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# FUZZY SETS AND FUZZY LOGIC Theory and Applications

## Prentice Hall P T R Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

CONTENTS

FOREWORD PREFACE PARTI: THEORY 1. FROM CLASSICAL (CRISP) SETS TO FUZZY SETS: A Grand Paradigm Shift 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Crisp Sets: An Overview 1.3 Fuzzy Sets: Basic Types 1.4 Fuzzy Sets: Basic Concepts 1.5 Characteristics and Significance of the Paradigm Shift Notes Exercises 2. FUZZY SETS VERSUS CRISP SETS 2.1 Additional Properties of a-Cuts 2.2 Representations of Fuzzy Sets 2.3 Extension Principle for Fuzzy Sets Notes Exercises 3. OPERATIONS ON FUZZY SETS 3.1 3.2 3.3 Types of Operations Fuzzy Complements Fuzzy Intersections: f-Norms

xi xiii 1 1 1 5 11 19 30 32 33 35 35 39 44 48 49 50 50 51 61

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3.4 Fuzzy Unions: f-Conorms 3.5 Combinations of Operations 3.6 Aggregation Operations Notes Exercises
4. FUZZY ARITHMETIC

76 83 88 94 95
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4.1 Fuzzy Numbers 4.2 Linguistic Variables . 4.3 Arithmetic Operations on Intervals 4.4 Arithmetic Operations on Fuzzy Numbers 4.5 Lattice of Fuzzy Numbers 4.6 Fuzzy Equations Notes Exericses
5. FUZZY RELATIONS

## 97 102 102 105 109 114 117 117

119

5.1 Crisp versus Fuzzy Relations 5.2 Projections and Cylindric Extensions 5.3 Binary Fuzzy Relations 5.4 Binary Relations on a Single Set 5.5 Fuzzy Equivalence Relations 5.6 Fuzzy Compatibility Relations 5.7 Fuzzy Ordering Relations 5.8 Fuzzy Morpbisms 5.9 Sup-i Compositions of Fuzzy Relations 5.10 Inf-a); Compositions of Fuzzy Relations Notes Exercises
6. FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS

119 122 124 128 132 135 137 141 144 146 149 149
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6.1 General Discussion 6.2 Problem Partitioning 6.3 Solution Method 6.4 Fuzzy Relation Equations Based on Sup-i Compositions 6.5 Fuzzy Relation Equations Based on Inf- co; Compositions 6.6 Approximate Solutions 6.7 The Use of Neural Networks Notes Exercises

VII

## 177 177 180 187 198 200 208 209 212

212 217 220 225 229 231 236 239 242 242 245 245 247 250 254 258 267 269 277 278

7.1 Fuzzy Measures 7.2 Evidence Theory 7.3 Possibility Theory 7.4 Fuzzy Sets and Possibilty Theory 7.5 Possibility Theory versus Probability Theory Notes Exercises
8. FUZZY LOGIC

8.1 Classical Logic: An Overview 8.2 Multivalued Logics 8.3 Fuzzy Propositions 8.4 Fuzzy Quantifiers 8.5 Linguistic Hedges 8.6 Inference from Conditional Fuzzy Propositions 8.7 Inference from Conditional and Qualified Propositions 8.8 Inference from Quantified Propositions Notes Exercises 9. UNCERTAINTY-BASED INFORMATION Information and Uncertainty 9.1 9.2 Nonspecificity of Crisp Sets 9.3 Nonspecificity of Fuzzy Sets 9.4 Fuzziness of Fuzzy Sets 9.5 Uncertainty in Evidence Theory 9.6 Summary of Uncertainty Measures 9.7 Principles of Uncertainty Notes Exercises

## PART II. APPLICATIONS

10. CONSTRUCTING FUZZY SETS AND OPERATIONS ON FUZZY SETS

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10.1 General Discussion 10.2 Methods of Construction: An Overview 10.3 Direct Methods with One Expert 10.4 Direct Methods with Multiple Experts 10.5 Indirect Methods with One Expert 10.6 Indirect Methods with Multiple Experts 10.7 Constructions from Sample Data Notes Exercises

## 280 281 282 283 287 288 290 300 301

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11.

APPROXIMATE REASONING

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11.1 Fuzzy Expert Systems: An Overview 11.2 Fuzy Implications 11.3 Selection of Fuzzy Implications 11.4 Multiconditional Approximate Reasoning 11.5 The Role of Fuzzy Relation Equations 11.6 Interval-Valued Approximate Reasoning Notes Exercises
12. FUZZY SYSTEMS

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## 302 304 312 317 321 323 325 325

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12.1 General Discussion 12.2 Fuzzy Controllers: An Overview 12.3 Fuzzy Controllers: An Example 12.4 Fuzzy Systems and Neural Networks 12.5 Fuzzy Neural Networks 12.6 Fuzzy Automata 12.7 Fuzzy Dynamic Systems Notes Exercises
13. PATTERN RECOGNITION

## 327 330 339 344 347 349 353 354 356

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13.1 Introduction 13.2 Fuzzy Clustering 13.3 Fuzzy Pattern Recognition 13.4 Fuzzy Image Processing Notes Exercises
14.

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## FUZZY DATABASES AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS

14.1 General Discussion 14.2 Fuzzy Databases 14.3 Fuzzy Information Retrieval Notes Exercises
15. FUZZY DECISION MAKING

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## 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6

General Discussion Individual Decision Making Multiperson Decision Making Multicriteria Decision Making Multistage Decision Making Fuzzy Ranking Methods

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