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Prctica: Protocolos de Enrutamiento de Estado de Enlace a

Andres Barbieri
*

16 de mayo de 2008

1.

Introduccin o

En este documento se ven ejemplos del protocolo de Enrutamiento de Estado de Enlace intra-AS ms utilizado sobre redes IP, OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). Se ver OSPF estndar ms algunas a a a a caracter sticas extras usadas por fabircantes como cisco. La Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) en 1988 reconociendo las carencias de RIP form un grupo para desarrollar un protocolo nuevo, OSPF, la o primera RFC surgi en 1989. o

1.1.

Caracter sticas de Protocolos de Estado de Enlace

Los protocolos de LS (Estado de Enalce, Link State) se caracterizan por: Todos los nodos comparten toda la informacin con todos, as se logra que todos tengan una imagen o comn y coherente de la red. u Una vez que todos tienen la imagen de la red ejecutan un algoritmo centralizado por ejemplo el de Dijkstra -SFP-, sobre esta, observando la red como un grafo dirigido. Lo ejecutan para cada destino posible partiendo del mismo nodo. No hay intercambio de toda la informacin (tabla de enrutamiento) de forma peridica, solo se o o informan cambios, actualizaciones y se lanzan paquetes para testear los enlaces. El algoritmo tiene un alto consumo de bandwidth al principio, hasta que converge pero luego es m nimo. A diferencia de los de DV que se mantiene bastante constante. Ven la topolog de la red completa en cada nodo. a Debido a esto tiene las siguientes consecuencias: Convergencia ms rpida, ms fcil de detectar nuevos caminos y descartar lazos. a a a a No son propensos a lazos (LOOPLESS). Requieren ms memoria y capacidad de procesamiento porque deben almacenar la informaa cin de la red completa, y para cada destino, cada nodo, debe corre el algoritmo de forma o independiente. Ejemplos de este tipo de protocolos de enrutamiento son: OSPF (IGP). IS-IS (IGP).
*

barbieri@cespi.unlp.edu.ar

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1.2.

Equipamiento para Prcticas a

Las conguraciones y tests se realizan sobre routers cisco 2600: 2003>show version Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-JK8S-M), Version 12.2(12c), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1986-2003 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Wed 05-Feb-03 16:36 by kellythw Image text-base: 0x8000808C, data-base: 0x8156F2AC ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.2(7r) [cmong 7r], RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) uno uptime is 3 weeks, 3 hours, 46 minutes System returned to ROM by power-on System image file is "flash:c2600-jk8s-mz.122-12c.bin" cisco 2620XM (MPC860P) processor (revision 0x100) with 94208K/4096K bytes of memory. Processor board ID JAE073505T5 (657130552) M860 processor: part number 5, mask 2 Bridging software. X.25 software, Version 3.0.0. SuperLAT software (copyright 1990 by Meridian Technology Corp). TN3270 Emulation software. Basic Rate ISDN software, Version 1.1. 1 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s) 2 Low-speed serial(sync/async) network interface(s) 1 ISDN Basic Rate interface(s) 32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory. 32768K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Se conectaron los routers mediante cables V.35-SmartSerial o V.35-D60 cruzados de forma back to back, sin CSU/DSUs al medio. Tambin mediante Ethernet utilizando cables UTP Cat5 para 100BaseTX. e En los grcos, por ejemplo la gura 3 las loopback se marcan como /32 pero no se conguran de esa a forma. Es vlido para las prcticas y tambin se uso en este caso el simulador DYNAMIPS sobre la plataforma a a e PC+GNU/Linux.

2.

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

OSPF es un protocolo denido por [RFC-2328] par IPv4 y por [RFC-2740] para IPv6. La evolucin o de OSPF brevemente fue la siguiente: La [RFC-1247] dene OSPFv1. La [RFC-1583], [RFC-2178], y [RFC-2328] son la evolucin a OSPFv2. Denen las posibilidad de ejecutar en mltiples areas y cinco (5) o u Tipos de LSA bsicos. La [RFC-1584] dene MOSPF (OSPF para rboles Multicast) y el tipo de LSA 6 a a (Multicast Extensions to OSPF). La [RFC-1587] agrega NSSAs y el tipo de LSA 7.

2.1.

Caracter sticas de OSPF

Las caracter sticas principales de OSPF son:


2

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Es un protocolo IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) corre solo intra-AS. Ejecuta directamente sobre IP y usa el nmero de protocolo 89. u # grep -i ospf /etc/protocols ospf 89 OSPFIGP

# Open Shortest Path First IGP

Utiliza como destino la direccin de multicast 224.0.0.5 (todos los routers OSPF) y la 224.0.0.6 o (todos los DR OSPF). Depende del Flooding (inundacin de la red) para que todos los nodos vean la informacin de o o actualizaciones. Se transmite de un nodo a todos. Cada router al recibir una actualizacin de otro o router propaga esta por todas las interfaces, menos por la de entrada. Esto asegura que todos vean todo pero tiene el problema de que se pueden generar LOOPS de noticaciones/actualizaciones. Los LOOPS de noticaciones se solucionan aplicando el algoritmo conocido como LOLIPOP (del chupet n). Cada actualizacin lleva un nmero de secuencia y los routers comparan los valores de o u las actualizaciones recibidas con las que tienen en sus LS DBs para saber si deben incorporarla y/o propagarla, o no. Para evitar problemas de wrap-around que generan mal-interpretaciones de estos valores, por ejemplo con routers reiniciados, se numera en una primera fase de forma lineal y luego de forma circular. Se utiliza el sistema de numeracin Ca2 (Complemento a 2). Se comienza de los o negativos de forma lineal y luego una vez llegado a 0 se hace de forma circular, llegado el ultimo valor no se vuelve a los negativos sino reinicia de 0. Como mtrica puede usar varios valores o combinarlos, las RFC no lo denen y en la mayor de e a los casos solo utiliza el bandwidth. Obtiene el mejor o el m nimo a lo largo de todo el camino con el siguiente esquema para cada enlace: f (bw, delay, mtu, cost, ...) = K/bw = 108 /bwbps = 100,000,000/bandwith(bps)
Fast / Gigabit Ethernet /10 G Ethernet 1 T3 2 10 Mbps Ethernet 10 E1 50 T1 64

(1)

Notar que para Fast, Giga y 10G bit Ethernet el bandwidth es el mismo. Para el caso de routers cisco para priorizar un enlace sobre otro se puede usar el comando ip ospf cost (value), el cual asigna un valor arbitrar denido por el administrador. o
GigabitEthernet FastEthernet Serial ( T3 - DS3 ) Ethernet Serial ( E1 ) Serial ( T1 ) Serial ( FR ) BW 1000000 Kbit , BW 100000 Kbit , BW 44210 Kbit , BW 10000 Kbit , BW 2000 Kbit , BW 1544 Kbit , BW 128 Kbit , DLY 10 usec , DLY 100 usec , DLY 200 usec , DLY 1000 usec , DLY 20000 usec , DLY 20000 usec , DLY 20000 usec , MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

Es escalable e inteligente al momento de elegir la mejor ruta. Permite balancear entre diferentes rutas de igual costo al mismo destino.

