
Block, Nelson R.; Proctor, Tammy M. (2009). Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement's First Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN1-4438-0450-9.

External links
The Scout Association Homepage (http://scouts.org.uk/) Beaver Section Homepage (http://scouts.org.uk/beavers/) Cub Section Homepage (http://scouts.org.uk/cubs/) Scout Section Homepage (http://scouts.org.uk/scouts/index.html) Explorer Section Homepage (http://scouts.org.uk/explorers/) Scout Network Section Homepage (http://scouts.org.uk/network/)

The Scout Association of Belize

242

The Scout Association of Belize


The Scout Association of Belize
Location Country Founded Belize City Center, Power station America Boulevard, Belize City Belize 1911

Membership 3,041 Website [1] www.scoutsbelize.org

The Scout Association of Belize, the national Scouting organization of Belize, was founded in 1911, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1987. The coeducational Scout Association of Belize has 3,041 members as of 2011[2], with some 27 Scout groups located in six districts.

History
The oldest records found to date in England indicates that Scouting started in British Honduras in 1911 with two troops, 20 Scouts in total. The following year the numbers were one troop, three Scouters and 24 Scouts, a total of 27. The British Honduras Branch of The Scout Association was officially registered in 1917 with a census of eight Scouters, 113 Scouts and 59 Cubs, a total membership of 180. However, according to research undertaken by Hr. Leopold Flowers, former Executive Commissioner of the Belize Scout Association, and Mr. William Faux, presently Deputy Chief Commissioner, Scouting in Belize was started in 1910 when Mr. Henry Longsworth of St. John's Cathedral established a troop there. In 1915, Robin O. Phillips, an American Scout about 17 years old is said to have invested 20 young men as Scouts. This took place at Robin's home, then situated at the corner of Wilson Street and Barrack Road. When these Scouts were considered well trained, Robin's father approached Governor William Hart-Bennett to seek assistance and support for the Scout Movement. Governor Bennett then selected Mr. George Grabbam, then manager of the Belize Estate and Produce Company Ltd. Mr. Grabham in turn appointed as Scoutmasters to assist him Mr. Phillip Ely, a Mr. Wexham and Mr. Paul Shephard Berry, then the superintendent of the Belize Wireless Station. The movement flourished for about three to four years, then died when Mr. Grabham left Belize. Scouting was revived again in 1931 in the Belize City area, by Brother John Mark Jacoby, SJ, MBE, Professor of Mathematics at Saint John's College. Hundreds of boys, including many leading citizens, passed through the hands of 'Bra Jake', as he was affectionately known. For many years, Scouting revolved around activities held at the Holy Redeemer Scout room (the home of troops 1, 2 and 3) and at an annual summer camp at San Pedro, Ambergris Caye. In 1936 Scouting was introduced to the districts beginning with the Stann Creek District and eventually spreading to all the others. Since that time there has always been Scout activity in the country. The level of this activity has varied considerably over the years, depending largely on the extent of the movement's ability to attract and maintain committed voluntary leadership. In the late 1950s the Association acquired from the Government 100 acres (unknown operator: u'strong'km2) of land in the Burrell Boom area. Later named Camp Oakley, this site has been the venue for many national camps, training seminars and other Scout programs. In 1971, with the help of a grant from the Baron Bliss Trust, a concrete building was erected at the camp. Scouts from Belize have taken part in many international camps in the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America and the United States. In 1979, the Association embarked on a revitalization program which continues today.

The Scout Association of Belize The Scout Association of Belize exists by virtue of the Scout Association of Belize Act, 1987 passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate of Belize and assented to by the Governor General of Belize on January 25, 1988. Prior to that date, on December 15, 1987, having complied with the requirements of the Constitution of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, the World Scout Committee granted recognition to the Scout Association of Belize as a member organization and so registered the Association with the World Scout Bureau. On September 18, 1988 the InterAmerican Scout Committee certified The Scout Association of Belize as a member organization of the InterAmerican Conference. Hilberto B. Riverol has been National Executive for the Scout Association of Belize for many years and is by all means one of the greatest pillars of the movement in Belize. As National Executive he has been the lead active force in the growth of the movement and been at the head of dramatic changes in the movement, brought about by exciting programs which have generated and unprecedented growth in membership, an example being the Scouting in Schools which garnered the support of the Ministry of Education in Belize.

243

Awards and recognitions


The Highest Rank or Medal for a Belize Scout to achieve is the Queen's Scout Award. This achievement recognizes the hard work, dedication, sacrifice, knowledge and understanding of the Scouting ideals and principles. The award has had few recipients over the years making the circle of awardees only seven so far in its 99 year history: Marlon McNab (1st Holy Redeemer Scout Unit), Khendis Ellis (1st. Orange Walk Scout Group), Edguin Castellanos,(1st.Orange Walk Scout Group) Victoria Burgos, Nicholas Ruiz,Sean Usey, Lisette Ordonez (9th Belize St. Ignatius Scout Group) Victoria Burgos was the first female Scout in Belize to receive this highest award. The highest rank or medal for a Belize Scout Leader is the Silver Wolf. Those that have received the award include, Sir Colville Young GCMG, Governor General of Belize - Patron of Belize Scouts, Hilberto B. Riverol - National Scout Executive, Martha Sosa - Executive Secretary for the Scout Association. The membership badge of The Scout Association of Belize incorporates the coat of arms of Belize and the color scheme of the flag of Belize.

References
[1] http:/ / www. scoutsbelize. org [2] "Triennal review: Census as at 1 December 2010" (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 22261/ 199900/ file/ Census. pdf). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2011-01-13.

External links
Official homepage (http://www.scoutsbelize.org/)

The Scout Association of Bermuda

244

The Scout Association of Bermuda


The Scout Association of Bermuda
Location Country Membership Chief Scout Chief Commissioner P.O. Box DV 193, Devonshire DVBX Bermuda 392
[1]

H E George Fergusson Governor of Bermuda Geoffrey Rothwell Website


[2]

The Bermuda Scout Association operates as a branch of the United Kingdom Scout Association, due to Bermuda's status as a British Overseas Territory. The Bermudian Scout Oath and Law, as well as other Scouting requirements, closely follow that of the United Kingdom. Although the program activities are taken from the British system, Bermuda Scouting is geared to the local way of life. Training for Wood Badge and leader training are conducted with the help of British and nearby affiliated Scout associations. Bermuda Scouts participate in numerous camps and events, and Bermuda fields a contingent to World Scout Jamborees. The Scout emblem incorporates elements of the coat of arms of Bermuda. The Bermuda Scout Association is governed by a Chief Scout, a Chief Commissioner, and an executive committee. In May 2012, George Fergusson, Governor of Bermuda was appointed Chief Scout. In March 2012, Dr. Geoffrey Rothwell was named Chief Commissioner.

Programmes and activities


Both Cub Scout and Boy Scout programmes are offered. Bermuda Scouts in recent years have attended Scout summer camps in the United Kingdom as well as Pennsylvania and North Carolina in the United States. Visiting troops from the Boy Scouts of America have also been hosted at the Scout Association's Admiral House facility and grounds in 2002 and 2003. A popular Association-wide annual event is a weekend camporee on Darrell's Island. Another event is the "Budding Chef" activity, when Scouts compete in cooking skills.[3] A major island-wide event each year is the observance of Saint George's Day in April, honoring the patron saint of the Scouting movement.[4] As in the United Kingdom, troops participate in a parade on Front Street in Hamilton on the nearest Sunday to April 23 and attend a Scout service at one of Bermuda's churches, where a message from the Chief Scout is read and the Scout Hymn is sung. A "renewal of promise" then takes place where the Scouts renew the Scout's Promise made at joining and at all Scout meetings. The service concludes with the singing of God Save the Queen.[5]

History
When the Boy Scout Association was formed in Great Britain in 1910 by the grant of a charter by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Scouting began that same year in Bermuda as well, with the Governor of Bermuda serving as Chief Scout.[1] Robert Baden-Powell (the founder of Scouting and Guiding) and Olave Baden-Powell (influential leader of Guiding) visited Bermuda in 1930. Olave visited again in 1951 and 1954. The British contingent to the 14th World Scout Jamboree in 1975, led by Robert Baden-Powell, 3rd Baron Baden-Powell, included Scouts from

The Scout Association of Bermuda Branches in Bermuda, Hong Kong and Rhodesia. In 1993, the instrumental role of the Scout Association of Bermuda and Girlguiding Bermuda in developing many of the islands prominent leaders was recognized by the Bank of Bermuda Centennial Trust.[6] In 2004, Bermuda's Scouts participated in a 12-mile (unknown operator: u'strong'km) walk to raise money for the victims of Hurricane Ivan in the Caribbean.[7] The Category 5 storm caused extensive in Grenada, Jamaica, Grand Cayman, and Cuba. In 2006, five Bermuda Scouts travelled to Romania to work on a housing project for the impoverished people there, as part of a Bermuda Overseas Missions and Habitat for Humanity International joint effort.[8] To commemorate the 100th anniversary of Scouting's founding in the United Kingdom by Baden-Powell, the Bermuda Post Office issued a series of six "Scouting 2007 commemorative stamps", including scenes of Baden-Powell's visit to Bermuda in February, 1930. The stamps show Scouting's founder inspecting Cub Scouts on Front Street in Hamilton and reviewing Boy Scouts on parade there.[9]

245

References
[1] Overseas Branches of The Scout Association (http:/ / www. scoutbase. org. uk/ library/ hqdocs/ facts/ pdfs/ fs260014. pdf)PDF. Scout Information Centre. [2] http:/ / bermudascoutassociation. org/ about. html [3] Leonard Simons (2003-12-04). "Budding chefs put their best to the test" (http:/ / www. royalgazette. com/ siftology. royalgazette/ Article/ article. jsp?sectionId=80& articleId=7d3c21230030027). The Royal Gazette. . Retrieved 2008-09-26. [4] Sam Strangeways (2008-04-21). "Scouts gather for annual parade" (http:/ / www. royalgazette. com/ siftology. royalgazette/ Article/ article. jsp?sectionId=60& articleId=7d84a8d30030000). The Royal Gazette. . Retrieved 2008-09-26. [5] St. George's Day ProgrammeCathedral of the Most Holy Trinity, Bermuda Scout Association, 25 April 2004. [6] "Scouts and guides receive $100,000 gift" (http:/ / www. royalgazette. com/ rg/ Article/ article. jsp?sectionId=80& articleId=7c9880f30030015). The Royal Gazette. 16 August 1993. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. [7] "Scouts pound pavement for Ivan relief" (http:/ / www. royalgazette. com/ siftology. royalgazette/ Article/ article. jsp?sectionId=60& articleId=7d49a0e3003000e). The Royal Gazette. 2004-09-20. . Retrieved 2008-09-26. [8] Heather Wood (2006-07-14). "Budding chef Adio heads for Romania on building mission" (http:/ / www. royalgazette. com/ siftology. royalgazette/ Article/ article. jsp?sectionId=49& articleId=7d6770e30030050). The Royal Gazette. . Retrieved 2008-09-26. [9] Trott, Tari (27 August 2007). "New stamp issue commemorates Scouting" (http:/ / www. royalgazette. com/ rg/ Article/ article. jsp?sectionId=60& articleId=7d78daf30030009). The Royal Gazette. . Retrieved 2010-02-18.

The Scout Association of Dominica

246

The Scout Association of Dominica


The Scout Association of Dominica
Membership Chief Scout Chairman, Executive Committee Chief Scout Commissioner Website
[1]

1,100 Dr. Nicholas Liverpool Anthony Commodore Edward C. Henderson

The Scout Association of Dominica, the national Scouting organization of Dominica, was founded in 1929, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1990. The coeducational Scout Association of Dominica has 1,100 members as of 2004. Scouting is active mainly in the villages of this Caribbean island. Dominica's programs closely follow that of the United Kingdom. Dominica Scouts participate in many Caribbean camps, and hosted the 1994 Caribbean Jamboree.

References
[1] http:/ / www. webspawner. com/ users/ dcascouts/

The Scout Association of Guyana

247

The Scout Association of Guyana


The Scout Association of Guyana
Location Woolford Avenue, Nonpareil Park, Georgetown Country Guyana Website
[1]

The Scout Association of Guyana was founded in 1909, and joined the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1967. The association has 424 members (as of 2008).[2]

History
The Scout Association of Guyana was founded in 1909 in what was then British Guiana under the leadership of Sergeant Major George Manly, a member of the British Regiment stationed there. The first Scout Troop was formed at Queen's College. The movement spread rapidly, with Troops being attached chiefly to Church schools. There were few open Troops in the beginning, but one which flourished was Troop 39. It was the first Troop to make the overland journey to Kaieteur Falls. This Troop produced some of Guyana's finest Scout Leaders - including two Chief Commissioners, D.B. St. Aubyn and Lawrence Thompson, and 4 Assistant Chief Commissioners for Cub Scouts. Scouting spread from the county of Demerara to the county of Berbice, where a renowned Troop, Lady Davson's Own, was formed. Scouting emerged in the county of Essequibo in the 1940s with Troops mostly attached to Church Schools. A troop was started at Onderneeming Boys' Reformatory in Suddie. Sam Cummings, an instructor at the School, was the first Scout Leader, followed by the Headmaster, a Mr Kissoon. There were a few Troops and Packs in the Pomeroon and Rupununi districts. For many of these Troops the departure of the BG Scout Leaders 1954 resident Priest meant closure of the Troop. A Troop was run by Canon John Dorman, a Gilwellian at Kamarang, Upper Mazaruni, catering mainly for Amerindian boys. Another prominent Troop is St Stanislaus College Troop, catering for Roman Catholic boys before the school became co-educational. Among its leaders is Father Bernard Darke, S.J., a Gilwellian who made a great contribution to Scouting in Guyana before his death. As well as running the Troop he was a member of the Training Team and served on the Executive Committee. The Scout Association of Guyana joined the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1967. Guyana was able to boast of Land, Sea and Air Scouts and Rovers in the 1960s. Sea and Air Scouts no longer exist. Scouting in Guyana was probably at its peak around 1969 when their Diamond Jubilee was celebrated and the 3rd Caribbean Jamboree was held there in August. In 1974 the government formed the Guyana National Service, a compulsory youth organization. This affected the Scout Movement's numbers. Some leaders joined the National Service where they were paid. While there was no ban on Scouting during this period the movement was obliged to keep a low profile. With changes in the political situation came renewed support for Scouting in the 1980s.