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Es un protocolo Classless (env la mscara) con las actualizaciones. a a Utiliza varios tipos de mensajes y varias etapas: Protocolo Hello: Se utiliza para descubrir a los vecinos y para detectar fallas de enlace. Se da de baja la vecindad luego del Dead Interval. Los mensajes son Hello y se env peridicamente. an o En el descubrimiento de los vecinos se pasa por varios estados, algunos son: Down no se a recibido informacin. o Init se vio un Hello desde un vecino, pero el router mismo no se vio reejado en el mismo (One-Way). 2Way se vio un Hello desde un vecino, y el router se vio as mismo en el contenido del mismo. A esta altura se estableci la Vecindad. Al nal ya se ha elegido DR y BDR. o Exstart Se intenta establecer un nmero de secuencia y una relacin master/slave para u o intercambiar informacin. Se intercambian los LS DBD (Descriptores). o Exchange se env las LS DBs (Link State Database) entre los vecinos. Se realiza de an acuerdo a la etapa anterior. Loading se termina el intercambio, ya pueden responder a Request o realizarlos. Full la Adyacencia se estableci, deber tener la misma LS DBs. o an Protocolo del Eleccin del DR: Forma parte del Hello. Usado en redes multi-acceso, para o ahorrar BW. Ms adelante se ve en detalle. a Protocolo Exchange: Se utiliza para realizar la sincronizacin de las LS DBs en una etapa inio cial. Luego se mantiene con Flooding. Se ejecuta luego que los vecinos estn en el estado a 2WAY. Se env DBD (Descriptores de la Database) y se conraman (Acks) en relacin an o master/slave. Se utilizan los bits I (init), M(more) y MS(master/slave), el master ser el que a genere el nmero de secuencia ms grande (DD). Los Ack son LS DBD con el mismo DD que u a el master. Una vez que c/u tiene su lista de requerimiento envia LS Requests solicitando los registros en los cuales esta interesado, los mismos son respondidos con LS Updates. Ver captures/dr-bdr/ospf-dr-2003.pcap Protocolo Flooding: Mantiene actualizada las LS DBs. Se ejecuta despus de los Exchanges. e Los mensajes que se utilizan se llaman LSA (Link State Advertisments), LSA Update y LSA ACK. Es un protocolo completo y escalable pero es bastante complejo de congurar y administrar en redes grandes.

2.2.

Tipos de Rutas OSPF

OSPF al ser un protocolo complejo permite diferenciar diferentes tipos de rutas. Cdigo en el Router o O O IA O N1 O N2 O E1 O E2 Tipo de Ruta OSPF OSPF intra area. OSPF inter area. OSPF NSSA external type 1. OSPF NSSA external type 2. OSPF external type 1. OSPF external type 2.

Cuadro 1: Tabla de tipos de rutas OSPF segn cisco. u

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2.2.1.

Rutas intra-Area OSPF

Son rutas aprendidas desde routers que se encuentran en la misma rea. a 2.2.2. Rutas inter-Area OSPF

Son rutas aprendidas desde routers que se encuentran en otras rea. En realidad los routers que a las ensean son los que se conocen como ABR (Area Border Routers), routers que tiene interfaces en n diferentes reas. a 2.2.3. Rutas Externas OSPF

Son rutas generadas por ASBR (Autonomous System Border Router). A continuacin se transcribe o las descripciones de las rutas externas de textos de la bibliograf presentada al nal: a ...E1 vs. E2 External Routes: External routes fall under two categories, external type 1 and external type 2. The dierence between the two is in the way the cost (metric) of the route is being calculated. The cost of a type 2 route is always the external cost, irrespective of the interior cost to reach that route. A type 1 cost is the addition of the external cost and the internal cost used to reach that route. A type 1 route is always preferred over a type 2 route for the same destination. With type 2 being the default. A type 1 route has a metric that is the sum of the internal OSPF cost and the external redistributed cost. A type 2 route has a metric equal only to the redistributed cost. If routes are redistributed into OSPF as type 2 then every router in the OSPF domain will see the same cost to reach the external networks. If routes are redistributed into OSPF as type 1, then the cost to reach the external networks could vary from router to router. Route redistribution is the process of taking routes learned via one routing protocol and injecting those routes into another routing domain. (Static and connected routes can also be redistributed.) When a router running OSPF takes routes learned by another routing protocol and makes them available to the other OSPF-enabled routers its communicating with, that router becomes an Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR). E2 is the default route type for routes learned via redistribution. The key with E2 routes is that the cost of these routes reects only the cost of the path from the ASBR to the nal destination the cost of the path ... is not reected in this cost. (Remember that OSPFs metric for a path is referred to as cost.)... # redistribute static subnets metric 20 In this example, we want the cost of the routes to reect the entire path, not just the path between the ASBR and the destination network. To do so, the routes must be redistributed into OSPF as E1 routes on the ASBR, as shown here. # redistribute rip subnets metric-type 1 Now the routes appear as E1 routes and have a larger metric, since the entire path cost is now reected in the routing table. Knowing the dierence between E1 and E2 routes is vital for fully understanding a production routers routing table. 2.2.4. Rutas NSSA OSPF

Las rutas NSSA son como las externas pero son inyectadas por ASBR de reas NSSA, reas stub a a especiales, que pueden inyectar rutas externas. Estos links son traducidos a tipo 5 por los ABR de las a reas NSSA cuando salen de la misma. Dentro de la NSSA son de tipo 7.

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2.3.

OSPF Link Types (Tipo de Links)

Los tipos de LSA (Link State Advertisments) L1 al L5 fueron denidos en la primera RFC, [RFC-1583]. Cdigo de Link o L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 Descripcin en OSPF o Router Link Network Link Summary Link (IP network) Summary Link (Link to ABR) External Link Group Membership Mcast. (MOSPF) Type-7 AS External Link States

Cuadro 2: Tabla de tipos de LSA en OSPF. A continuacin se describen y se transcribe las descripciones desde la bibliograf presentada. o a 2.3.1. L1: Router Links

Sumarizan todos los links vistos por el router origen/advertising. Todos los enlaces que posee el router localmente. Router links advertisements are the Type 1 link state advertisements. Each router in an area originates a router links advertisement. The advertisement describes the state and cost of the routers links (i.e., interfaces) to the area. All of the routers links to the area must be described in a single router links advertisement. For details concerning the construction of router links advertisements. In router links advertisements, the Link State ID eld is set to the routers OSPF Router ID.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | LS age | Options | 1 | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Link State ID | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Advertising Router | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | LS sequence number | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | LS checksum | length | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | 0 |V|E|B| 0 | # links | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Link ID | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Link Data | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Type | # TOS | metric | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | ... | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | TOS | 0 | TOS metric | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Link ID | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Link Data |

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2.3.2.

L2: Network Links

Advertidos por los DR a las redes BCAST, NBMA, describe a todos los router que estn adyacentes. a Network links advertisements are the Type 2 link state advertisements. A network links advertisement is originated for each transit network in the area. A transit network is a multi-access network that has more than one attached router. The network links advertisement is originated by the networks Designated Router. The advertisement describes all routers attached to the network, including the Designated Router itself. The advertisements Link State ID eld lists the IP interface address of the Designated Router.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | LS age | Options | 2 | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Link State ID | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Advertising Router | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | LS sequence number | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | LS checksum | length | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Network Mask | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | Attached Router | + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ | ... |

2.3.3.

L3, L4: Summary Links

No se sumarizan en un solo mensaje, todos los destinos individuales, cada uno en su mensaje. L3 usado por ABR hacia la red (IP networks). L4 usado por ABR hacia Routers de Borde (BR). Summary link advertisements are the Type 3 and 4 link state advertisements. These advertisements are originated by area border routers. A separate summary link advertisement is made for each destination (known to the router) which belongs to the AS, yet is outside the area. For details concerning the construction of summary link advertisements, see Section 12.4.3. Type 3 link state advertisements are used when the destination is an IP network. In this case the advertisements Link State ID eld is an IP network number (if necessary, the Link State ID can also have one or more of the networks host bits set; see Appendix F for details). When the destination is an AS boundary router, a Type 4 advertisement is used, and the Link State ID eld is the AS boundary routers OSPF Router ID. (To see why it is necessary to advertise the location of each ASBR, consult Section 16.4.) Other than the dierence in the Link State ID eld, the format of Type 3 and 4 link state advertisements is identical. 2.3.4. L5: External Links

Generados desde los ASBR (Autonomous System Border Ruters). Los ASBR no necesariamente corren BGP, son routers que corren otros protocolos de enrutamiento e inyectan rutas externas a OSPF aprendidas v estos protocolos. Por ejemplo rutas estticas, RIP, BGP, u otros. No se sumarizan en un a a solo mensaje, todos los destinos individuales. Transcribiendo:

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...AS external link advertisements usually describe a particular external destination. AS external link advertisements are the Type 5 link state advertisements. These advertisements are originated by AS boundary routers. A separate advertisement is made for each destination (known to the router) which is external to the AS. For details concerning the construction of AS external link advertisements. AS external link advertisements usually describe a particular external destination. For these advertisements the Link State ID eld species an IP network number (if necessary, the Link State ID can also have one or more of the networks host bits set; see Appendix F for details). AS external link advertisements are also used to describe a default route. Default routes are used when no specic route exists to the destination. When describing a default route, the Link State ID is always set to DefaultDestination (0.0.0.0) and the Network Mask is set to 0.0.0.0. 2.3.5. L6: Group Membership Mcast Links

Type 6: Group membership link entry generated by multicast OSPF routers. Enhancements to OSPF Version 2 to support IP multicast routing. Denidos en [RFC-1584] MOSPF. 2.3.6. L7: NSSA External Links

Denidos en [RFC-1587] The OSPF NSSA Option. Type 5 LSAs are not allowed in NSSA areas, so the NSSA ASBR generates a type 7 LSA instead, which remains within the NSSA. This type 7 LSA gets translated back into a type 5 by the NSSA ABR. Type 7: NSSA external routes generated by ASBR. Only ooded to the NSSA. The ABR converts LSA type 7 into LSA type 5 before ooding them into the backbone (area 0). The ABR converts type 7 LSAs into type 5 LSAs, and propagates the type 5 LSAs into normal areas.

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3.

OSPF Tipos de Redes y Ejemplos


OSPF dene el protocolo para trabajar en redes clasicadas en 3 tipos o clases: Redes Multi-acceso Broadcast (BCAST). Por ejemplo Ethernet/Token-Ring/FDDI. Redes Multi-acceso Non-Broadcast (NBMA - Non-Broadcast Multi-access). Por ejemplo X.25/FrameRelay/ATM. Redes Punto a Punto (P2P). Por ejemplo PPP/SLIP/HDLC. Los tipos de Redes congurables en un router cisco son:

2003-R(config-if)#ip ospf network ? broadcast Specify OSPF non-broadcast Specify OSPF point-to-multipoint Specify OSPF point-to-point Specify OSPF

broadcast multi-access network NBMA network point-to-multipoint network point-to-point network.

El tipo de red Point-to-Multipoint esta contemplado en [RFC-2328]: ...OSPF runs in one of two modes over non-broadcast networks. The rst mode, called non-broadcast multi-access or NBMA, simulates the operation of OSPF on a broadcast network. The second mode, called Point-to-MultiPoint, treats the non- broadcast network as a collection of point-to-point links... En ocasiones es necesario especicarlo expl citamente de acuerdo al comportamiento que se quiera lograr. Esto es aplicable completamente a redes de tipo NBMA.

3.1.

Routers Designados en OSPF

Router Designado (DR) y Designado de Backup (BDR) son elegidos en las dos redes Multi-access. Todo el intercambio de Updates se realiza contra el DR y BDR, luego el DR lo propaga a todos los vecinos par ahorrar bandwidth. Se transcribe de las referencias: ...DR and BDR are elected for every multi-access network to optimize the adjacency building process. All the routers in that segment should be able to communicate directly with the DR and BDR for proper adjacency (in the case of a point-to-point network, DR and BDR are not necessary since there are only two routers in the segment, and hence the election does not take place)... 3.1.1. Descubrimiento de Vecinos en OSPF

Si existe soporte de broadcasts en la red OSPF se descubre de forma automtica a los vecinos, sino a se debe congurar manualmente. Se transcribe desde las referencias: ...In the broadcast multi-access Layer 2 topology, broadcasts are supported; therefore, a router that runs OSPF can discover OSPF neighbors automatically and elect any router as DR and BDR since any device can talk to all other routers in that broadcast segment... In a point-to-point topology, neighbors are discovered automatically since neighbors are directly connected to each other through a point-to-point link, and broadcast or multicast packets are forwarded over the network; however, the DR and BDR election does not take place as explained earlier. In an NBMA network topology, which is inherently nonbroadcast, neighbors are not discovered automatically. OSPF tries to elect a DR and a BDR due to the multi-access nature of the network, but the election fails since neighbors are not discovered. Neighbors must be congured manually to overcome these problems. Also, additional conguration is necessary in a hub and spoke topology to make sure that the hub routers, which have connectivity with every other spoke router, are elected as the DR and BDR. Alternatively, you can change the conguration on the NBMA interface to make OSPF believe that it is another network type that does not have these problems. En [RFC-2328] se indica:

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3.1.2.

Timeout para Vecindad OSPF

La vecindad, o mejor las adyacencias, de mantienen con los mensajes Hello y se cae si luego de el Dead Interval no se ven estos mensajes. Los tiempos de cada cuanto de env estos mensajes y cuando an se ca la adyacencia se congura para los diferentes tipos de redes de forma diferente. e Los tiempos son descriptos para los diferentes tipos de redes en la tabla 3.1.2. Network Type Point-to-Point Point-to-Multipoint Broadcast Non-Broadcast Hello (sec) 10 30 10 30 Dead Interval (sec) 40 120 40 120

Cuadro 3: Tabla de tiempos de Hello y Dead Interval en OSPF.

3.2.

Ejemplos sobre Ethernet, Broadcast

Ejemplos sobre Ethernet utilizando la toplog de la gura 1. a

Figura 1: Topolog utilizada para la prctica de OSPF Broadcast. a a

3.2.1.

Conguraciones de los Routers

Router 2003 2003-R#show running-config ... ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.3 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto end ...

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interface loopback 0 ip address 13.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 end 2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.3 network 172.17.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0 ! Router 2004 2004-R#show running-config ... ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.4 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto end ... interface loopback 0 ip address 14.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 end 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.4 network 172.17.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0 ! Router 2006 2006-R#show running-config ... ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.6 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto end ... interface loopback 0 ip address 16.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 end 2006-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 16.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.6

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network 172.17.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0 ! 3.2.2. Ver Routers DR y BDR

La eleccin se basa en la prioridad ms alta, por default todos en 1, 255 el mas grande y con 0 indica o a que no quiere ser DR ni BDR. Si hay iguales prioridades desempata con el ID. Para seleccionar el ID lo hace desde todas las direcciones IP de las loopbacks tomando la ms alta, si no tiene loopbacks selecciona a la ms alta del resto. Necesita si o si una IP congurada para correr. a There must be at least one "up" IP interface, for OSPF to use as router ID %OSPF-4-NORTRID: OSPF process 100 cannot start. No necesariamente la IP usada participa en OSPF. El uso de loobpacks lo realiza por estabilidad. Antes de ver el proceso de seleccin de DR/BDR se puede observar como va pasando por todos los o estados. 2006#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Pri State 13.0.0.1 1 INIT/DROTHER 2006#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 Pri 1 Pri 1 Pri 1 State 2WAY/DROTHER State EXSTART/BDR State FULL/BDR Dead Time 00:00:32 Address 172.17.4.3 Interface FastEthernet0/0

Dead Time 00:00:37 Dead Time 00:00:34 Dead Time 00:00:39

Address 172.17.4.3 Address 172.17.4.3 Address 172.17.4.3

Interface FastEthernet0/0 Interface FastEthernet0/0 Interface FastEthernet0/0

Ver vecinos en cada router y los roles DR/BDR. 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/DROTHER FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:36 00:00:38 Address 172.17.4.4 172.17.4.6 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/BDR FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:30 00:00:39 Address 172.17.4.3 172.17.4.6 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

2006-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/DROTHER FULL/BDR Dead Time 00:00:39 00:00:38 Address 172.17.4.4 172.17.4.3 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

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Ver que en este caso, 2003-R le gan el rol de BDR a 2004-R donde no deber esto se debe a que la o a, eleccin se produjo antes que 2004-R entrara a competir. Ver tablas de enrutamiento y las LS DBs: o 2003-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 16.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.17.4.6, 00:01:46, FastEthernet0/0 172.17.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 172.17.4.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 13.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 13.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 14.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.17.4.4, 00:01:46, FastEthernet0/0 2003-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (13.0.0.1) (Process ID 100) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1361 151 1366 Seq# 0x80000004 0x80000008 0x80000002 Checksum 0x00F194 0x00E19D 0x00DDA1 Link count 1 1 1

Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 172.17.4.6 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 151 Seq# Checksum 0x80000004 0x000A22

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1357 151 93 Seq# 0x80000002 0x80000003 0x80000002 Checksum 0x0062BC 0x004AD1 0x0020F8

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.3) Link ID 13.0.0.1 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 Age 1357 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000002 0x0032D3 1

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Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.3) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 172.17.4.0 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 Age 137 1354 1358 Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000005 Checksum 0x0061BC 0x0047D4 0x005216

Se ven Router Links aprendidos por los Exchange iniciales, se ven Network Links enviados por el DR, y se ven Summary Links debido a que cada router participante tiene las interfaces loopback en a reas independientes. Notar que las LS DBs son por reas a las que pertenece el router. a En las capturas captures/dr-bdr/*.pcap se observa la eleccin de DR y BDR. Se ve como arrancan o con los DR y BDR vac en los Hello, como luego se logra el consenso entre 2003-R y 2006-R. Luego os cuando entra 2004-R arranca vac pero a continuacin aprende el DR y BDR y los toma. Tambien se o o observa como arrancan sin vecinos y como se van agregando en los Hello hasta que todos se ven entre si. Otras capturas para observar este proceso en la misma conguracin son: o captures/ospf-dr-election.pcap y captures/ospf-dr-election-2.pcap. 2003-R#debug ip packet IP packet debugging is on IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), sending broad/multi cast IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), sending broad/multicast IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), sending broad/multicast 3.2.3. Ver Mensajes OSPF rcvd 0 rcvd 0 len 72, rcvd 0 rcvd 0 len 72, rcvd 0 rcvd 0 len 72,

Producir un cambio y ver los Updates y la utilizacin de las direcciones de multicast: o captures/updates/*.pcap, en particular en captures/updates/01-ospf-update-2003.pcap. 2003#debug ip packet IP packet debugging is on ... IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), sending broad/multicast IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), sending broad/multicast

rcvd 0 rcvd 0 len 72, rcvd 0 rcvd 0 len 72,

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2004(config)# ... interface loopback 1 ip address 40.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 ! router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.4 network 40.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.17.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 ! ...

En el primer datagrama IP va el Update desde el router que detecta el cambio hacia todos los routers designados (All-OSPF-DRs) y en el segundo va la actualizacin desde el desgindo (DR) a todos los routers o OSPF. Ver que el primero usa la direccin de multicast 224.0.0.6 y el resto la 224.0.0.5. o IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.6, len 96, rcvd 0 IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 96, rcvd 0 Luego contina con la conrmacin de la actualizacin recibida, pero esta es dirigida a todos los u o o routers. IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), len 64, sending broad/multicast IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), sending broad/multicast IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, Ver los cambios producidos en la tabla de ruteo (RIB). 2003#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2 ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.17.4.6, 00:03:39, FastEthernet0/0 172.17.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 172.17.4.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 rcvd 0 rcvd 0 len 72, rcvd 0 rcvd 0

O IA C

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40.0.0.0/32 O 40.0.0.1 13.0.0.0/24 C 13.0.0.0 14.0.0.0/32 O IA 14.0.0.1

is subnetted, 1 subnets [110/2] via 172.17.4.4, 00:03:39, FastEthernet0/0 is subnetted, 1 subnets is directly connected, Loopback0 is subnetted, 1 subnets [110/2] via 172.17.4.4, 00:03:39, FastEthernet0/0

Otro cambio se puede ver al sacarse una red. Ver que esta va todos los routers designados: captures/updates/02-ospf-update2-200*.pcap. 2004-R(config)#interface loopback 1 2004-R(config-if)#shutdown 2003-R# IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), sending broad/multicast IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72,

rcvd 0 rcvd 0 len 72, rcvd 0 rcvd 0

IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.6, len 84, rcvd 0 IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 84, IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), sending broad/multicast IP: s=172.17.4.3 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (FastEthernet0/0), sending broad/multicast IP: s=172.17.4.6 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, IP: s=172.17.4.4 (FastEthernet0/0), d=224.0.0.5, len 72, rcvd 0 len 72, len 64, rcvd 0 rcvd 0

Tambin se puede ver el efecto, pero quitando la ruta desde un router que no tiene rol de designado: e captures/updates/03-ospf-update-200*.pcap. 2004(config)#interface loopback 0 2004(config-if)#shutdown 3.2.4. Re-eleccin de DR y BDR o

Cambiar la Prioridad para que cambie el DR. Para que se vuelva a ejecutar la eleccin se debe o restartear el proceso OSPF en todos los routers. 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/BDR FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:30 00:00:39 Address 172.17.4.3 172.17.4.6 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

2004-R(config-if)#ip ospf priority ? <0-255> Priority 2004-R(config)#interface FastEthernet 0/0

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2004-R(config-if)#ip ospf priority 255 2003-R#clear ip ospf process Reset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: yes 2004-R#clear ip ospf process Reset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: yes 2006-R#clear ip ospf process Reset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: yes 2004-R# ... %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 100, Nbr 16.0.0.1 on FastEthernet0/0 from INIT to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 100, Nbr 13.0.0.1 on FastEthernet0/0 from INIT to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/DROTHER FULL/BDR Dead Time 00:00:30 00:00:32 Address 172.17.4.3 172.17.4.6 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

Ver que Ethernet toma automticamente el tipo de red Broadcast sin necesidad de congurarse a manualmente sobre la interfaz. 2004-R# show ip ospf interface FastEthernet 0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.17.4.4/24, Area 0.0.0.0 Process ID 100, Router ID 14.0.0.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 255 Designated Router (ID) 14.0.0.1, Interface address 172.17.4.4 Backup Designated router (ID) 13.0.0.1, Interface address 172.17.4.3 Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:00 Index 1/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 14 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 2, Adjacent neighbor count is 2 Adjacent with neighbor 16.0.0.1 Adjacent with neighbor 13.0.0.1 (Backup Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) Es importante notar que en este ejemplo, como son 3 router siempre se estableciern adyacencias entre o todos. Si hay ms de 3 router en la misma red broadcast siempre entre los routers que no son designados a (ni principal, ni backup) no habr ninguna relacin de adyacencia. Por ejemplo se si se agreg un router a o a al ejemplo anterior, el 2005. Router 2005

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2005-R#show running-config ... ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.5 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto ... ! interface loopback 0 ip address 15.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 ! router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 15.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5 network 172.17.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0 ! end Se ve que el router agregado, 2005, no establece adyacencia con 2003, ya que ambos no son ni designados ni de backup. La vecindad queda en estado 2WAY. 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 15.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Pri 1 255 1 State 2WAY/DROTHER FULL/DR FULL/BDR Dead Time 00:00:34 00:00:31 00:00:31 Address 172.17.4.5 172.17.4.4 172.17.4.6 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

2005-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 16.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 255 State FULL/BDR 2WAY/DROTHER FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:36 00:00:36 00:00:36 Address 172.17.4.6 172.17.4.3 172.17.4.4 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 1 State FULL/DROTHER FULL/BDR FULL/DROTHER Dead Time 00:00:37 00:00:34 00:00:34 Address 172.17.4.5 172.17.4.6 172.17.4.3 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

2006-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 15.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 255 State FULL/DROTHER FULL/DROTHER FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:30 00:00:36 00:00:36 Address 172.17.4.5 172.17.4.3 172.17.4.4 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

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3.3.