The Scout Association of Guyana To obtain the highest rank in Guyana, a Scout must pass the normal proficiency tests, and, in addition, must be able to obtain badges in agriculture, which prepares each Scout to feed himself from his own produce.

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Leader training
Many of the Anglican and Roman Catholic priests who came from England to serve in Guyana were Gilwell Scouters, including the late Archbishop of the West Indies, Dr Alan John Knight, who served on the Colony Scout Council for many years and welcomed the Cub Pack from St Gabriel's School, Convent of the Good Shepherd, who held their meetings on the lawn of his residence, Austin House, for many years. A lack of official trainers in Guyana had Scouters train at Paxdale, Trinidad for many years. Brian Fox, seconded from England in the 1950s spent about three years training leaders and expanding Scouting. It was in this time that British Guiana's Scout Training Team was formed.

Basic Practical Course for Leaders, Georgetown, Guyana - January 1971

Presidents
Presidents of the Scout Association have included: Justice E. Hewick (1910) Hon Geo. Garnett, CMG (1911) Sir Alfred P Sherlock (1913) Colonel WE Clarke (1918) Colonel Cecil May (1919) Colonel FH Blackwood, DSO (1925) Hon Hector Josephs, KC (1926) Admiral FC Fisher (1929) Rev Canon JT Robert, REA (1930) Prof J Sydney Dash (1937) LG Crease (1942) Capt H Nobbs, OBE (1950)

Commissioners
Early Commissioners were referred to as District Commissioners. In 1920 their title was changed to Colony Commissioner. Commissioners of the Scout Association have included: Capt LD Cleare (1913) HW Sconce (1919) Major William Bain-Gray (Director of Education) (1925) Rev C Norman (1926) Hon C Douglas-Jones, CMG (Colonial Secretary) (1929) Capt R Patrick (Director of Education Acting) (1929) Capt F Burnett (1930) JD Gillespie (1931)

The Scout Association of Guyana Fred T Weston (1941) John R Durey, MBE (Awarded Silver Acorn) (1942) DB St Aubyn, MBE (1952)

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Cub Scouts
Cubbing in Guyana started in 1926, the first pack being St Barnabas Anglican Church, under the leadership of Mr Braithwaite. The first ACC Cubs was Mrs Isadora Walton, Cubmaster of Pack 39, who did a great deal to spread this section of the Movement. The first Guyanese Cubmaster to be trained at Gilwell was Evelyn St Aubyn who succeeded Isadora Walton as ACC Cubs around 1938. George Manly's granddaughter, Daphne Manly, ran Pack 39 for many years.

40th Anniversary of Cubbing


A special program of activities was planned for the 40th Anniversary of Cubbing in Guyana. On 17 April 1966 over 200 Cubs spent the day at Camp Jubilee observing Cub Day. Clement Gomes and the Camp Jubilee staff assisted Pack Scouters. Communion services were held on arrival in both Anglican and Roman Catholic chapels, and were well attended. On 20 August Packs held a campfire at Scout Headquarters to raise funds for the Blind Association. Michael Pereira arranged the program. The campfire was well attended and raised $108.50. On 2 October a party of Old Wolves spent the day at Camp Jubilee. Three yellow cassia trees were planted by CC Lewis, E. Reece and Elsie Taylor in commemoration of the 40th Anniversary. On 30 October Thanksgiving services were held at Main Street Catholic Church and Christ Church (Anglican). On 26 November the Annual Play Acting Competition was held at Scout Headquarters. The Cup, presented by its donor, Mr. LB Thompson, was won by St Francis Pack. On 9 December Old Wolves entertained Mr. George Mitchell in the Cub Den. Mr. Mitchell expressed his pleasure at seeing the Den, whose sod he had turned on his previous visit in 1963.

Census
1987: 341 Scouts, 125 Cubs and 49 Leaders 2001: 399 members 2008: 424 members [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. solutions2000. net/ scouting/ index. html [2] "Triennial Report 2005-2008" (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 11615/ 94838/ file/ Triennial_Report_EN. pdf) (PDF). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2008-07-13.

The Scout Association of Jamaica

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The Scout Association of Jamaica


The Scout Association of Jamaica
The Scout emblem incorporates the coat of arms of Jamaica

Location Country Membership

2D, Camp Road, Kingston 5 Jamaica 2,539 Sir Patrick Allen Website
http:/ / jascouts. tripod. com/

The Scout Association of Jamaica, the national Scouting organization of Jamaica, was founded in 1910, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1963. The coeducational Scout Association of Jamaica has 2,539 members in 18 districts as of 2011.[1] In 1952, The First Caribbean Jamboree was held in Jamaica. In 1965, Jamaica's Leslie R. Mordecai was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting. Other honorees include Donald A. Fitz-Ritson in 1973. Community service is a major part of Jamaican Scouting. There are camps held for disadvantaged youngsters, literacy campaigns, cleanups, tree planting and relief work during natural disasters. The Governor General of Jamaica, Sir Patrick Allen is now the Chief Scout of Jamaica. Sir Patrick was invested by the Scout Association of Jamaica at a ceremony at King's House on September 4, 2009. Mr. Carlton Thompson is the International Commissioner of the Scout Association of Jamaica.

History
1910- Scouting came to Jamaica with the first troop being started in Brown's Town, St. Ann, by the Rev. J.W. Graham. 1911 - First troop to be formed in Kingston was started by Mr. Harry Mills. Mr. D. L. Stephenson started Wolmer's Boys' School Troop. 1912 - First St. Catherine troop started by Mr. F.H. Messias in Spanish Town. Lord Robert Baden-Powell, who was then the Commonwealth Chief Scout, visited Jamaica. It was on his voyage to Jamaica that he met his wife, Olave Soames. 1913 - Jamaica Branch of the Boy Scout Association was registered. Captain Langley became the first Island Commissioner. The Island Camp was held at Clovelly Park on what are now the grounds of Kingston College. 1920 - The Association became the Boy Scout Association of Jamaica. 1925 - A contingent of Scouts from Jamaica was sent to the Olympia Jamboree in England, and has had representatives at every World Jamboree since then. 1952 - Jamaica hosted the first Caribbean Jamboree at Briggs Park (now Up Park Camp). 1958 - The Scout Headquarters was established at its present address, 2d Camp Road, Kingston. Scout Headquarters was established at its present address, 2d Camp Road, Kingston. Prior to this the headquarters was housed on the Doncaster Lands, by the sea in Kingston.

The Scout Association of Jamaica 1977 - 6th Caribbean Jamboree was held at UWI, Mona, Jamaica 1985 - Fifth Pan American Jamboree was held in Jamaica ( G.C. Foster College) 2006 - Jamaica hosted the 13th Caribbean Jamboree (Natures Way, Portland) The Boy Scout Association of Jamaica had three Island Commissioners: 1932 - Noel Crosswell 1940 - Mr. H.D. Tucker 1949 - Mr. D.S. A. Fitz-Ritson While Mr. Fitz-Ritson was in office the title "Island Commissioner" was changed to "Chief Commissioner" and since then there have been five Chief Commissioners: 1979 - Mr. James Lloyd 1979 - Brig. Dunstan Robinson 1986 - Mr. Vincent Rose 1994 - Mr. Richard Chambers 1998 - Dr Edward Lee Stanford Davis 2007 - Rev. Barrington Soares

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References
[1] "Triennal review: Census as at 1 December 2010" (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 22261/ 199900/ file/ Census. pdf). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2011-01-13.

The Scout Association of Saint Kitts and Nevis

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The Scout Association of Saint Kitts and Nevis


The Scout Association of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Location Country P.O. Box 15, Basseterre Saint Kitts and Nevis Bernadette Dolphin

The Scout Association of Saint Kitts and Nevis operates as a branch of the United Kingdom Scout Association, due to Saint Kitts and Nevis' former affiliation to the United Kingdom. The Saint Kitts and Nevis Scout Oath and Law, as well as other Scouting requirements, closely follow that of the United Kingdom. Scouting was founded on the islands in 1928 by Reverend W.A. Beckett. Although the program activities are taken from the British system, Saint Kitts and Nevis Scouting is geared to the Caribbean way of life. Training for Wood Badge and leader training are conducted with the help of British and nearby Caribbean Scout associations. Saint Kitts and Nevis Scouts participate in numerous Caribbean camps and events. Presently, five Scout groups are in operation on Saint Kitts-the Saint Georges Scout Group, Sandy Point Scout Group, Newton Ground Scout Group, Verchild's Scout Group and the newest Irishtown Primary School Scout Group.[1] Bernadette Dolphin was key for the development of the Scout movement on Saint Kitts. She became the first female Chief Scout Commissioner in Latin America and the Caribbean Region in the late 1990s, and still holds the office to date. Traditionally, Founder's Day is observed with a combination of three events, a march through the streets of Basseterre, church service and luncheon.[2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. sknvibes. com/ News/ NewsDetails. cfm/ 8692 [2] http:/ / www. sknvibes. com/ News/ NewsDetails. cfm/ 8658

http://www.stkittstourism.kn/DiscoverStKitts/This_Months_Kittitian_march.asp

The Scout Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

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The Scout Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines


The Scout Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Location Country Membership Affiliation Kingstown Saint Vincent 549 World Organization of the Scout Movement

The Scout Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the national Scouting organization of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Scouting in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines started in 1911 and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) in 1990. The coeducational association has 549 members (as of 2010).[1]

History
Scouting in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines started in 1911 as an overseas branch of The Scout Association (UK). After the independence of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 1979, the national association worked towards the recognition by WOSM, which was received in 1990. Scouts are active in regional activities, and have participated in the last few Caribbean Jamborees.

Program and ideals


The association is divided in three age-groups: Cub Scouts (ages 7 to 11) Scouts (ages 12 to 15) Rover Scouts (ages 16 to 20) The membership badge of the Scout Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines incorporates elements of the coat of arms and the palm leaf of the previous flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

References
[1] "Some statistics" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ around_the_world/ countries/ national_scout_organisations/ some_statistics). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2010-03-30.

World Organization of the Scout Movement (1990), Scouting 'Round the World. 1990 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0

The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago

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The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago


The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago
National Crest

Age range Headquarters Country Founded Founder Membership Chief Scout National Scout Commissioner President Affiliation

100 years 1 St. Ann's Road, St. Ann's, Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago February 22nd 1911 Rev. Stephen Doorley 5,234 George Maxwell Richards Azammuddin Khan Justice Anthony Lucky World Organization of the Scout Movement Website [1] www.ttscouts.org

The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago is the national Scouting organization of Trinidad and Tobago. Scouting was founded in Trinidad and Tobago in 1911 and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1963. The association has 5,234 members (as of 2011).[2] The Chief Scout is President George Maxwell Richards.

Program and ideals


Cubs-ages 7 to 11 Scouts-ages 11 to 15 Venturers-ages 15 to 19 As an island nation, there is also a Sea Scout section. The national emblem of the Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago incorporates the coat of arms of Trinidad and Tobago.

Organization
National Scout Council
The Highest organ in the Association is the National Scout Council. The Council is headed by the President of the Association. The current President is Mr. Justice Anthony Lucky.

Executive Committee
The Executive Committee consists of the National Scout Commissioner, his deputies, Headquarters Commissioners, Executive Commissionner, the president and vice-presidents of the association and other persons elected by the National Scout Council. National Scout Commissioner: Mr. Azamuddin Khan There are four Deputy National Scout Commissioners each responsible for a division of the Association.

The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago DNSC(Operations) - Mr. Vivian Kangalee DNSC(Programme) - Mr. Lalman Nanan DNSC(Adult Resources & Training) - Mr. Roger Berkeley DNSC(Planning & Development) - Mr. Terrance Ceasar Executive Commissioner- Mr. Courtney Bruce International Commissioner- Mr. Michael Bradshaw There are also Headquarters Commissioners(HQC's) responsible for Communications; Expansion; Cub Scouts; Scouts; Venture Scouts; Sea Scouts Headquarters Commissioner (Cub Scouts): Ms Marlene Griffith Headquarters Commissioner (Scouts): Mr Surujdeo Ramcharan Headquarters Commissioner (Venture Scouts): Mr Kevern Subran

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Zones
The Association is divided into six zones which are further divided into a total of 21 districts. Each District is headed by a District Commissioner reporting to the Zonal commissioner who in turn reports to DNSC (Operations). North-West: Zonal Commissioner - Mr David Phillip Diego Martin (DC - Angela Celestine); Port Of Spain (DC - Ms Venice Hayes); Morvant/Laventille (DC - Ms Jasmine Jacob) North-Central: Zonal Commissioner Arima/Arouca (DC - Ms Macrina Matooram); Chaguanas (DC - Mr Latchmedath Singh); San Juan (DC - Ms Patricia Peterson); St. Joseph/Tunapuna (DC - Mr Terrence Garcia);

North-East: Zonal Commissioner - Ms Lena Quildon Toco (DC - ); Sangre Grande (DC - Mr Ian McCarthy); South-Central: Zonal Commissioner - Mr Lynley Lutchmedial Couva; Pointe-a-Pierre; Princes Town; San Fernando [3] (DC - Mr Lynley Lutchmedial); Mayaro/Rio Claro;

The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago South-West: Zonal Commissioner - Mr Gabriel Kokaram Cedras; La Brea; Naparima; Siparia/Erin; Point Fortin;

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Tobago: Zonal Commissioner - Mrs. Audris Balfour Leeward(DC - Mr Lincoln Nelson); Windward (DC - Mr Samuel Eastman)

Scout Motto
Be Prepared

Scout Oath
I promise to do my best to do my duty to God to serve my country to help other people and to keep the scout law

Awards
The Scout Association has various categories of awards which are presented annually by the Chief Scout at President's House.

Awards for Long Service Awards for Gallantry Awards for Good Service

11th Caribbean Cuboree


The 11th Caribbean Cuboree was held from the 1421 July 2007. Around 1300 Cub Scouts attended from 12 countries.

References
[1] http:/ / www. ttscouts. org [2] "Triennal review: Census as at 1 December 2010" (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 22261/ 199900/ file/ Census. pdf). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2011-01-13. [3] http:/ / www. sanfernandoscouts. ning. com/ san

information provided by Roger Berkeley and the First Trinidad Sea Scouts

William Alexander Smith (Boys' Brigade)

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William Alexander Smith (Boys' Brigade)


Sir William Alexander Smith (27 October 1854 10 May 1914), the founder of the Boys' Brigade, was born in Pennyland House, Thurso, Scotland. He was the eldest son of Major David Smith and his wife Harriet. He and his siblings formed a family of three sons and one daughter.

Education
As a boy, William Smith was educated at the Miller Instituition, known as the Thurso Academy. Following his father's death, his family moved to Glasgow. In early January 1869, William Smith became a pupil in a private school, The Western Educational Institution, more widely known as Burns and Sutherlands School. In this first and only term there, he took seven prizes. His time in the institution was short-lived as he ended his school days late in May, at the age of fourteen and a half.

William Smith memorial plaque in St. Giles, Edinburgh

Nonetheless, Smith did not cease his education altogether. His writings in a notebook indicated that he continued to take French classes after joining his uncle's business.

Late Adolescence and Adulthood


In October 1869, a few days before he became fifteen, William Smith entered his uncles business. Alex. Fraser & Co. were wholesale dealers in soft goods, shawls being one of their chief market. He later joined the 1st Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers, part of the local Volunteer Force, and at the age of 19, he was promoted to the rank of Lance-Corporal. He also joined the Church of Scotland in that same year. Smith was commissioned into the Rifle Volunteers in 1877 and promoted to Lieutenant later the same year. He also became a Sunday School teacher. It was a combination of these two activities that led him to start the Boys' Brigade on 4 October 1883 at Free Church Mission Hall, North Woodside Road, Glasgow. In 1909 he was knighted by King Edward VII for his services to children. He also eventually reached the rank of Major in the Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers. He died on 10 May 1914 and was buried in Glasgow. There is a memorial stone in honour of him in St. Paul's Cathedral, London, and in St. Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh.

External links
The Development of Muscular Christianity in Victorian Britain and Beyond [1] Memorial stone at Saint Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh [2]

References
[1] http:/ / moses. creighton. edu/ jrs/ 2005/ 2005-2. html [2] http:/ / www. bing. com/ images/ search?q=edinburgh+ war+ memorial& FORM=BIFD#focal=61929dae24383f03b8e7154c6b6bf08a& furl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. alexandercarrick. webeden. co. uk%2Fcommunities%2F2%2F004%2F005%2F534%2F752%2Fimages%2F4514225465. jpg

World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts

258

World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts


World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts
Country Founded Founder Membership Chairman 145 countries worldwide 1928 Robert Baden-Powell 10 million Margaret Treloar Website
http:/ / www. wagggs. org/

The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) is a global association supporting the female-oriented and female-only Guiding and Scouting organizations in 145 countries. It was established in 1928 and has its headquarters in London, England. It is the counterpart of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM). WAGGGS is organized into five regions and operates four international Guiding centers. Full member status is held in the European Youth Forum (YFJ) which operates within the Council of Europe and European Union areas and works closely with both these bodies.

Mission
The mission of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts is to enable girls and young women to develop their fullest potential as responsible citizens of the world. WAGGGS provides a high quality non-formal educational program that provides dynamic, flexible and values-based training in life skills, leadership and decision making. It also offers projects and programs at an international level that enable Girl Guides and Girl Scouts to be responsible world citizens through action and activity in the community. The mission of WAGGGS is achieved with its member organizations. The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts is an organization run by women for girls and young women. Girl Guides and Girl Scouts are trained in leadership and decision-making, and are encouraged to participate in the governance and leadership of WAGGGS. Each individual unit is democratically run with Girl Guides and Girl Scouts actively involved in leadership and in decision making. Girl Guiding/Girl Scouting is open to all girls and young women without distinction of creed, race, nationality, or any other circumstance. The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts believes that the education of girls, as well as the education of boys, includes education for equal partnership. Young men and young women are taught to recognize their differences and their similarities, and to respect each other as individuals. Girl Guiding/Girl Scouting is a voluntary organisation that relies on over 100,000 volunteers around the world to implement programs for Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, and to give girls and young women support and leadership. There are over 10 million Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 145 countries. Girl Guides and Girl Scouts from around the world can meet each other at international events at one of the four World Centers. There are many opportunities to attend international events run by the United Nations or other non-governmental organizations on behalf of the Association. The WOSM is the non-governmental organization (NGO), that represents the Scouting movement at the United Nations.[1] The WOSM and WAGGGS both have General Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council ECOSOC of the United Nations.[2]

World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts

259

Educational
Girl Guiding/Girl Scouting is based on a core set of values that are found in the Girl Guide/Girl Scout Promise and Law. Each Girl Guide and Girl Scout promises to do her best to her faith and to others, and in so doing she realizes her fullest potential as a responsible citizen. Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting uses non-formal educational methods. Non-formal education is organized educational activity outside schools and colleges. The key components of non-formal education are that: Young people can develop life skills and attitudes based on an integrated value system based on the Promise and Law. Young people learn from their peer group. Young people learn through activities and practical programs that are created by young people for young people Young people volunteer to join non-formal education organizations that are led also by volunteers that ensure commitment and maximum learning. Young people learn by progressive self-development through: Learning by doing, Teamwork though the patrol system and training for responsible leadership, and Active cooperation between young people and adults. Each Guide/Girl Scout defines her own progress and development according to her needs and aspirations within the framework program provided. This contrasts with many formal education systems where young people must fit themselves into a rigid structure with little recognition of individual needs and differences. The Girl Guide/Girl Scout method is the specific way that the leadership works with girls and young women to achieve the mission of WAGGGS. It is an integrated approach with certain key elements: The Girl Guiding/Girl Scouting method can be used equally effectively with girls of all ages, abilities and backgrounds. In his book "Girl Guiding," Lord Baden-Powell (1918) wrote: "Our method of training is to educate from within rather than to instruct from without; to offer games and activities which, while being attractive to the girl, will seriously educate her morally, mentally and physically." Many Girl Guides and Girl Scouts end up becoming leading politicians, writers, businesswomen, and leaders. Senator Hillary Clinton (United States Senate), the Rt. Hon Dr. Marjorie Mowlam MP (politician in the United Kingdom), Roberta Bondar Ph.D., MD (first Canadian woman astronaut), and Betty Okwir (leading politician in Uganda) are just a few former and current Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. In 1965, Dame Leslie Whateley of the then-Girl Guides World Bureau was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting.

History
Girl Guides were formed in 1910 by Robert Baden-Powell, with the assistance of his sister Agnes Baden-Powell. After his marriage in 1912, his wife Olave Baden-Powell took a leading role in the development of Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting. As the movement spread, independent national Guiding associations were set up; however, a need for international cooperation was felt. Lady Baden-Powell founded an informal International Council in London in February 1918. At the fourth World Conference held at Camp Edith Macy in 1926, representatives from several countries suggested the formation of a World Association to take the place of the informal International Council. After the 1926 International Conference the Baden-Powells were approached about setting up a formal association and in 1928 the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts was founded.[3] Rose Kerr was Vice Chairman, later Commissioner for Tenderfoot Countries. From 1930 to 1939 WAGGGS occupied a room at the headquarters of the British Girl Guide Association, until it moved to 9 Palace Street, next door to Our Ark.

World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts In 1920, two leaders from each known Guide country were invited to the British County Commissioners Conference held at Saint Hugh's College, Oxford. This became known as the First International Conference. The 13th World Conference was held in the same college in 1950. The member organizations continue to meet every three years (initially every two years) at World Conferences.[4]

260

List of Directors/Chief Executives


Dame Katharine Furse (19261936) - First director Arethusa Leigh-White (1937-1946) Winnifred Kydd (1947-1948) Elizabeth Fry (Acting Director 1948-1949) M.E. Home (1949-1950) Dame Leslie Whateley (19511964) Joyce Price (19751981) Lesley Bulman-Lever (19972006) Mary Mc Phail (2007)

List of World Conferences


1. 1920 - first International Conference - Oxford, England 2. 1922 - second International Conference - Cambridge, England 3. 1924 - third International Conference - Foxlease, United Kingdom 4. 1926 - fourth International Conference - Camp Edith Macy, New York, United States 5. 1928 - fifth International Conference - Pard, Hungary - WAGGGS was formed at this Conference 6. 1930 - sixth World Conference - Foxlease, Hampshire, England 7. 1932 - seventh World Conference - Bucze, Poland 8. 1934 - eighth World Conference - Adelboden, Switzerland 9. 1936 - ninth World Conference - Stockholm, Sweden 10. 1938 - tenth World Conference - Adelboden, Switzerland 11. 1946 - 11th World Conference - Evian, France 12. 1948 - 12th World Conference - Cooperstown, New York, United States 13. 1950 - 13th World Conference - Oxford, England 14. 1952 - 14th World Conference - Dombs, Norway 15. 1954 - 15th World Conference - Zeist, The Netherlands 16. 1957 - 16th World Conference - Petrpolis, Brazil 17. 1960 - 17th World Conference - Athens, Greece 18. 1963 - 18th World Conference - Nyborg, Denmark 19. 1966 - 19th World Conference - Tokyo, Japan 20. 1969 - 20th World Conference - Otaniemi, Finland 21. 1972 - 21st World Conference - Toronto, Canada 22. 1975 - 22nd World Conference - Sussex, England 23. 1978 - 23rd World Conference - Tehran, Iran 24. 1981 - 24th World Conference - Orlans, France 25. 1984 - 25th World Conference - Tarrytown, New York, United States 26. 1987 - 26th World Conference - Njoro, Kenya 27. 1990 - 27th World Conference - Singapore 28. 1993 - 28th World Conference - Nyborg, Denmark 29. 1996 - 29th World Conference - Wolfville, Nova Scotia Canada 30. 1999 - 30th World Conference - Dublin, Ireland

World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts 31. 32. 33. 34. 2002 - 31st World Conference - Manila, Philippines 18-24 June 2005 - 32nd World Conference - Amman, Jordan 2008 - 33rd World Conference - Johannesburg, South Africa 6 - 12 July 2011 - 34th World Conference - Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom[5] 11-15 July

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Planned World Conferences scheduled to be held in 1940 and 1942 were cancelled due to World War II.

Organization
WAGGGS consists of national Member Organizations who are run independently but agree to abide by the WAGGGS constitution. The national Member Organizations are split into five regions. The member organizations in turn elect the World Board, originally the World Committee, which governs the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. It is made up of 17 active volunteer members from around the world who are democratically elected by all Member Organizations and include the Chairs from each of the five WAGGGS regions. In addition there is the permanent staff of the World Bureau based in London and headed by the WAGGGS Chief Executive (formerly Director of the World Bureau). Every three years representatives from the member states meet in a World Conference to discuss and vote on policy. Each WAGGGS Member Organization chooses how it believes it can best promote these goals, taking into account its culture and the needs of its young people. Some choose to work with girls alone in a single sex environment in order to break down stereotypes and to give girls and young women the confidence to take their place in society. Other Member Organizations prefer to work with mixed groups to enable young women and young men equal partnership within their units. Some Organizations choose to mix co-educational and single sex approaches according the age and the preferences of the young people.

World Regions
The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts has five regions: Europe, Arab, Africa, Asia and Western Hemisphere.

World Centres
WAGGGS operates four World Centres that offer training programmes, activities and lodging for The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts has offices in five regional girls and leaders, as well as members divisions: WAGGGS-Europe RegionWAGGGS-Arab RegionWAGGGS-Africa of some other groups and independent RegionWAGGGS-Asia Pacific RegionWAGGGS-Western Hemisphere RegionThere travellers. Activities are primarily is no WAGGGS Region corresponding to the World Organization of the Scout Movement Eurasian Region; post-Soviet nations are divided between the WAGGGS-Europe Region focused on international friendship and and the WAGGGS-Asia Pacific Regiongrey areas such as Laos and Cuba have no cooperation, personal development and Scouting leadership training, enjoyment and service. The Friends of the Four World Centres [6] organisation supports and promotes the centres. The four World Centres are: Our Chalet, in Adelboden, Switzerland; opened in 1932. Pax Lodge, in Hampstead, London, England; current location opened in 1990. It is actually London's third World Centre; the first was Our Ark, opened in 1937, which was renamed Olave House on its 25th anniversary. Our Cabaa, in Cuernavaca, Mexico; opened in 1957.