OSPF sobre ATM-DXI, NBMA

Se simula un canal ATM sobre l neas seriales conectados segn la gura 2. u

Figura 2: Topolog utilizada para la prctica de OSPF NBMA. a a Solo se trabaja sobre 2003-R y 2004-R. 3.3.1. Conguraciones y NBMA con Broadcast

El primer ejemplo que se muestra es aprovechando la capacidad de poder enviar broadcast a nivel de enlace. Notar el comando ip ospf network broadcast en cada interfaz. Hay que indicarselo expl citamente no como en ethernet que no es necesario. Sino toma como tipo NBMA. Notar tambin e expl citamente el comando propio de nivel de enlace al cual se le congura soporte para broadcast: dxi map ip <IP> <VPI> <VCI> broadcast. Router 2003 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 221 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 encapsulation atm-dxi ip ospf network broadcast load-interval 30 no keepalive dxi pvc 3 15 snap dxi map ip 172.16.4.1 2 15 broadcast end 2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

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network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! 2003-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State BDR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 14.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.1 Backup Designated router (ID) 13.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.2 Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:09 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 2 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 14.0.0.1 (Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 Router 2004 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 221 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation atm-dxi ip ospf network broadcast no keepalive clockrate 128000 dxi pvc 2 15 snap dxi map ip 172.16.4.2 3 15 broadcast end 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! 2004-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/DR FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:38 00:00:37 Address 172.16.4.1 172.16.1.2 Interface Serial0/1 Serial0/0

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Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 14.0.0.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 14.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.1 Backup Designated router (ID) 13.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.2 Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:02 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 2, maximum is 3 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 13.0.0.1 (Backup Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/BDR FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:38 00:00:36 Address 172.16.4.2 172.16.3.1 Interface Serial0/1 Serial0/0

Para el broadcast sobre estos canales se basa en la siguiente propiedad descripta en: [CDXI] 1 ...ATM Access over a Serial Interface Example: In the following example, serial interface 0 is congured for ATM-DXI with MUX encapsulation. Because MUX encapsulation is used, only one protocol is carried on the PVC. This protocol is explicitly identied by a dxi map command, which also identies the protocol address of the remote node. This PVC can carry IP broadcast trac... interface serial 0 ip address 172.21.178.48 encapsulation atm-dxi dxi pvc 10 10 mux dxi map ip 172.21.178.4 10 10 broadcast subsubsectionNBMA sin Broadcast, ATM-DXI En este caso se utiliza el mismo nivel de enlace pero se utiliza el tipo de red default para ATM-DXI: NBMA. Ver que 2004-R queda como DR y 2003-R como BDR. Ver que se congura expl citamente el comando neighbor <IP-Vecino>. en la seccin de ruteo de OSPF indicando cual es el vecino, porque o en este entorno de NON-BROADCAST no lo encontrar sino. Notar el comando ip ospf network a non-broadcast en cada interfaz, aunque no es necesario, como ya se mencion es el default. o Router 2003 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 176 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 encapsulation atm-dxi
1

(Nota: El ejemplo de la referencia mencionada es diferente a las conguraciones que se usan en el ejemplo.

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no keepalive ip ospf network non-broadcast load-interval 30 dxi pvc 2 15 snap dxi map ip 172.16.4.1 2 15 end 2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 neighbor 172.16.4.1 priority 1 ! 2003-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type NON_BROADCAST, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State BDR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 14.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.1 Backup Designated router (ID) 13.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.2 Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:07 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 2 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 14.0.0.1 (Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 Router 2004 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 194 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation atm-dxi ip ospf network non-broadcast no keepalive clockrate 128000 Pri 1 1 State FULL/DR FULL/ Dead Time 00:01:49 00:00:37 Address 172.16.4.1 172.16.1.2 Interface Serial0/1 Serial0/0

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dxi pvc 2 15 snap dxi map ip 172.16.4.2 2 15 end ! 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 neighbor 172.16.4.2 priority 1 ! 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/BDR FULL/ Dead Time 00:01:32 00:00:34 Address 172.16.4.2 172.16.3.1 Interface Serial0/1 Serial0/0

Notar el tipo de red NON-BROADCAST en las muestras anteriores. 3.3.2. Point-to-Point sobre Multi-acceso, ATM-DXI

Notar el comando ip ospf network point-to-point en cada interfaz de cada router y ver que no existe DR no BDR. Router 2003 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 226 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 encapsulation atm-dxi ip ospf network point-to-point load-interval 30 no keepalive dxi pvc 2 15 snap dxi map ip 172.16.4.1 2 15 broadcast end 2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor

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Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 Router 2004

Pri 1 1

State FULL/ FULL/

Dead Time 00:00:37 00:00:37

Address 172.16.4.1 172.16.1.2

Interface Serial0/1 Serial0/0

2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 226 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation atm-dxi ip ospf network point-to-point no keepalive clockrate 128000 dxi pvc 2 15 snap dxi map ip 172.16.4.2 2 15 broadcast end 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/ FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:38 00:00:38 Address 172.16.4.2 172.16.3.1 Interface Serial0/1 Serial0/0

Notar el tipo de Red Punto a Punto. 2004-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 14.0.0.1, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:03 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 3, maximum is 3 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 13.0.0.1 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)

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3.3.3.

Point-to-Multipoint sobre Multi-acceso, ATM-DXI

Este tipo de red es tratada como varias puntos a puntos tal como se describe en [RFC-2328] o en [COSPFn1]. Transcribiendo de esta ultima: ... Point-to-mutipoint: treats non-broadcast network as a collection of point-to-point links by conguring the ip ospf network point-to-multipoint command. There are no DR and BDR elected when the NBMA network is congured as Point-to-Multipoint as shown in the outputs, since it is treated as a collection of point-to-point links... No se muestra el ejemplo, en este caso se corre: ip ospf network point-to-multipoint en cada interfaz pero funciona de forma similar que OSPF en P2P.

3.4.

OSPF sobre Frame-Relay, NBMA

Se conectan los routers Back2Back en toplog similar a la de la gura 2. Se transcribe desde a [COSPFn5]. ...OSPF treats multipoint Frame Relay interfaces as NON BROADCAST by default. This requires that neighbors be explicitly congured. There are various methods for handling OSPF over Frame Relay. The one that is implemented depends upon whether the network is fully meshed. For more information, refer to the following documents: When you congure OSPF to run over a broadcast-capable or non-broadcast, multi-access network, all devices must be able to communicate directly with (at a minimum) the designated router. The broadcast and NBMA model relies on the Frame Relay cloud being fully meshed. If a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) goes down, the cloud is no longer fully meshed and OSPF fails to work correctly. In a Frame Relay environment, if Layer 2 is unstable, as in our example, we do not recommend an OSPF broadcast network-type. Use OSPF point-to-multipoint instead... 3.4.1. Conguraciones y NBMA con Broadcast, FR

Es necesario el tipo de red OSPF. Para que utilice el broadcast con el comando ip ospf network broadcast, sino no establece la adyacencia. Adems es indispensable indicar el el DLCI de frame-relay a que env el broadcast, de la misma forma que se hizo con ATM-DXI, sino no funciona. Se transcribe: ... a In this conguration, the network type is changed to broadcast with the ip ospf network broadcast command. Now, the NBMA network is viewed as a broadcast multi-access network where DR and BDR election takes place. The frame-relay mapommands are also set to forward broadcast addresses. c Router 2003 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 227 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 encapsulation frame-relay ip ospf network broadcast load-interval 30 no keepalive frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.1 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 end 2003-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up

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Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State BDR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 14.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.1 Backup Designated router (ID) 13.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.2 Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:02 Index 3/3, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 14.0.0.1 (Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 Router 2004 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 227 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation frame-relay ip ospf network broadcast no keepalive clockrate 128000 frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.2 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 end 2004-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 14.0.0.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 14.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.1 Backup Designated router (ID) 13.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.2 Pri 1 State FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:35 Address 172.16.4.1 Interface Serial0/1

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Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:08 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 2 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 13.0.0.1 (Backup Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)