World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Sangam, in Pune, Maharashtra, India; opened in 1966.

262

Symbolism of the World trefoil


The three leaves represent the three duties and the three parts of the promise, the two five point-stars stand for the promise and the law and the vein in the centre represents the compass needle showing the right way. The base of the trefoil stands for the flame of the love of humanity and the colours blue and gold represent the sun shining over all children in the world.[7]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] World Scouting and the United Nations (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ content/ pdf/ 2116) WAGGGS and the UN (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ issues/ wagggs_and_un) History of WAGGGS (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ about/ About/ History) World Conference (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ about/ About/ governance/ worldconference) "34th World Conference" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ 34WorldConference). World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. . Retrieved 12 July 2011. [6] http:/ / www. worldcentrefriends. co. uk/ [7] "The World Trefoil" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ resources/ photos/ 54). . Retrieved March 30, 2006.

Scouting Round the World, John S. Wilson, first edition, Blandford Press 1959 page 203.

External links
Olave Baden-Powell Society (http://www.ob-ps.org/) WAGGGS Web Ring (http://q.webring.com/hub?ring=wagggs) Differences in Fundamental Principles of WOSM and WAGGGS (http://www.ppoe.at/scoutdocs/ relationships/wagggs_wosm_rel.pdf) World Guiding (http://worldguiding.net/)

World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood

263

World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood


World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood
Country Founder International Professor Yongyudh Vajaradul

Chairman Professor Yongyudh Vajaradul [1]

The World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood (WBSB) is an autonomous, international body committed to promoting and supporting Buddhism within Scouting. The WBSB began as a means to facilitate religious activities among Buddhist Scouts. The WBSB was declared active with the election of its chairman on July 21, 2004, and received consultative status with the World Scout Committee at the WSC meeting on March 9, 2009. The World Scout Committee's guidelines indicate that at least three years is required to fulfill the requirements before consultative status may be granted.[2]

Objectives
The official objectives of WBSB are:[3] To develop and promote the spirit of brotherhood and understanding among Scouts of the Buddhist faith. To develop an education curriculum that should enhance the spiritual dimension in the personalities of young Buddhists in accordance with the purpose, principles and method of the Scout Movement. To promote relations between Scouting and local Buddhists. To introduce Scouting in such states or areas where Buddhism is established. To co-ordinate the activities of WBSB with non-Scout Organizations having parallel objectives. To motivate co-operation among WBSB members. To motivate and promote Scouting among Buddhist boys and girls on a global basis. To promote contacts, exchanges and interactions with the Scouts of other faiths.

Membership
Members of the WBSB include Bhutan, Hong Kong, Japan, Mongolia, Republic of China (Taiwan), Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Thailand and the United Kingdom.[3]

Activities
2007
At the 21st World Scout Jamboree at Hylands Park in the UK, the WBSB ran the Buddhist Tent in the Faith and Belief Zone (FAB). A large statue of the Buddha, a gift from the National Scout Organization of Thailand to celebrate the Centenary of Scouting and the 80th birthday of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. The statue is named Prabuddha Prathanporn Loka-satawassa-nusorn and now sits in the Buddha Sala at Gilwell Park in London and replaces the statue given to the Scout Association in 1967. The activities included making an origami Lotus, making prayer flags, sewing Buddhist neckerchiefs and meditating. On Sunrise Day, a Buddhist celebration on one of the subcamp stages was attended by over 1000 Scouts. As well as Lama Gankhuyag Magsarjav representing Vajrayana Buddhism, Ven. Ming Kuang from Taiwan represented Mahayana Buddhism and Ven. Chao Khun Bhavanaviteht (Luangpor Khemadhammo) OBE represented Theravada

World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood Buddhism. The Heart Sutra was read in Chinese and Tibetan and talks on Buddhism were given and translated into French.

264

2008
WBSB members from the United Kingdom ran the Buddhist tent in the Faith and Belief Zone at the National Irish Jamboree. Scouts made prayer flags, incense sticks, sand mandalas and practiced meditation.

2009
WBSB members from Mongolia and the United Kingdom organised a service project for the UK Scout Network and Mongolian Rover Scouts at the Manzushir Khiid ( ) temple in the town of Dzuunmod which is 43km south of Ulaanbaatar. The temple replaces the large monastery of the same name which was destroyed by the Mongolian communist government in 1937. 82 Scouts spent a week repainting the temple and a large sum of money was also donated to the temple to help improve the facilities.

References
[1] http:/ / my. opera. com/ Luangpor/ albums/ [2] "WOSM: CIRCULAR N 2/2006 - Meeting of the World Scout Committee, Geneva, Switzerland, November 2005" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ content/ download/ 2818/ 27813/ file/ C0602WSC_e. pdf). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2008-03-21. [3] "World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ about_scouting/ partners/ interreligious/ wbsb). World Organization of the Scout Movement. . Retrieved 2008-03-21.

External links
WBSB Official Site (http://www.wbsb.info) http://www.foresthermitage.org.uk/nlaug07.pdf

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World Organization of the Scout Movement


World Organization of the Scout Movement
World Organization of the Scout Movement

Headquarters Country Founded Founder Membership Secretary General World Scout Committee Chairman Website

Geneva, Switzerland worldwide 1920 Robert Baden-Powell 31 million tba Simon Hang-Bock Rhee

http:/ / www. scout. org

The World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) is the non-governmental international organization which governs most national Scout Organizations, with 31 million members. WOSM was established in 1920, and has its headquarters at Geneva, Switzerland. It is the counterpart of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS). The mission of WOSM is to contribute to the education of young people, through a value system based on the Scout Promise and Scout Law, to help build a better world where people are self-fulfilled as individuals and play a constructive role in society.[1] WOSM is organized into regions and operates with a conference, committee and bureau.

World Scout Conference


The World Scout Conference (WSC) is the governing body and meets every three years, preceded by the World Scout Youth Forum. The World Scout Conference is the general assembly of Scouting and is composed of six delegates from each of the member Scout associations. If a country has more than one association, the associations form a federation for coordination and world representation. The basis for recognition and membership in the World Scout Conference includes adherence to the aims and principles of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, and independence from political involvement on the part of each member association.[2] The Conference meets every three years and is hosted by a member association. At the World Scout Conference basic cooperative efforts are agreed upon and a plan of mutual coordination is adopted. The Conference directed the move of the World Scout Bureau from Ottawa, Canada to Geneva on May 1, 1968.[3]

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266

Date

Number London Paris

Location

Country

Member Countries

1920 First World Scout Conference 1922 Second World Scout Conference 1924 Third World Scout Conference 1926 Fourth World Scout Conference 1929 Fifth World Scout Conference 1931 Sixth World Scout Conference

United Kingdom 33 France Denmark Switzerland 32 34 29

Copenhagen Kandersteg Birkenhead Baden bei Wien

United Kingdom 33 Austria Hungary Sweden Netherlands 44 31 28 34

1933 Seventh World Scout Conference Gdll 1935 Eighth World Scout Conference 1937 Ninth World Scout Conference 1939 10th World Scout Conference 1947 11th World Scout Conference 1949 12th World Scout Conference 1951 13th World Scout Conference 1953 14th World Scout Conference 1955 15th World Scout Conference 1957 16th World Scout Conference 1959 17th World Scout Conference 1961 18th World Scout Conference 1963 19th World Scout Conference 1965 20th World Scout Conference 1967 21st World Scout Conference 1969 22nd World Scout Conference 1971 23rd World Scout Conference 1973 24th World Scout Conference 1975 25th World Scout Conference 1977 26th World Scout Conference 1979 27th World Scout Conference 1981 28th World Scout Conference 1983 29th World Scout Conference 1985 30th World Scout Conference 1988 31st World Scout Conference 1990 32nd World Scout Conference 1993 33rd World Scout Conference 1996 34th World Scout Conference 1999 35th World Scout Conference 2002 36th World Scout Conference 2005 37th World Scout Conference 2008 38th World Scout Conference Stockholm The Hague Edinburgh Chteau de Rosny-sur-Seine Elvesaeter Salzburg Vaduz Niagara Falls, Ontario Cambridge New Delhi Lisbon Rhodes Mexico City Seattle Otaniemi Tokyo Nairobi Lundtoft Montreal Birmingham Dakar Dearborn Munich Melbourne Paris Sattahip Oslo Durban Thessaloniki Hammamet Jeju-do

United Kingdom 27 France Norway Austria Liechtenstein Canada 27 25 34 35 44

United Kingdom 52 India Portugal Greece Mexico United States Finland Japan Kenya Denmark Canada 35 50 52 59 70 64 71 77 87 81

United Kingdom 81 Senegal United States West Germany Australia France Thailand Norway South Africa Greece Tunisia South Korea 108 116 126 122 150 74 90 93 77

World Organization of the Scout Movement


2011 39th World Scout Conference 2014 40th World Scout Conference Curitiba Ljubljana

267
Brazil Slovenia

World Scout Committee


The World Scout Committee is the chief executive body of the World Scout Conference and is composed of elected volunteers. The World Scout Committee represents World Scout Conference between the meetings of the full conference. The World Scout Committee is responsible for the implementation of the resolutions of the World Scout Conference and for acting on its behalf between its meetings. The Committee meets twice a year, usually in Geneva. Its Steering Committee, consisting of the Chairman, two Vice-Chairmen and the Secretary General, meet as needed.[4] The Committee is composed of 14 members. Twelve, each from a different country, are elected for six-year terms by the World Scout Conference. The members, elected without regard to their nationality, represent the interests of the movement as a whole, not those of their country. The Secretary General and the Treasurer of WOSM are ex-officio members of the Committee. The chairmen of the regional Scout committees participate in the World Scout Committee meetings in a consultative capacity.[5] The World Scout Committee has set up work streams to address the top strategic priorities, as defined by the World Scout Conference, which at present include: Youth involvement Volunteers in Scouting Scouting's profile (communications, partnerships, resources) Standing committees include: Audit Budget Constitutions Honours and Awards Working With Others- a consultative committee of the WOSM and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), composed of members of the World Committee/World Board of both organizations

2007 Task Force for the 100th Anniversary of Scouting, composed of members of the World Scout Committee, World Scout Bureau, World Scout Foundation, and The Scout Association of the United Kingdom

Current members of the World Scout Committee


Name Country Term to* 2014

Simon Hang-Bock Rhee Chairman, Korea John C.C. May Wahid Labidi Mrs. Mari Nakano Eric Khoo Heng-Pheng Karin Ahlbck Joo Gonalves Daniel Ownby John Neysmith Abdullah al-Fahad

Vice-Chairman, United Kingdom 2014 Vice-Chairman, Tunisia Japan Malaysia Finland Portugal United States Canada Saudi Arabia 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014

World Organization of the Scout Movement


Oscar Palmquist Marcel Blaguet Ledjou tba Maurice Machenbaum Brazil Cte d'Ivoire Secretary General, WOSM Treasurer, Switzerland 2014 2014

268

Note: The World Scout Conference in 2008 decided that, starting at the World Conference in 2011, elected members will serve for only three
years, but be eligible for re-election for one additional term.

Bronze Wolf
The Bronze Wolf is the only distinction awarded by WOSM, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting. It was first awarded to Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell by a unanimous decision of the then-International Committee on the day of the institution of the Bronze Wolf in Stockholm in 1935.

World Scout Bureau


The World Scout Bureau (WSB, formerly the International Bureau) is the secretariat that carries out the instructions of the World Scout Conference and the World Scout Committee. The WSB is administered by the secretary general, who is supported by a small staff of technical resource personnel. The bureau staff helps associations improve and broaden their Scouting by training professionals and volunteers, establishing finance policies and money-raising techniques, improving community facilities and procedures, and assisting in marshaling the national resources of each country behind Scouting.[6]

The World Scout Bureau is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and has offices in six regional divisions: WOSM-European RegionEuropean Region: Geneva, Switzerland; Brussels, Belgium and Belgrade, SerbiaWOSM-Arab RegionArab Region: Cairo, EgyptWOSM-Africa RegionAfrica Region: Nairobi, Kenya; Cape Town, South Africa; and Dakar, SenegalWOSM-Asia-Pacific RegionAsia-Pacific Region: Makati CityMakati City, Philippines; Australia; and Tokyo, JapanWOSM-Interamerican RegionInteramerican Region: Ciudad del Saber, PanamaWOSM-Eurasian RegionEurasian Region: Kiev, Ukrainegrey areas such as Burma and Cuba have no Scouting

The staff also helps arrange global events such as the World Scout Jamborees, encourages regional events, and acts as a liaison between the Scouting movement and other international organizations. A major effort in the emerging nations is the extension of the universal Good Turn into an organization-wide effort for community development.[7] The World Organization of the Scout Movement is associated with the three World Scout Centres. The World Scout Jamboree is held roughly every four years under the auspices of the WOSM, with members of WAGGGS also invited. WOSM also organises the World Scout Moot, a Jamboree for 17-26 year olds, and has organised the World Scout Indaba, a gathering for Scout leaders. The World Scout Foundation is a perpetual fund governed by a separate Board of Governors and supported by donations for the development of Scouting programs throughout the world. The WOSM is the non-governmental organization (NGO), that represents the Scouting movement at the United Nations.[8] The WOSM and WAGGGS both have General Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council ECOSOC of the United Nations.[9]

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269

World Scout Centres


World Scout Centre is a brand of the WOSM and actually used by three Scouting facilities in different countries. These facilities are operated by the corresponding regional divisions or by independent bodies: Kandersteg International Scout Centre in Switzerland, operated by the Scouts International Home association Cairo International Scout Centre in Egypt, operated by the Arab Region Picarqun World Scout Centre in Chile, operated by the Interamerican Region

Badge
The WOSM membership badge is the World Scout Emblem, a purple, circular badge with a fleur-de-lis in the center, surrounded by a piece of rope tied with a reef knot (also called a square knot). The fleur-de-lis is an ancient symbol, originally used by Baden-Powell for the enlisted scouts of the British Army and subsequently adopted and modified for Scouting. The arrowhead represents the North point on a compass, and is intended to point Scouts on the path to service and unity. The three points on the fleur-de-lis represent the three duties, to God, self and others. The two five-point stars stand for truth and knowledge, with the ten points representing the ten points of the Scout Law (see below). The bond at the base of the fleur-de-lis shows the family of Scouting. The encircling rope symbolizes the unity and family of the World Scout Movement.

History
As a result of the first World Scout Jamboree at Olympia, London in 1920, leaders there created the Boy Scouts' International Conference. All 31 nations represented at Olympia were the charter members. A Bureau was established at 25, Buckingham Palace Road, London, and the then United Kingdom International Commissioner, Hubert S. Martin, was appointed as Honorary Director. The Boy Scouts' International Conference was later superseded by the World Scout Conference. The needs of Scout youth in unusual situations has created some interesting permutations, answerable directly to the World Scout Bureau. For years there was an active Boy Scouts of the United Nations with several troops at Parkway Village in New York City, with but 14 members in 1959. Also directly registered to the World Bureau were the 900 member International Boy Scouts of the Canal Zone,[10] as well as 84 Scouts of the European Coal and Steel Community, an early precursor to the European Union.

Publications
Publications of WOSM include: Scouting 'Round the World: a book updated every three years with details on all WOSM member organizations; WorldInfo [11]: a monthly circular distributed in electronic format with the help of Scoutnet.

References
[1] "The Mission of Scouting" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ about_scouting/ mission_vision). World Organization of the Scout Movement. 2007. . Retrieved 2007-05-30. [2] "World Scouting" (http:/ / www. scouting. org/ international/ worldscout. html#wsc). WOSM World Scouting. . Retrieved February 1, 2006. [3] Laszlo Nagy (1921 - 2009) / Secretary General / World Bureau / Governance / Our Organisation / Home - World Organization of the Scout Movement (http:/ / scout. org/ en/ our_organisation/ governance/ world_bureau/ secretary_general/ laszlo_nagy) [4] "World Scout Committee" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ our_organisation/ governance/ world_committee). WOSM World Scouting. . Retrieved 2007-01-01. [5] "World Scouting" (http:/ / www. scouting. org/ international/ worldscout. html#wsc). WOSM World Scouting. . Retrieved 2006-02-01. [6] "World Scouting" (http:/ / www. scouting. org/ international/ worldscout. html). WOSM World Scouting. . Retrieved February 2, 2006. [7] "World Scout Bureau fact sheet" (http:/ / www. scouting. org/ Media/ FactSheets/ 02-505. aspx). WOSM World Scouting. . Retrieved February 2, 2006.

World Organization of the Scout Movement


[8] "World Organization" (http:/ / www. scout. org/ en/ our_organisation/ governance/ world_organisation). World Organization of the Scout Movement. 2007. . Retrieved 2007-05-30. [9] "How We Work With The UN" (http:/ / www. wagggsworld. org/ en/ issues/ WAGGGS_and_the_UN/ How_we_work_with_the_UN/ wbank). World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. 2007. . Retrieved 2007-05-30. [10] Wilson, John S. (1959). "The International Bureau Goes on the Road". Scouting Round the World (first edition ed.). London: Blandford Press. pp.134. ""At Balboa we met up with Gunnar Berg and Ray Wyland of the B.S.A., also on their way to Bogota, and had a conference about the question of coloured Scouts in the Canal Zone, who claim British and not Panamanian nationality. It was agreed that they should be taken under the wing of the Canal Zone Council of the Boy Scouts of America, but ten years later they were transferred directly under the International Bureau as the International Boy Scouts of the Canal Zone."" [11] http:/ / www. scout. org/ front/ winfoen. shtml

270

Further reading
Facts on World Scouting, Boy Scouts International Bureau, Ottawa, Canada, 1961 Laszlo Nagy, 250 Million Scouts, The World Scout Foundation and Dartnell Publishers, 1985

External links
World Scout Conference (http://www.scout.org/en/our_organisation/governance/world_conference) World Scout Committee (http://www.scout.org/en/our_organisation/governance/world_committee) World Scout Bureau (http://www.scout.org/en/our_organisation/governance/world_bureau) Secretary General of the World Organisation of the Scout Movement (http://www.scout.org/en/ our_organisation/governance/world_organisation/secretary_general__1)

Article Sources and Contributors

271

Article Sources and Contributors


1st World Scout Jamboree Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=486987723 Contributors: Bduke, Bobblewik, Da Joe, Dale Arnett, Gadget850, Horus Kol, Jergen, Jock0112, Kanuk, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Lightmouse, Michael Hardy, Motthoangwehuong, NThurston, Rich Farmbrough, Stevecull, Strobe z, Tagishsimon, Vanished 6551232, Wimvandorst, , 5 anonymous edits American Scouting overseas Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=494929622 Contributors: Arjayay, Attilios, Bduke, Bearcat, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Darthgriz98, DePiep, Emb021, Euchiasmus, Eustress, Ev, Evrik, FloK, Gadget850, Gary King, GoingBatty, Gurch, JamesAM, Jergen, Jtkiefer, Kintetsubuffalo, Lotje, Naraht, Ninacawyu, PaulHanson, Phips, Pjsincalab, Pjstarich, R'n'B, Rich Farmbrough, RightCowLeftCoast, Robhmac, SCZenz, Scout king, Settummanque, Sfan00 IMG, TastyCakes, Vanished 6551232, , 27 anonymous edits Antigua and Barbuda Branch of The Scout Association Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=431707528 Contributors: Bduke, Gadget850, Jergen, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Matthew hk, SatyrTN, Vanished 6551232, Wimvandorst, Worldbadger Association des Guides et Scouts dEurope Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=409242351 Contributors: Balloonguy, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Ryan9832 Association Nationale des Guides d'Hati Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=431569966 Contributors: Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Racerx11, Vanished 6551232, Woohookitty, 4 anonymous edits Barbados Boy Scouts Association Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=409225533 Contributors: Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Loren36, Trilemma, Vanished 6551232, Worldbadger, 2 anonymous edits Boy Scouts van Suriname Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462428607 Contributors: Brammen, CopperSquare, Egel, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, HeartofaDog, Jergen, Kaboom88, Kintetsubuffalo, R'n'B, Rich Farmbrough, Richardprins, Tamariki, Vanished 6551232 Boys' Brigade Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=492622068 Contributors: *drew, 24dixonjoseph, Aesopos, Akmcinnes, Alai, Alansohn, Alvestrand, Amccaldon1, Anticipation of a New Lover's Arrival, The, Aspects, Axfangli, Axl, BMacC, Badmotorfinger, Binary TSO, Bobk, Bodragon, BrianGV, Bubba hotep, Byeowy, CameronHunter, Cannonac, Cfledger, Chase me ladies, I'm the Cavalry, Chensiyuan, Chodorkovskiy, Chris the speller, CieloEstrellado, Citizensmith, CryptoDerk, DTOx, Dainamo, Darthgriz98, DavidLevinson, Dddstone, Dezumondo, DinosaursLoveExistence, Djb1985, Edgar181, Editor2020, Elcapitano, Electric angel, Escape from Wham Island, Fastifex, Freddiewong101, Frogman.14, Funguy06, Fusionmix, Gary cumberland, GrahamHardy, Greenshed, Ground Zero, Gunman47, H01495642, Halsteadk, Huaiwei, Icairns, Isaacofan, JGHowes, Jaraalbe, Kate, Kbdank71, Keith29018, Keithgreer, Killiedaft, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Lewisthehibee, Loren.wilton, Lumos3, MaFt, MacRusgail, Markyleong, Martinevans123, MickMacNee, Motthoangwehuong, Mrminty, NMAguide, Nicgarner, No.1 doosh bag, Obscurasky, Onorem, Our Phellap, Owain, OwenBlacker, Paul foord, Pcpcpc, Peddersmeister, Rekab Mit, Rjwilmsi, Ronz, Shyam, SigPig, SimonP, Sleslie, SunCreator, Sy278, Thumperward, Tom-3rdE, Tom487, Tomdbullock, Tomseddon, Tong mw, TramwayRoad, Ucebaggie, Vanished 6551232, Wapcaplet, Weasel5i2, Wizzybaby, Wtshymanski, Wylve, Yvwv, 227 anonymous edits Caribbean Link for Guiding Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=366470630 Contributors: Jergen, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo Caribbean Scout Jamboree Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=477695510 Contributors: CaribDigita, Fort Worth Dawg, Gadget850, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, 4 anonymous edits Confrence Franaise de Scoutisme Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=489902349 Contributors: Andrwsc, Dvavasour, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, GrahamHardy, Hmains, Jergen, Kaboom88, Kintetsubuffalo, Koavf, Vanished 6551232 Conseil du Scoutisme polynsien Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=409226740 Contributors: Bduke, Colin MacLaurin, Cromwellt, Egel, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Hmains, Jergen, JzG, Kintetsubuffalo, Postdlf, Vanished 6551232, 1 anonymous edits Council of Protestants in Guiding and Scouting Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=485520014 Contributors: Beao, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, OJH, 2 anonymous edits Eclaireurs Neutres de France Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=424063644 Contributors: Blastwizard, CommonsDelinker, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kaboom88, Kintetsubuffalo, Magasjukur, Olivier, Remember the dot, Seqsea, Vanished 6551232 Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=411127779 Contributors: Betacommand, Bogger, Egel, Fathers Son, Gadget850, Grafen, GrahamHardy, Jdheyerman, Jergen, Kaboom88, Kintetsubuffalo, Paxse, Rjwilmsi, SLi, SwitChar, Vanished 6551232, Wtmitchell, 7 anonymous edits Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs isralites de France Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=477358965 Contributors: Egel, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, John of Reading, Nicolas1981, , 2 anonymous edits Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=494987337 Contributors: Auntof6, Egel, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, John of Reading, Kintetsubuffalo, Ronhjones, Ernest Thompson Seton Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=494041628 Contributors: Alaney2k, AussieRulez, B, Bearcat, Belligen, Bender235, Billcito, Billy Hathorn, Blackwolf1000, Btphelps, Buddhipriya, Caltrop, Ceplm, Cgingold, Charles Matthews, Cuppysfriend, Curtisweyant, DShamen, Dl2000, Dwanyewest, Egel, Emb021, Embryomystic, Evrik, Ex pat in Italy, Flynnadv, FouadHeartbreakid, Franklekens, G Allegre, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, Galoubet, GcSwRhIc, Gentgeen, Glennwells, Gr0ff, HOT L Baltimore, Hugo999, Ignoranteconomist, JGHowes, Johnpacklambert, Jonneroo, Juliancolton, KF, Kathryn NicDhna, Kinneyboy90, Kintetsubuffalo, Koavf, Llort, Lou Crazy, LuYu, Lunar Jesters, Magnus Manske, Mandarax, Masalai, Mellery, MikeJ9919, Moncrief, Motthoangwehuong, Msrasnw, NThurston, Nataev, Nihonjoe, Noroton, Ontarioboy, OttawaAC, PC78, Paul A, Pavel930, Pfold, Piledhigheranddeeper, Quercusrobur, RJBurkhart, RepublicanJacobite, Rich Farmbrough, Richard New Forest, Rj, Rmhermen, Shabicht, SimonP, Spaceflower, Szumyk, TomSwiss, Tucci528, Vanished 6551232, Woohookitty, Wyldkat, YX, Yecrof, Yllosubmarine, Zoe, Zybthranger, 67 anonymous edits Fleur-de-lis in Scouting Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463816028 Contributors: Calliopejen1, CiaPan, Evrik, Gadget850, Junior Woodchuck, Kintetsubuffalo, Lotje, Superchilum, Vanished 6551232, 6 anonymous edits Frederick Russell Burnham Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=496662819 Contributors: $1LENCE D00600D, Acct used for V4NDAL1SM, AdultSwim, Aille, Alansplodge, Alarbus, Andrew Gray, Another Believer, Anthony Staunton, Ar-wiki, AssegaiAli, Auric, Avicennasis, Awiseman, B-Machine, Bdell555, Bduke, Bender235, Bob Burkhardt, Bobjuch, Bongwarrior, BrandonYusufToropov, Bunnyhop11, Camc111, CarolGray, Cjrother, Cliftonian, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Ctatkinson, DadaNeem, Danny, David Underdown, DavidCane, Docu, Domino theory, DrKiernan, Dthomsen8, DuncanHill, Emb021, Euchiasmus, Eumolpo, FeanorStar7, Firstorm, Foofbun, FurrySings, GCW50, Gadget850, GiantSnowman, Groundsquirrel13, Halda, Handicapper, HarryHenryGebel, Hgrosser, Hoary, Hugo999, Iridescent, JaGa, Jerzy, Jim1138, John, John Vandenberg, Juggler2005, Kaiwhakahaere, Kernel Saunters, Kintetsubuffalo, Klemen Kocjancic, Kumioko (renamed), LamontCranston, Le baron, Lightmouse, Lou Crazy, MQuinn, MacGyverMagic, Mandarax, Mark Arsten, McNoddy, Metre01, Michael Devore, Mike hayes, MikeHobday, Miwasatoshi, Modernist, Mr Stephen, NThurston, Necrothesp, Ned-kogar, PC78, Phips, Pmanderson, Psantora, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Seaaron, Serein (renamed because of SUL), Sfan00 IMG, Shell Kinney, Signalhead, SimonD, Sus scrofa, Tabletop, Tbhotch, Tony1, Totorotroll, Transity, Travelengal, Triwbe, Trollo137, Unionhawk, Vanished 6551232, VenerableBeed, Violetriga, WRK, Wimvandorst, Wizardman, Woohookitty, Xdamr, Yappadoodle, Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Yoganate79, , 127 anonymous edits Fdration des Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=409244385 Contributors: Egel, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, John, Kintetsubuffalo Girl Guides Association of Saint Lucia Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=486341302 Contributors: Begoon, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Matthew hk, Paxse, Rich Farmbrough, Vanished 6551232 Girl Guides Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=409197316 Contributors: Begoon, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Matthew hk, Paxse, Rich Farmbrough, Vanished 6551232 Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=489097395 Contributors: 2T, Acntx, Amcbride, AnmaFinotera, Antonrojo, Arpingstone, Arthur Rubin, Astronautics, Atrian, Auccl799, AzaToth, Bazza 7, Bduke, Beeftardlick, Benji Franklyn, Bobo192, Burningdwarf, Clares, Crazeeak, Cyktsui, DDerby, Darthgriz98, DavidLevinson, Dddstone, Ductapedaredevil, DuncanHill, EAderhold, Eastlaw, EdH, Egel, Erp, Fenrissmith, Frecklefoot, Friedfish, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, Gentgeen, Gilliam, GirlGuider1910, Gothgirlangel1981, Guidertoo, Halibutt, HenryLi, Hiddenscars, Hmains, Horus Kol, Jagz, Jal, Janejellyroll, Jcuk, Jergen, Joseph Solis in Australia, Kaboom88, KarenJo90, Kate, Kate2187, Killaferra, Kingbird,