2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/BDR Dead Time 00:00:39 Address 172.16.4.2 Interface Serial0/1

Obteniendo el mismo efecto, tambin se podr haber denido una sub-interfaz de tipo Multipoint e a con capacidad de broadcast, de la siguiente forma: 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 101 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address encapsulation frame-relay load-interval 30 no keepalive end 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.2 Building configuration... Current configuration : 181 bytes ! interface Serial0/1.2 multipoint ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network broadcast frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.1 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 end 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1

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Building configuration... Current configuration : 101 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address encapsulation frame-relay no keepalive clockrate 128000 end 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.2 Building configuration... Current configuration : 181 bytes ! interface Serial0/1.2 multipoint ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network broadcast frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.2 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 end 2003-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1.2 Serial0/1.2 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State BDR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 14.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.1 Backup Designated router (ID) 13.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.2 Flush timer for old DR LSA due in 00:02:01 Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:01 Index 3/3, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 14.0.0.1 (Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 3.4.2. NBMA sin Broadcast, Frame-Relay

Se debe congurar explicitamente el neighbor dentro del comando router. NO es necesario el tipo de OSPF network. Igual que en el ejemplo anterior de ATM-DXI tampoco con ip ospf network nonbroadcast. Notar el tipo de red NON BROADCAST en el show. ...In this conguration, the network is non-broadcast, which does not allow neighbors to be discovered automatically. The neighbor command is used to manually congure OSPF neighbors. However, this command is necessary only with Cisco IOS software versions earlier than 10.0. As an alternate solution, issue the ip ospf network broadcastommand to change the default network type. ... c

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Router 2003 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 190 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 encapsulation frame-relay load-interval 30 no keepalive frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.1 101 frame-relay interface-dlci 101 ! ### ip ospf network non-broadcast end 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 5 bytes end 2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 neighbor 172.16.4.1 priority 1 ! 2003-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type NON_BROADCAST, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State BDR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 14.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.1 Backup Designated router (ID) 13.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.2 Flush timer for old DR LSA due in 00:02:01 Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:01 Index 3/3, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 14.0.0.1 (Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor

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Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 Router 2004

Pri 1

State FULL/DR

Dead Time 00:01:37

Address 172.16.4.1

Interface Serial0/1

2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 190 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation frame-relay no keepalive clockrate 128000 frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.2 101 frame-relay interface-dlci 101 ! ### ip ospf network non-broadcast end 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 neighbor 172.16.4.2 priority 1 ! 2004-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 14.0.0.1, Network Type NON_BROADCAST, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 14.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.1 Backup Designated router (ID) 13.0.0.1, Interface address 172.16.4.2 Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:08 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 2 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 13.0.0.1 (Backup Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/BDR Dead Time 00:01:34 Address 172.16.4.2 Interface Serial0/1

Tambin se podr haber denido una sub-interfaz de tipo Multipoint sin soporte de broadcast e a como:

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Router 2003 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 101 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address encapsulation frame-relay load-interval 30 no keepalive end 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.2 Building configuration... Current configuration : 154 bytes ! interface Serial0/1.2 multipoint ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.1 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 ! ### ip ospf network non-broadcast end Similar para 2004. 3.4.3. Point-to-Point sobre Multi-acceso, Frame-Relay

Si se utilizan sub-interfaces de tipo Point-to-point en lugar de Multipoint. NO es necesario congurar ningn parmetro extra con ip ospf network point-to-point ya por default utiliza el tipo u a debido al tipo de las sub-interfaces (point-to-point). Notar el tipo de red POINT TO POINT en el show. Router 2003 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 101 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address encapsulation frame-relay load-interval 30 no keepalive end 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 116 bytes !

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interface Serial0/1.1 point-to-point ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 frame-relay interface-dlci 101 ! ### ip ospf network point-to-point end 2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! 2003-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 %OSPF: OSPF not enabled on Serial0/1 2003-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1.1 Serial0/1.1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:07 Index 3/3, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 14.0.0.1 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 Router 2004 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 101 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address encapsulation frame-relay no keepalive clockrate 128000 end 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.1 Pri 1 State FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:34 Address 172.16.4.1 Interface Serial0/1.1

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Building configuration... Current configuration : 116 bytes ! interface Serial0/1.1 point-to-point ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 frame-relay interface-dlci 101 ! ### ip ospf network point-to-point end 2004-R#show interfaces Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is PowerQUICC Serial MTU 1500 bytes, BW 128 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation FRAME-RELAY, loopback not set Keepalive not set FR SVC disabled, LAPF state down Broadcast queue 0/64, broadcasts sent/dropped 58/0, interface broadcasts 51 Last input 00:00:04, output 00:00:03, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:06:44 Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/1/32 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Available Bandwidth 96 kilobits/sec ... 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! 2004-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1.1 Serial0/1.1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 14.0.0.1, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:07 Index 3/3, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 2, maximum is 2 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 13.0.0.1 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)

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2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 3.4.4. Pri 1 State FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:31 Address 172.16.4.2 Interface Serial0/1.1

Point-to-Multipoint sobre Multi-acceso, Frame-Relay

En esta conguracin se cambia el tipo de red con ip ospf network point-to-multipoint. La red o funciona como una coleccin de redes punto a punto, los vecinos son descubiertos de forma automtica y o a no se elige DR ni BDR. Notar el tipo de red POINT TO MULTIPOINT en el show. Router 2003 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 101 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address encapsulation frame-relay load-interval 30 no keepalive end 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.2 Building configuration... Current configuration : 191 bytes ! interface Serial0/1.2 multipoint ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network point-to-multipoint frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.1 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 end 2003-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1.2 Serial0/1.2 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:28 Index 3/3, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 14.0.0.1 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)

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2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/ Dead Time 00:01:39 Address 172.16.4.1 Interface Serial0/1.2

2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! Router 2004 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 101 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address encapsulation frame-relay no keepalive clockrate 128000 end 2004-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1.2 Serial0/1.2 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 14.0.0.1, Network Type POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:29 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 13.0.0.1 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/ Dead Time 00:01:44 Address 172.16.4.2 Interface Serial0/1.2

2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

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network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 ! 3.4.5. Point-to-Multipoint, NO Broadcast, Frame-Relay

Routers 2003 y 2004 Es necesario configurar el neighbor. Se usa el comando ip ospf network point-to-multipoint non-broadcast. 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.2 Building configuration... Current configuration : 205 bytes ! interface Serial0/1.2 multipoint ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network point-to-multipoint non-broadcast frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.1 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 end 2003-R#show running-config | begin router ospf router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 neighbor 172.16.4.1 ! 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.2 Building configuration... Current configuration : 205 bytes ! interface Serial0/1.2 multipoint ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network point-to-multipoint non-broadcast frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.2 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 end 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 2003-R#sh Pri 1 State FULL/ Dead Time 00:01:41 Address 172.16.4.1 Interface Serial0/1.2

2003-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1.2 Serial0/1.2 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0

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Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:15 Index 3/3, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 14.0.0.1 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2004-R#show running-config | begin router ospf router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 neighbor 172.16.4.2 ! 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 13.0.0.1 1 FULL/ 00:01:36 172.16.4.2 Serial0/1.2 2004-R#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1.2 Serial0/1.2 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 14.0.0.1, Network Type POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT, Cost: 781 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:20 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 13.0.0.1 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 3.4.6. NO Broadcast (Frame-Relay), Point-to-Point (HDLC)

A continuacin se muestran ejemplos de capturas con NON-Broadcast sobre Frame-Relay y con o Point-to-Point sobre HDLC, pero con routers 3600. Las capturas son: captures/non-bcast-p2p/ospf-non-bcast.pcap. captures/non-bcast-p2p/ospf-p2p.pcap. 2003#show version Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) 3600 Software (C3620-I-M), Version 12.0(3)T2,

RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

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Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Thu 08-Apr-99 16:24 by dschwart Image text-base: 0x600088F0, data-base: 0x60702000 ROM: ROMMON Emulation Microcode ROM: 3600 Software (C3620-I-M), Version 12.0(3)T2,

RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

2003 uptime is 1 minute System restarted by unknown reload cause - suspect boot_data[BOOT_COUNT] 0x0, BOOT_COUNT 0, BOOTDATA 19 System image file is "tftp://255.255.255.255/unknown" cisco 3620 (R4700) processor (revision 0xFF) with 61440K/4096K bytes of memory. Processor board ID 00000000 R4700 CPU at 80Mhz, Implementation 33, Rev 1.2 Bridging software. X.25 software, Version 3.0.0. 4 Serial network interface(s) DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity enabled. 125K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory. 8192K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Congurar OSPF: 2003(config)# router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 Ver el tipo de red: 2003#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type NON_BROADCAST, Cost: 64 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State WAITING, Priority 1 No designated router on this network No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:13 Wait time before Designated router selection 00:00:43 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 0, maximum is 0 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 0, Adjacent neighbor count is 0 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) Ver que no establece adyacencia:

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2003#show ip ospf neighbor <NADA> Congurar expl citamente el vecino: 2003(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.4.1 %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 100, Nbr 0.0.0.0 on Serial0/1 from DOWN to ATTEMPT, Start %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 100, Nbr 0.0.0.0 on Serial0/1 from ATTEMPT to ATTEMPT Ahora si: 2003#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time N/A 0 ATTEMPT/DROTHER 00:01:46 %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process Received Hello %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 2-Way Received %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process AdjOK? %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process Negotiation Done %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process Exchange Done %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process Loading Done

Address 172.16.4.1

Interface Serial0/1

100, Nbr 14.0.0.1 on Serial0/1 from ATTEMPT to INIT, 100, Nbr 14.0.0.1 on Serial0/1 from INIT to 2WAY, 100, Nbr 14.0.0.1 on Serial0/1 from 2WAY to EXSTART, 100, Nbr 14.0.0.1 on Serial0/1 from EXSTART to EXCHANGE, 100, Nbr 14.0.0.1 on Serial0/1 from EXCHANGE to LOADING, 100, Nbr 14.0.0.1 on Serial0/1 from LOADING to FULL,

2003#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/DR Dead Time 00:01:48 Address 172.16.4.1 Interface Serial0/1

2004#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/BDR Dead Time 00:00:16 Address 172.16.4.2 Interface Serial0/1

Ver que los mensajes son Unicast: 2003#debug ip packet IP packet debugging is on IP: s=172.16.4.2 (local), d=172.16.4.1 (Serial0/1), len 68, sending IP: s=172.16.4.1 (Serial0/1), d=172.16.4.2, len 68, rcvd 0 IP: s=172.16.4.2 (local), d=172.16.4.1 (Serial0/1), len 68, sending Observar el ejemplo como red Point-to-Point sobre HDLC:

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2003(config)#interface Serial 0/1 2003(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc 2004(config)#interface Serial 0/1 2004(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc 2003#debug ip packet IP packet debugging is on IP: s=172.16.4.2 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (Serial0/1), IP: s=172.16.4.1 (Serial0/1), d=224.0.0.5, len 68, IP: s=172.16.4.2 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (Serial0/1), IP: s=172.16.4.1 (Serial0/1), d=224.0.0.5, len 68, IP: s=172.16.4.2 (local), d=224.0.0.5 (Serial0/1), sending broad/multicast IP: s=172.16.4.1 (Serial0/1), d=224.0.0.5, len 68,

len 68, rcvd 0 len 68, rcvd 0 len 68, rcvd 0

sending broad/multicast sending broad/multicast

2003#show ip ospf interface Serial 0/1 Serial0/1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.16.4.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 100, Router ID 13.0.0.1, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 64 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:07 Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 14.0.0.1 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 2003#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:34 Address 172.16.4.1 Interface Serial0/1

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4.

OSPF M ltiple Area u

Referencias [COSPFC], [COSPFD], [COSPFE], y [COSPFF]. Las divisin en reas de OSPF esta o a pensada para limitar el alance del ooding y reducir la necesidad de recursos: Limitar Flooding. Limitar la vista de la DBD topolgica. o Reducir el tamao de la DBD y as el uso de memoria. n Reducir el consumo de CPU ante reconguraciones. Tipos de Areas: Areas Normales. Areas Stubs. Areas NSSA (NO So Stubby Area). Areas Totalmente Stubs (No estndar). a Areas NSSA Totally Stubs (No estndar). a

4.1.

Normal Area

network <interface-net> area <area-id> La comunicacin con las otras areas es a travs de ABRs (Area Border Routers). Pueden ser reas o e a de trnsito (backbone, area 0) o estndares. El rea de backbone es una sola y es a travs de la cual a a a e se comunican el resto de las reas. Puede trabajar tanto con LSAs externos como internos. Un rea a a estndar puede incorporan rutas externas e internas (inter, intra). Generan externas, internas (inter -solo a los ABR-, intra).

4.2.

Stub Area

network <interface-net> area <area-id> area <area-id> stub No incorporan redes externas. Si internas (inter-area e intra-area). Se basan en default routes para alcanzar rutas Externas. Son estndar. Estas ltran los LSA de tipo 5, E1 y E2. La ruta default la debe a generar de el ABR del rea. No deber tener ms de una salida. Todos los routers del rea deben a an a a acordar estar en rea Stub. a

4.3.

NSSA (No So Stubby Area)

network <interface-net> area <area-id> area <area-id> nssa Son como las Stubs pero pueden generar rutas Externas desde el rea. Si aceptan rutas internas (intera area e intra-area) y generan externas. Las externas son rutas generadas a partir de otros protocolos de enrutamiento y que se distribuyen v OSPF. No aceptan externas de otras areas (LSA 5). No son una a extensin propietaria. Dentro del rea las externas se manejan como LSA 7 y los ABR del area cuando la o a pasan a la 0 las transforman en LSAs 5. Todos los routers del rea deben acordar estar en rea NSSA. a a

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4.4.

Totally Stub Area

network <interface-net> area <area-id> area <area-id> stub no-summary No se incorporan rutas externas ni interas (inter-area), solo intra-area, toda la salida se realiza por default routes. Si pueden generar LSAs internos al area (intra-area) e incorporar los mismos. Son una extensin propietaria de cisco. Solo el ABR puede saber que es Totalmente Stub, el resto la puede o considerar solo Stub. Esto es necesario para generar las rutas defaults y no incorporar informacin de o otras reas. Transcribiendo de las referencias: a ... Ospf totally stub area (cisco propietary, lter type 5 LSA, type 3 IA O, and type 4 IA O from populating stub areas router routing table) Totally stubby area, which is a Cisco proprietary feature...

4.5.

NSSA Totally Stub Area

network <interface-net> area <area-id> area <area-id> nssa no-summary Son con las NSSA pero adems no permiten el ingreso de redes inter-area. O son como una Totally a Stub que puede generar rutas externas. Se generan como Type 7 y se exportan a las otras areas como Type 5, de la misma forma que las NSSA. Ni LSA 3 ni 4 son permitidos. Solo es necesario congurar en los NSSA ABRs. Las Totally Stubs son tambin propias de cisco (propietarias). e

4.6.

Topolog Bsica a a

Figura 3: Topolog utilizada para la prctica de OSPF Multi-area. a a

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4.7.