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Ichiro, Yarko, YourEyesOnly, Yunshui, Zahid Abdassabur, Zaian, , 566 anonymous edits Scout and Guide Graduate Association Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=366703952 Contributors: Bduke, Biscit, Gadget850, Gnorthup, Kintetsubuffalo, Mandarax, Reidgove, Rjwilmsi, Vanished 6551232, WBardwin, 1 anonymous edits Scout method Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=490022028 Contributors: 5-HT8, ACupOfCoffee, Babakathy, Bduke, Beeftardlick, Ben Ben, Btphelps, CS46, Colibri37, CommonsDelinker, DParlevliet, Da Joe, Diannaa, Dumelow, Ed Poor, Egel, Elmarco, Emurphy42, Euchiasmus, Euyyn, Evrik, Gadget850, Galf, HiLo48, Horus Kol, Jagz, Jergen, Jonathan Drain, Kbh3rd, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Maurice Carbonaro, Mild Bill Hiccup, Motthoangwehuong, NThurston, Natox, Rjwilmsi, Scoutersig, Scouts2012, Stevecull, Strobilomyces, Sumoeagle179, Svick, Telecineguy, That Guy, From That Show!, Tinned Elk, Vanished 6551232, WereSpielChequers, Wimt, Wimvandorst, 35 anonymous edits Scouting Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=495168128 Contributors: 17Drew, 3ahmed, 63.78.38.xxx, A bit iffy, AAG11364, ABF, ALargeElk, AdjustShift, Ageekgal, Agent 86, Agentfuse2008, Ahoerstemeier, Ajsilver, Akmcinnes, Akp982, Alakhriveion, Alansohn, Albatross2147, Alcashion, Alecmconroy, Alensha, AlexTheMartian, Alphaboi867, Altenmann, Amir beckham, Andonic, Andrejj, Andrew Levine, Andrewa, Andy M. Wang, Anger22, Angr, Anne, Antandrus, Anthony Appleyard, Antleredtuna, Arpingstone, Arzan, Astronautics, Asubedi, Avoided, Babawatoto, Baloo rch, Banjodog, Barek, Bart133, Basharh, Bdowd, Bduke, Bearcat, Beau-Rox, Beeftardlick, Belovedfreak, BenB4, Benji Franklyn, Benson85, Betterusername, Bevo, Bigal 250, BillFlis, Bkkbrad, Blah3241, Bobblewik, Bobplum, Bogger, Bokaal, Bongwarrior, Borafferty, Boris the Inquisitive Goat, Bquinta213, Brian Crawford, Bridgeplayer, Brighterorange, Brion VIBBER, Broughtonp, Bruzaholm, CANITBEHUGSTIEMNOWPLZ, CWii, Calieber, Can't Undo, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianCaesar, CanisRufus, CapitalR, Capricorn42, Carlos.yanez, Causa sui, Ccacsmss, Cesarpermanente, Chris the speller, Chrism, Chrissyinwindsor, Christopher starr, Christopherscout, CiaPan, CieloEstrellado, Clawed, Cmapm, Codingmasters, Cojo123, Colinmccool, Collinsb, CommonsDelinker, Conversion script, Coolmila73, Crispy14, Cryopunk, Ctatkinson, CustardJack, DCM, DO'Neil, DParlevliet, DVD R W, Da Vynci, Dabomb87, Dainamo, Dalf, Danski14, DarkFalls, Darkpiker, Darrenforster99, Darthgriz98, Datepalm17, DavidLevinson, Dawud, Delldot, DerHexer, Derek Ross, Devrit, Dgowan65, Dialsforme, Digitalme, Discospinster, Dismas, Dispenser, Diveguy10, DiverScout, Dmdwiggi, Dmuth, Doble123, DocWatson42, Dog2000101, Dor Posner, Dorsetwarrior, Dougweller, DrBob, Drakkenfyre, Droll, DuncanHill, Dunro, Dustimagic, Dwheeler, EVula, EdH, Eftpotrm, Egel, Elio1, Emb021, Emmapaw24, Emperormikey, Eod36, Eric01px2017, Erp, Esprit15d, Estel, Euchiasmus, EugeneZelenko, Eustress, Everyking, Evil saltine, Evrik, Exander, Exec8, Exitmoose, Ferretremover, Ferris37, Firecrotch18, Fl, Flatterworld, FrancoGG, Freechild, FreplySpang, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Fvw, G Rose, GCW50, Gabhala, Gadget850, Gail, Gentgeen, Gerbil, Ghepeu, Gilliam, Gingertommo, Glenn, Gnangarra, Gogo Dodo, Gollod, Gracenotes, Grafen, Graham87, Grazon, Greg Tyler, Griba2010, Grinner, Grmitchell, Gropozen, Gsarwa, Gzkn, Hadal, Haham hanuka, Halibutt, Halsteadk, Headbomb, Hefaistos, HenryLi, Hetar, HexaChord, HiLo48, Hilary Foss, Hoary, Home Row Keysplurge, Horus Kol, Hrun il Barbaro, Huaiwei, Ilikepie2221, Immunize, IngaAusa, Ivce123, J-beda, J.delanoy, J04n, Jagz, Jan Hidders, Jan Pospil, Jared Preston, Jaredford, JayC, JazzCarnival, Jediwannabe, Jeff3000, Jengod, Jergen, JesseOjala, Jiang, JimMillerJr, Jinadi.dahanayaka, Joebengo, JoergenB, Johan Magnus, John, John Price, John Reaves, John of Reading, JohnCD, Johnleemk, Johntex, Jojhutton, Jorgenpfhartogs, Josephomeara, JoshuaZ, Jtneill, JustAGal, Justanyone, JzG, KNewman, Kaihsu, Kakofonous, Kallocain, Keithgreer, Kelisi, Kewler, Khukri, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Kozuch, Kumioko (renamed), Kungfuadam, Kuugaku2005, LARS, LFaraone, LKolind, Laney, Leandrod, Leki, Liamsmyth, Liftarn, Lightguy79, Lightmouse, Ligulem, Lindisfarnelibrary, LittleOldMe, Lkmorlan, Lou Crazy, Louieais, Luna Santin, Lunchscale, Lysdexia, MGMega, MK8, MKoltnow, Macscouter, Magi Media, Magister Mathematicae, Magnifier, Magnus Manske, Majorly, Malachias111, Mang kiko, Master G76, Matilda, Matt.bracegirdle, Matto97, Mattyh, Mav, Mayalld, MercuryBlue, Metju, Michael Devore, Michael Hardy, Midnightblueowl, Mikeh, Milkyeyes, Milominderbinder2, Minimac, MisfitToys, Mononomic, Morpheios Melas, Motthoangwehuong, Moverton, MrRedwood, Mtnerd, Myanw, Mydemand, Mzajac, NThurston, Nabla, Naddy, Nashrul Hakiem, Nat Krause, Natox, Navy II, NawlinWiki, NeoChaosX, Nereocystis, Neutrality, Nevster007, Nick81, Niduzzi, Nikai, Ninjapirateman, Nlu, Noclevername, Notepad0111, Nuker, Nwbeeson, Oblivious, Obscurasky, Octahedron80, Octane, Ojaswi joshi, Olivier, Orangutan, Originalbigj, Outriggr, Ozzles, Pablo.cl, Patrick, Paul A, Pavel Vozenilek, Pcpcpc, Pearle, Pedant17, Persian Poet Gal, Petersam, Pgk, Phil21, PhilBroadway, Pikminlover, Pinethicket, Polimerek, Portalian, Possum, Postoak, Prodego, Proteus, Quarterduck, Quercusrobur, Qxz, R'n'B, RJBurkhart, RJBurkhart3, Rajkp2009, Ran, Raymie, Raymondwinn, Rdsmith4, Reach Out to the Truth, Recneps, RedWolf, Rekab Mit, RekishiEJ, Rettetast, RexNL, Rich Farmbrough, Richard W.M. Jones, Richard75, Rjwilmsi, RobertG, Robhmac, RobinClay, Rotem Dan, Rreagan007, Rsteiner, Rudytanov, S M Woodall, SDJ, SGGH, Sad mouse, Sam Hocevar, Sammysealtrs, Sannse, Sarahevens, Saricito, SchuminWeb, Sciurin, Scohoust, Scott Burley, ScoutDude, Screen111, Seano1, Sergeant.cross, Settummanque, SheeEttin, Shipps death, Shizhao, Showers, Shruti14, Sianee, Simon Shek, Simonnewwiki, Sjc, Skyfoo, SlimVirgin, Sly Soprano, Smack, Solkoll, Someoneinmyheadbutit'snotme, Sopoforic, Spacey00, Spangineer, Spbieshman, SpiceGuys, Starvingpoet, Stephen, Stevecull, Strider12233, Suisui, Sumbuddi, Sumoeagle179, SupaSoldier, Supercitrus, Superskippy, Susan Davis, Svivian, Swalker2000, Swatjester, Synchronism, Szater, Szumyk, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, TUF-KAT, Tahmidazuwad, Talyllyn, Tariqabjotu, Tassedethe, Tbc, Techkarl, Teflashfire, Telecineguy, Tellyaddict, Testbed, Texaswebscout, That Guy, From That Show!, The Anome, The Nixinator, The Sleeping Azn, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thelb4, Thenthornthing, Theonlyedge, Theory of deadman, Tide rolls, Tim!, Tjdya, Tjweiss, Tjwood, Todfox, Tom Yates, Tombrant, Tottie102, Trdb, Treisijs, Trdel, Tubaist, Tuomas Toivonen, Turtlefeed, TweetyBirdX, USHistory, Ultratomio, Una Smith, Updatehelper, Valfarly, VampWillow, VanSisean, Vanished 6551232, Vanished user 5zariu3jisj0j4irj, Vanka5, Vegaswikian, Veinor, Velho, Vickser, Vidiviniwiki, Vox Rationis, WJBscribe, Wafflefudgecaramel, Welsh, Werdan7, Wereon, Whale Mother, WhatamIdoing, WhisperToMe, WikHead, Wiki libs, WikiED, WillAndrews, Willworkforicecream, Wimt, Wimvandorst, Wirthi, Wknight94, Wrockca, Wysprgr2005, Xaosflux, XcepticZP, Xiahou, Xn4, Yamaplos, Ykhwong, Yohannvt, Yokohama1, You rock, Yourbestfiend, Zaian, Zaulus, ZekeDever, , 822 anonymous edits Scouting and Guiding in Anguilla Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=369483766 Contributors: Bduke, Gadget850, Jergen, JimCubb, Kintetsubuffalo Scouting and Guiding in France Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=485336262 Contributors: Bapti, Bduke, Bombastus, Egel, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, J Milburn, JameiLei, Jergen, Kaboom88, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Nakor, Ntsimp, OwenBlacker, Phips, Phirithros, Piano non troppo, Ricky81682, Rockfang, Snowolf, TUF-KAT, Timrollpickering, Vanished 6551232, 19 anonymous edits

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Article Sources and Contributors


Scouting and Guiding in French Guiana Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=327445289 Contributors: Gadget850, Jergen, Keith Lehwald, Kintetsubuffalo, Son of a Peach, Storkk, Vanished 6551232, 1 anonymous edits Scouting and Guiding in Guadeloupe and Saint Martin Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=345401699 Contributors: Dekimasu, Gadget850, Grutness, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Vanished 6551232 Scouting and Guiding in Haiti Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=366706468 Contributors: Boing! said Zebedee, Gadget850, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, 1 anonymous edits Scouting and Guiding in the British Virgin Islands Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=442988904 Contributors: Bduke, Begoon, Gadget850, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Magioladitis, Rich Farmbrough, Skier Dude Scouting and Guiding in the Cayman Islands Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=423529474 Contributors: Gadget850, Jergen, JimCubb, Kintetsubuffalo, Skier Dude Scouting and Guiding in the Turks and Caicos Islands Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=469193891 Contributors: Bduke, Gadget850, Grutness, Hmains, Jergen, JimCubb, Kintetsubuffalo, Vanished 6551232 Scouting Antiano Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=416230430 Contributors: Begoon, Egel, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Grutness, Jergen, Joseph Solis in Australia, Kintetsubuffalo, L.tak, Vanished 6551232, Venu62, 5 anonymous edits Scouting Aruba Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459279130 Contributors: Egel, Gadget850, HeartofaDog, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, LilHelpa, Rich Farmbrough, SatyrTN, Sealscoutingaruba, Shadowlynk, Vanished 6551232, Worldbadger, 7 anonymous edits Scouting controversy and conflict Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=495202371 Contributors: Balloonman, Bduke, Benjamin9832, Bobblehead, CJ Withers, Ccacsmss, Cgingold, Chrism, Cjh57, DParlevliet, Dewritech, Difu Wu, DiverScout, Dravecky, Egel, GCW50, Gadget850, Goon Noot, Hal8999, HiLo48, Icetitan17, Jagz, Jatkins, Jeff3000, Jergen, John Smythe, Joseph Solis in Australia, Kintetsubuffalo, Ldshield, Le Anh-Huy, NThurston, Natox, Nedrutland, Nvrmnd, Plasticup, R'n'B, RIPSAW1986, Robertvan1, Shruti14, Superslash, Teh hackz0r, Terjen, Testbed, Vanished 6551232, Vannin, Wimvandorst, Woohookitty, Yamaplos, 42 anonymous edits Scouting in Puerto Rico Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=496368704 Contributors: 12george1, Bianca Neri, BsaPR1996, Caferato, Cerejota, Colonies Chris, Dogaroon, Dracobane, Eljohnson15, Emb021, Erp, Evrik, Firsfron, Forgotten736, Gadget850, GoingBatty, Haidyv, Hawkestone, Itgcyber, Jergen, JustAGal, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Pearle, Quazgaa, Rafaelarthur, That Guy, From That Show!, Tschitanigachen572, Vanished 6551232, 24 anonymous edits Scoutisme Franais Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=484003815 Contributors: CommonsDelinker, Darathor, Darranc, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kaboom88, Kintetsubuffalo, Lightmouse, Olivier, Phirithros, Ricky81682, Roger Davies, TUF-KAT, Tassedethe, Tim!, Vanished 6551232, , 4 anonymous edits Scouts d'Hati Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=474293902 Contributors: Ejl, Evrik, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Inauditous, Jergen, Kbdank71, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Lavie123456, Mtejada, Racerx11, Vanished 6551232, 9 anonymous edits Scouts et Guides de France Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=477282575 Contributors: Alansplodge, Auntof6, Bduke, Diderot, Egel, Gadget850, Geo115fr, GrahamHardy, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Jergen, Kaboom88, Keith Lehwald, Kintetsubuffalo, KolyaFrankovich, Logophile, Lou Crazy, Minime21122112, Olivier, Rjwilmsi, SMS95, Shikitohno, Timrollpickering, Vanished 6551232, ZooFari, , 15 anonymous edits Scouts et Guides de Martinique Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=420501312 Contributors: Alexrexpvt, Gadget850, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, M16Beng, Seraphimblade, Vanished 6551232 Scouts unitaires de France Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=429871456 Contributors: Bombastus, Gadget850, Jergen, Kaboom88, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Student Scout and Guide Organisation Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=479982141 Contributors: AlmostReadytoFly, Ashley Pomeroy, Bduke, Biscit, CaramelWhistle, Fmountford, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, GoHike, Jergen, Kattikit, Kintetsubuffalo, Publicity Officer, Rjwilmsi, Spamchenery, Starfighter Pilot, Vanished 6551232, 40 anonymous edits The Girl Guides Association of Belize Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=428229242 Contributors: Bduke, Begoon, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Pinoakcourt, Rich Farmbrough, TreasuryTag, Vanished 6551232 The Saint Lucia Scout Association Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=465848892 Contributors: CanisRufus, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Prodego, Rich Farmbrough, Vanished 6551232 The Scout Association Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=496907905 Contributors: AHMECT, Andymmu, Asa.gurden, B, Baggi.J, Bduke, Benji Franklyn, Bogger, Boing! said Zebedee, Breadandcheese, Buck reinart, Burto88, CDN99, CKUK, CarneadesLocal, Chase me ladies, I'm the Cavalry, ChrisCork, CommonsDelinker, Coolhawks88, Cumbriascouts, Custardninja, Cutler, Czyrko, Danielhaigh, Darklilac, Deanjefferys, DiverScout, Dorsetwarrior1988, Download, Egel, EoGuy, Escape Orbit, FT2, Fallontjb, FloK, Fmountford, Frogrocker, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, Gentgeen, Geoffreyjhang, GrahamHardy, Henry the 1st, HenryLi, Horus Kol, Iridescent, J0n0vull, Jagz, Jamoche, Jergen, Jt spratt, Kaboom88, Kate, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Koavf, Kun25, Lancechapel, MAG1, Manxy3, Mas 18 dl, Michael Devore, Monkey scout, Motthoangwehuong, NThurston, Nehrams2020, Neutrality, Obscurasky, Pak21, Petejeffreys, Peter Damian (old), Philb28, Pseudomonas, Pshannon, Rafmarham, Raph boulou, Rivet gun, Rjwilmsi, Robminchin, RockMFR, Spshu, Ssh4893, TheBaker, ThunderingTyphoons!, Tim!, TimTay, Tony1, TonyFlury, Tpbradbury, Tpwebb, Troutfish, Trdel, Valfarly, Vanished 6551232, Vgmaster, William Avery, Wimvandorst, Woohookitty, Xevious, Zaian, , 81 anonymous edits The Scout Association of Belize Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=428229281 Contributors: Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Inauditous, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Lightmouse, Pinoakcourt, Tictrotactro, TreasuryTag, Tresiden, Trilemma, Vanished 6551232, 5 anonymous edits The Scout Association of Bermuda Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=495348287 Contributors: Begoon, Gadget850, JGHowes, Jergen, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Vanished 6551232, WOLfan112, 8 anonymous edits The Scout Association of Dominica Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=409237223 Contributors: Begoon, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, LukeHoC, Vanished 6551232, 1 anonymous edits The Scout Association of Guyana Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=409236798 Contributors: Admiral Roo, Alan Liefting, Brammen, Darranc, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Iridescent, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Malepheasant, Nick Taylor, R'n'B, Rjwilmsi, Vanished 6551232, WereSpielChequers, Zanimum, 5 anonymous edits The Scout Association of Jamaica Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=413883643 Contributors: Brownie4eva, DiverScout, Gadget850, Girlscoutsjm, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Nickmini, Vanished 6551232, 1 anonymous edits The Scout Association of Saint Kitts and Nevis Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=474890762 Contributors: Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, Matthew hk, Peripitus, The Pink Oboe, Vanished 6551232 The Scout Association of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=409237155 Contributors: Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Jergen, Kbdank71, Kintetsubuffalo, Rich Farmbrough, Vanished 6551232, Woohookitty The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=477047606 Contributors: Aheett, B, Gadget850, GrahamHardy, Guettarda, JamesAM, Jergen, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, R'n'B, Vanished 6551232, 21 anonymous edits William Alexander Smith (Boys' Brigade) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=485435931 Contributors: 1exec1, Akmcinnes, Axfangli, BeckenhamBear, Borgx, D6, Docu, Egel, Icairns, Jaraalbe, Jni, Keithgreer, Kernel Saunters, Kim Traynor, Lexi Marie, MacGyverMagic, MacRusgail, Mais oui!, Maximus Rex, Motthoangwehuong, NThurston, Nahallac Silverwinds, Necrothesp, Neelix, PMJ, Pak21, Qxz, Rjwilmsi, SGBailey, Sandstein, Sherurcij, Vanished 6551232, 23 anonymous edits World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=483816629 Contributors: 478jjjz, Ancrene wisse, BSA Archery, Bazonka, Benji Franklyn, Bookgrrl, BrainyBabe, Charles Matthews, Chriki, Chrism, Clcostka, Cnjalvarez4, CommonsDelinker, Craigy144, Darigan, Debresser, Deipnosophista, Diwatson, Dom Kaos, EPO, Egel, Erp, Evrik, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, Gentgeen, Geoffreyjhang, Goto, Gregbard, Hedgey42, HelpFoo, HenryLi, J.delanoy, Jagz, Jergen, Jfkjaya, Justme89, Kaboom88, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Lloyd rm, Mathboy965, Mellery, Mikue, NThurston, Nahallac Silverwinds, Pbl1998, Pie Man 360, Remember the dot, Rosarino, Scout arg, Ttony21, Tyrol5, Vanished 6551232,

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Wimvandorst, Wizardman, Zaian, 36 anonymous edits World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=470925280 Contributors: Dudeman5685, Gadget850, Jergen, Kintetsubuffalo, R'n'B, SchreiberBike, Trollscout, Woohookitty, 2 anonymous edits World Organization of the Scout Movement Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=491167165 Contributors: Ahoerstemeier, Alf1967, Bazonka, Bduke, Beeftardlick, Before My Ken, Bejnar, Benji Franklyn, BokicaK, CambridgeBayWeather, CommonsDelinker, Darktych, Darranc, Daveiba, Derek Ross, Detruncate, Differentname88, Dori, DuncanHill, EPO, Emb021, Evrik, Excirial, Expatkiwi, FloK, Fredrik, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, Gentgeen, Greenshed, Halibutt, Hammersoft, HenryLi, Hydrargyrum, IJA, IanCheesman, Inauditous, JGHowes, JPG-GR, Jagz, JazHaz, Jdurbach, Jergen, Jfkjaya, JimmyGuano, John Price, Johnccmay, JustAGal, Justme89, Kaboom88, Kingbird, Kintetsubuffalo, Knippie, Kun25, LARS, Lkmorlan, Looxix, Lou Crazy, MadGeographer, Markkawika, Martin1981, Mellery, Mercy11, Michael Angelkovich, Motthoangwehuong, NThurston, Oblic, Okeanroe, Oleksander motyka, Olivier, Oxymoron83, Patrick, Plasticup, Poindex, Quatloo, RandomAct, Randomator, Reinoutr, Rjwilmsi, Rsabbatini, Sarein.mh, Scgcreations, Scouts2012, Seav, Szumyk, Timrollpickering, Tomtheman5, Vanished 6551232, Vchapman, Wayne Slam, Wimvandorst, Wolf530, Zealousagenda, ZeiP, Zinc2005, , 77 anonymous edits

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276

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:World Scout Jamboree - Punch cartoon - Project Gutenberg eText 16628.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:World_Scout_Jamboree_-_Punch_cartoon_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_16628.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Infrogmation, Jergen, P.matel, Rcbutcher, Tagishsimon File:Far East Council American Scouting overseas map.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Far_East_Council_American_Scouting_overseas_map.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Emma Pease Image:60163 Tornado at the GCR 3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:60163_Tornado_at_the_GCR_3.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: cooldudeandy01 File:PD-icon.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PD-icon.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alex.muller, Anomie, Anonymous Dissident, CBM, MBisanz, Quadell, Rocket000, Strangerer, Timotheus Canens, 1 anonymous edits Image:Flag of Australia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Australia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Mifter Image:Flag of Hong Kong.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Designed by Image:Flag of Ireland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ireland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp Image:Flag of Malaysia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Malaysia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp Image:Flag of New Zealand.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Hugh Jass, User:Zscout370 Image:Flag of Nigeria.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Nigeria.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Jhs Image:Flag of Singapore.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Singapore.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various Image:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Good Olfactory, Mifter Image:Flag of Denmark.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Denmark.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Madden Image:Flag of Finland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Finland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp File:3by2white.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:3by2white.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Timeroot Image:Insigne Scouts et Guides Saint-Louis.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Insigne_Scouts_et_Guides_Saint-Louis.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Tibidibtibo File:Les Eclaireurs de France 1911-1940.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Les_Eclaireurs_de_France_1911-1940.svg License: anonymous-EU Contributors: Egel File:Ernest Thompson Seton.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ernest_Thompson_Seton.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bain News Service; cropped and uploaded by JGHowes File:Scouting pioneers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scouting_pioneers.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bain News Service; edited by JGHowes File:Ernest thompson seton.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ernest_thompson_seton.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ebyabe, OttawaAC File:Wild Animals Tannerey.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wild_Animals_Tannerey.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: G Allegre File:Seton Two Little Savages Song-birds.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Seton_Two_Little_Savages_Song-birds.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: G Allegre File:Seton Book Woodcraft knots.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Seton_Book_Woodcraft_knots.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: G Allegre File:Seton Sign Talk p43.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Seton_Sign_Talk_p43.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: G Allegre File:Major frederick russell burnham dso 1904.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Major_frederick_russell_burnham_dso_1904.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Elliott & Fry File:Burnham skagway alaska 1899.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Burnham_skagway_alaska_1899.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ctatkinson, Finavon File:Burnham in africa close up.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Burnham_in_africa_close_up.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ctatkinson, 2 anonymous edits File:After mlimo.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:After_mlimo.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by Frank Dadd. R.I. (died 1929) File:Burnham 1902 loc collection.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Burnham_1902_loc_collection.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bain News Service, publisher File:Burnham churchill jul1900.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Burnham_churchill_jul1900.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: not identified File:Bp burnham ca1910.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bp_burnham_ca1910.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ctatkinson File:Scout trail usgs.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scout_trail_usgs.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ctatkinson, Davefoc, Vanished user 001 File:Fred and rod burnham ca1930.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fred_and_rod_burnham_ca1930.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Martha Burnham Burleigh (eldest daughter of Roderick) File:Esperanza stone burnham1910.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Esperanza_stone_burnham1910.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Charles Frederick Holder File:Blanche blick burnham in africa 1896.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Blanche_blick_burnham_in_africa_1896.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ctatkinson, JackyR File:RodFly.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RodFly.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Roderick & Isabell Burnham File:Howard burnham c1904.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Howard_burnham_c1904.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ctatkinson File:Burnham sketch by baden-powell.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Burnham_sketch_by_baden-powell.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Robert Baden-Powell Image:wikisource-logo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wikisource-logo.svg License: logo Contributors: Nicholas Moreau Image:Christliche Pfadfinder.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Christliche_Pfadfinder.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Noebse Image:Uprising girlguides.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Uprising_girlguides.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Evrik, Halibutt, NThurston File:Girl scouts raising US flag.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Girl_scouts_raising_US_flag.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Villwock File:Juliette Gordon Low dai.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Juliette_Gordon_Low_dai.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: unknown Original uploader was Noble Skuld the Legend Killer at en.wikipedia File:Photograph of First Lady Bess Truman at the White House with a delegation of Girl Scouts, who are presenting her with... - NARA - 200404.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Photograph_of_First_Lady_Bess_Truman_at_the_White_House_with_a_delegation_of_Girl_Scouts,_who_are_presenting_her_with..._-_NARA_-_200404.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Docu, Trelio Image:Hillary Clinton girl scout.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hillary_Clinton_girl_scout.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bukk, Evrik, Jebur, Makthorpe, Slarre, Vanished user 001 File:Girl Scout in uniform, 1973.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Girl_Scout_in_uniform,_1973.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Father of JGKlein, used with permission Image:Girl Scout working on her Gold Award Project.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Girl_Scout_working_on_her_Gold_Award_Project.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Darthgriz98. Original uploader was Darthgriz98 at en.wikipedia File:Juliette Gordon Low - National Portrait Gallery.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Juliette_Gordon_Low_-_National_Portrait_Gallery.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: AgnosticPreachersKid

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Flag of Bermuda.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bermuda.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Version 1: Made by Caleb Moore from the Open Clip Art website and uploaded by Nightstallion Version 2: Made by Nameneko from version 1 of Image:Flag of Bermuda.svg and version 2 of Image:Coa Bermuda.svg by Cronholm144. Image:WAGGGS-WOSM-Western Hemisphere.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WAGGGS-WOSM-Western_Hemisphere.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: original:Lokal_Profil / new version: Begoon Image:John_Wesley_by_William_Hamilton.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Wesley_by_William_Hamilton.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dcoetzee Image:FrancisAsbury.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FrancisAsbury.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Contemporary portrait Image:BpThomasCoke.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BpThomasCoke.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Contemporary portrait File:Methodist Central Hall.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Methodist_Central_Hall.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Gt-man. Original uploader was Gt-man at de.wikipedia File:Old Barratt's Chapel (Methodist), Route 113, Frederica vicinity (Kent County, Delaware).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Old_Barratt's_Chapel_(Methodist),_Route_113,_Frederica_vicinity_(Kent_County,_Delaware).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: David Ames, Photographer File:Growth of Denominations in America 1780 to 1860.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Growth_of_Denominations_in_America_1780_to_1860.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Conrad Zbikowski File:Richard Allen crop.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Richard_Allen_crop.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: 000peter Image:World methodist council 9058.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:World_methodist_council_9058.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: User:SreeBot Image:Flower lane church 2010.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flower_lane_church_2010.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: GnuDoyng File:Wuhan - former Methodist School - P1050047.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wuhan_-_former_Methodist_School_-_P1050047.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: User:Vmenkov File:Wesleyan Church, Broadway.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wesleyan_Church,_Broadway.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: L.vivian.richard Image: AIM_Pilipinas_First_Bishop.jpeg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AIM_Pilipinas_First_Bishop.jpeg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Eeekster, Joefran4, 2 anonymous edits Image:Novi Sad, Evangelical Methodist Church.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Novi_Sad,_Evangelical_Methodist_Church.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: PANONIAN File:Piula Theological College, Upolu island, Samoa, 2009.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Piula_Theological_College,_Upolu_island,_Samoa,_2009.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Stephen Glauser File:Baden-Powell USZ62-96893 (retouched and cropped).png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Baden-Powell_USZ62-96893_(retouched_and_cropped).png License: unknown Contributors: Abu badali, George Ho, Hohum, Slomox, Soerfm, UserB File:Baden-Powell_signature.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Baden-Powell_signature.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Lkmorlan File:Loudspeaker.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Loudspeaker.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bayo, Gmaxwell, Husky, Iamunknown, Mirithing, Myself488, Nethac DIU, Omegatron, Rocket000, The Evil IP address, Wouterhagens, 19 anonymous edits File:Baden Powell.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Baden_Powell.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Albertomos, DieBuche, George Ho, Jonjabberwocky, Michael Reschke, Mu, Tony Corsini, Vanished user 001, WayneRay, 2 anonymous edits File:Butt, Baden-Powell, Taft, Bryce2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Butt,_Baden-Powell,_Taft,_Bryce2.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Harris & Ewing, Inc. This version restored by Michel Vuijlsteke File:Lordrobertstephensonsmyth.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lordrobertstephensonsmyth.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Andrevruas File:Olave Baden-Powell.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Olave_Baden-Powell.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Rlevse File:Baden-Powell family (1917).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Baden-Powell_family_(1917).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: uploaded by JGHowes File:Baden Powell grave1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Baden_Powell_grave1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: CommonsDelinker, Evrik, FlickreviewR, Ranveig, Superchilum, Themightyquill File:'Are you in this' poster.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:'Are_you_in_this'_poster.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Robert Baden-Powell File:Scouting for boys 1 1908.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scouting_for_boys_1_1908.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Robert Baden-Powell File:Robert Baden-Powell Monument London.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Robert_Baden-Powell_Monument_London.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Onofre_Bouvila. File:Baden Powell plaque.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Baden_Powell_plaque.png License: Attribution Contributors: Original uploader was JGHowes at en.wikipedia (Original text : en:User:JGHowes, photographer) Image:SAGGAwork.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAGGAwork.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Biscit File:Heart Mountain Boy Scout Flag Raising retouched 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Heart_Mountain_Boy_Scout_Flag_Raising_retouched_2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jeff G., Kbh3rd, Look2See1 Image:Blitz Scouts in Detroit.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Blitz_Scouts_in_Detroit.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Siegel, Arthur S., photographer. Image:Detroit Cub Scouts.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Detroit_Cub_Scouts.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Siegel, Arthur S., photographer. Image:Exploradores 1929.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Exploradores_1929.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jaten, Vanished user 001, 10 anonymous edits Image:Acagea.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Acagea.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Dzucherato Image:TorontoScouts1976.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TorontoScouts1976.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Wayne Ray Image:WSJ2007 Gilwell Park Discovery Bust2.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WSJ2007_Gilwell_Park_Discovery_Bust2.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Superchilum Image:Wszystkich Swietych-2006-Ejdzej-07.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wszystkich_Swietych-2006-Ejdzej-07.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Ejdzej Image:Brownsea Island 6.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Brownsea_Island_6.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: LordHarris Image:Basic Practical Course Leaders Jan 1971.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Basic_Practical_Course_Leaders_Jan_1971.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Bernard Darke Image:1918 girl guides.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1918_girl_guides.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: CarolSpears, Coyau, Egel, Gdeke, Infrogmation, Martin H., Sherurcij, Vanished user 001, 1 anonymous edits File:WikiProject_Scouting_fleur-de-lis_dark.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WikiProject_Scouting_fleur-de-lis_dark.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Created by User:Kintetsubuffalo. A fleur-de-lis positioned on a trefoil, in the original Scouting colors chosen by Lord Baden-Powell. To be used as a non-trademark Scouting logo where questions of legality are involved. Latest edits: Lokal_Profil Previous edits Kintetsubuffalo (original), Time3000, UserB and Kaboom88 File:Scout stone Brownsea.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scout_stone_Brownsea.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Adrian Pingstone File:Calvin Coolidge receiving statue of Boy Scout outside the White House 1927.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Calvin_Coolidge_receiving_statue_of_Boy_Scout_outside_the_White_House_1927.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User USHistory on en.wikipedia File:Scouts own in camp.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scouts_own_in_camp.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: w:en:User:Albatross2147

277

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:ScoutingStatueHoustonTX.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ScoutingStatueHoustonTX.JPG License: unknown Contributors: User:WhisperToMe took the photograph File:Guides osiniec.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Guides_osiniec.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Egel at en.wikipedia Later version(s) were uploaded by Rugby471 at en.wikipedia. File:Scout mem jamb 1979 1980 perry lakes gnangarra.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scout_mem_jamb_1979_1980_perry_lakes_gnangarra.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User:Gnangarra File:Ideal Scout.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ideal_Scout.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Bruce Andersen File:Cub Scouts of Hong Kong at Scout Rally.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cub_Scouts_of_Hong_Kong_at_Scout_Rally.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: HenryLi, Olivier2, Vanished user 001 File:Baden-Powell ggbain-39190 (cropped).png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Baden-Powell_ggbain-39190_(cropped).png License: Public Domain Contributors: Bain News Service, publisher. File:1996-Rover Moot-Fahnengru.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1996-Rover_Moot-Fahnengru.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Jrg Brgis File:Harcerki ZP.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Harcerki_ZP.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Halibutt Converted by:XcepticZP Image:Foulard scouts de france.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Foulard_scouts_de_france.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Hastings II Image:Puerto-rico-gsusa.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Puerto-rico-gsusa.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Emma Pease (Transferred by evrik/Originally uploaded by Erp) File:Baden-Powell Scouting certificate 1914.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Baden-Powell_Scouting_certificate_1914.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: At least parts are work of en:Robert Baden-Powell File:Boy Scout Association 1920-1967.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Boy_Scout_Association_1920-1967.png License: anonymous-EU Contributors: Original uploader was LadyofHats at en.wikipedia File:Explorer Scouts climbing at Stanage Edge.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Explorer_Scouts_climbing_at_Stanage_Edge.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Photo taken by: Stuart Jones, Horus Kol at en.wikipedia. Later version(s) were uploaded by Rugby471 at en.wikipedia. File:ScoutMarch CopyrightKaihsuTai.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ScoutMarch_CopyrightKaihsuTai.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:Kaihsu File:Flag of Anguilla.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Anguilla.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dbenbenn; Vectorized by Froztbyte File:Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Cayman_Islands.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Collard, Denelson83, Duduziq, Finavon, Fry1989, Guy0307, Krun, Lokal Profil, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Spesh531, Theda, Zscout370, 7 anonymous edits File:Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Falkland_Islands.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: CommonsDelinker, Davepape, DavidArthur, Denelson83, Dexxter, Duduziq, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Juanchopirulo, Krun, Mattes, Maxime laterreur, Neq00, Nightstallion, Red devil 666, Techman224, 8 anonymous edits File:Flag of Gibraltar.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Gibraltar.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alkari, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Fry1989, Mattes, Nightstallion, Pumbaa80, 3 anonymous edits File:Flag of Montserrat.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Montserrat.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Denelson83, Duduziq, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, Nightstallion, Porao, 3 anonymous edits File:Flag of Saint Helena.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Saint_Helena.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Patricia Fidi File:Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_British_Virgin_Islands.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: CeleritasSoni, Csium137, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, DenghiComm, Denniss, Duduziq, Eugenio Hansen, OFS, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Ludger1961, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Spesh531, Xenophon, 2 anonymous edits File:Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Turks_and_Caicos_Islands.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Denelson83, Duduziq, Finavon, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Krun, Lokal Profil, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion File:Flag of the Isle of Man.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Isle_of_Man.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Hoshie File:Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dbenbenn File:Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Solomon_Islands.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg Source: 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File:Flag of Mexico.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Mexico.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alex Covarrubias, 9 April 2006 Based on the arms by Juan Gabino. File:Flag of the United States.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Finland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Finland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp File:Flag of Japan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Japan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Kenya.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Kenya.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Pumbaa80 File:Flag of Canada.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Canada.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Senegal.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Senegal.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original upload by Nightstallion File:Flag of Germany.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Australia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Australia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie, Mifter File:Flag of Thailand.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Thailand.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Zscout370 File:Flag of South Africa.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Africa.svg License: unknown Contributors: Adriaan, Anime Addict AA, AnonMoos, BRUTE, Daemonic Kangaroo, Dnik, Duduziq, Dzordzm, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Jappalang, Juliancolton, Kam Solusar, Klemen Kocjancic, Klymene, Lexxyy, Mahahahaneapneap, Manuelt15, Moviedefender, NeverDoING, Ninane, Poznaniak, Przemub, SKopp, ThePCKid, ThomasPusch, Tvdm, Ultratomio, Vzb83, Zscout370, 35 anonymous edits File:Flag of Tunisia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Tunisia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alkari, AnonMoos, Avala, Bender235, Bradayy, Duduziq, Elina2308, Emmanuel.boutet, Flad, Fry1989, Gabbe, Juiced lemon, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, Meno25, Moumou82, Myself488, Neq00, Nightstallion, Reisio, Str4nd, TFCforever, , , 9 anonymous edits File:Flag of South Korea.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various File:Flag of Brazil.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Brazil.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Slovenia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Slovenia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: drawn by User:SKopp, modified by Zscout370 and by Vzb83 Image:World Organization of the Scout Movement map.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:World_Organization_of_the_Scout_Movement_map.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Kintetsubuffalo at en.wikipedia

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