Conguracin OSPF Multi-Area o

En esta prctica adems de los 2600 habituales se agrega un Cisco Catalyst 3550 (Multilayer). a a L3-2008#show version Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) C3550 Software (C3550-I5Q3L2-M), Version 12.1(22)EA1, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1986-2004 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Mon 12-Jul-04 09:21 by madison Image text-base: 0x00003000, data-base: 0x0083AEF4 ROM: Bootstrap program is C3550 boot loader L3-2008 uptime is 1 week, 5 days, 8 hours, 41 minutes System returned to ROM by power-on System image file is "flash:c3550-i5q3l2-mz.121-22.EA1.bin" cisco WS-C3550-24 (PowerPC) processor (revision J0) with 65526K/8192K bytes of memory. Processor board ID CAT0734X03P Last reset from warm-reset Bridging software. Running Layer2/3 Switching Image Ethernet-controller 1 has 12 Fast Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interfaces Ethernet-controller 2 has 12 Fast Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interfaces Ethernet-controller 3 has 1 Gigabit Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface Ethernet-controller 4 has 1 Gigabit Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface 24 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s) 2 Gigabit Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s) The password-recovery mechanism is enabled. 384K bytes of flash-simulated non-volatile configuration memory. Base ethernet MAC Address: 00:0D:BD:DC:8D:80 Motherboard assembly number: 73-5700-10 Power supply part number: 34-0966-03 Motherboard serial number: CAT073401Q0 Power supply serial number: DTH07320SQM Model revision number: J0 Motherboard revision number: A0 Model number: WS-C3550-24-EMI System serial number: CAT0734X03P Configuration register is 0x10F 4.7.1. Conguraciones de los Routers

2008-R !

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hostname L3-2008 ! ip routing ! ! interface Loopback0 ip address 18.0.0.1 255.255.255.252 ! ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport access vlan 2 switchport mode dynamic desirable no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/7 switchport access vlan 3 switchport mode dynamic desirable no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet 0/13 switchport access vlan 1 switchport mode dynamic desirable no shutdown ! interface Vlan1 ip address 172.16.5.2 255.255.255.0 no shutdown ! ! interface Vlan2 ip address 180.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 no shutdown ! router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes default-information originate network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0.0.0.0 ! ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 180.0.0.2 ! end ! L3-2008#show cdp neighbors Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater, P - Phone Device ID L2-2002 2004-R Local Intrfce Fas 0/2 Fas 0/7 Holdtme 150 140 Capability S I R Platform Port ID WS-C2950T-Fas 0/1 2620XM Fas 0/0 (Solo para dar link)

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2006-R !

Fas 0/13

123

2620XM

Fas 0/0

Costos de las interfaces:


Fa0 /13 MTU 1500 bytes , BW 100000 Kbit , DLY 100 usec vlan 1 MTU 1500 bytes , BW 1000000 Kbit , DLY 10 usec lo0 MTU 1514 bytes , BW 8000000 Kbit , DLY 5000 usec

Ver que desde este router se genera una default route para el resto mediante el comando default-information originate. Este comando se tratar en detalle mas adelante. a 2006-R ! hostname 2006-R ! interface Loopback0 ip address 16.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.16.5.1 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto no shutdown ! interface Serial0/0 ip address 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 no fair-queue clockrate 64000 no shutdown ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.3.1 255.255.255.0 no shutdown ! ! router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes redistribute static metric 800 subnets network 16.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0 network 172.16.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.1 network 172.16.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.2 network 172.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0.0.0.0 ! ip route 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.240 13.0.0.1 ! end ! 2006-R#show cdp neighbors Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge

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S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater Device ID L3-2008 2005-R 2004-R ! Local Intrfce Fas 0/0 Ser 0/0 Ser 0/1 Holdtme 153 122 124 Capability R S I R R Platform Port ID WS-C3550-2Fas 0/13 2621XM Ser 0/1 2620XM Ser 0/0

Costos de las interfaces:


Fa0 /0 S0 /0 S0 /1 S0 /2 S0 /3 lo0 MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1514 bytes , bytes , bytes , bytes , bytes , bytes , BW BW BW BW BW BW 100000 Kbit , DLY 100 usec , 128 Kbit , DLY 20000 usec , 128 Kbit , DLY 20000 usec , 128 Kbit , DLY 20000 usec , 128 Kbit , DLY 20000 usec , 8000000 Kbit , DLY 5000 usec ,

2004-R ! hostname 2004-R ! ! interface Loopback0 ip address 14.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 ! ! interface Serial0/0 bandwidth 128 ip address 172.16.3.2 255.255.255.0 clock rate 128000 no fair-queue no shutdown ! ! interface Serial0/1 bandwidth 128 ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 clock rate 128000 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 140.0.0.1 255.255.255.252 duplex auto speed auto no shutdown ! router ospf 102 log-adjacency-changes redistribute static metric 800 metric-type 1 subnets network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.2

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network 172.16.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.2 ! ip route 90.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 FastEthernet 0/0 ! end ! 2004-R#show cdp neighbors Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater Device ID L3-2008 Local Intrfce Fas 0/0 Holdtme 154 Capability R S I Platform Port ID WS-C3550-2Fas 0/7 (pero en otro VLAN) (solo para dar link) 2620XM Ser 0/1

2006-R 2005-R

Ser 0/0

169

hostname 2005-R ! interface Loopback0 ip address 15.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 ! ! interface Serial0/0 bandwidth 64 ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0 no fair-queue clockrate 64000 no shutdown ! ! interface Serial0/1 bandwidth 128 ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0 no shutdown ! ! router ospf 101 log-adjacency-changes network 15.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.1 network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.1 network 172.16.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.1 ! ! end ! 2005-R#show cdp neighbors Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater

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Device ID 2006-R 2003-R !

Local Intrfce Ser 0/1 Ser 0/0

Holdtme 127 143

Capability R R

Platform 2620XM 2620XM

Port ID Ser 0/0 Ser 0/0

Costos de las interfaces:


Se0 /0 Se0 /1 MTU 1500 bytes , BW 64 Kbit , DLY 20000 usec MTU 1500 bytes , BW 128 Kbit , DLY 20000 usec

2003-R hostname 2003-R ! ! interface Loopback0 ip address 13.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 ! ! interface Serial0/0 bandwidth 64 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 no fair-queue no shutdown ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 shutdown ! router ospf 101 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.1 network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.1 ! end ! 2003-R#show cdp neighbors Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater Device ID 2005-R ! Local Intrfce Ser 0/0 Holdtme 154 Capability R Platform 2621XM Port ID Ser 0/0

Costos de las interfaces:


Se0 /0 MTU 1500 bytes , BW 64 Kbit , DLY 20000 usec

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4.7.2. ! show ! show ! show ! show !

Comandos a Ejecutar en cada Router Para ver el Estado

ip route ip ospf neighbor ip ospf border-routers ip ospf database

4.7.3.

Todos en areas Normales

Estado de L3-2008 L3-2008#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 180.0.0.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.1, 00:31:58, Vlan1 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.5.1, 00:31:58, Vlan1 18.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets 18.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.5.0 is directly connected, Vlan1 172.16.1.0 [110/2344] via 172.16.5.1, 00:09:04, Vlan1 172.16.2.0 [110/782] via 172.16.5.1, 00:31:58, Vlan1 172.16.3.0 [110/782] via 172.16.5.1, 00:31:58, Vlan1 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.1 [110/2345] via 172.16.5.1, 00:09:05, Vlan1 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.5.1, 00:31:59, Vlan1 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 180.0.0.0 is directly connected, Vlan2 90.0.0.0/8 [110/1582] via 172.16.5.1, 00:31:59, Vlan1 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 15.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.5.1, 00:31:59, Vlan1 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 180.0.0.2

O O E2 C C O IA O IA O IA O IA O IA C O E1 O IA S*

L3-2008#show ip ospf neighbor

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Neighbor ID 16.0.0.1

Pri 1

State FULL/BDR

Dead Time 00:00:36

Address 172.16.5.1

Interface Vlan1

L3-2008#show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 100 internal Routing Table Codes: i - Intra-area route, I - Inter-area route i 16.0.0.1 [1] via 172.16.5.1, Vlan1, ABR/ASBR, Area 0.0.0.0, SPF 32 I 14.0.0.1 [782] via 172.16.5.1, Vlan1, ASBR, Area 0.0.0.0, SPF 32 L3-2008#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (18.0.0.1) (Process ID 100)

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 Age 1391 96 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000005 0x00461B 2 0x80000227 0x00E28E 3

Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 172.16.5.2 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 Age 1369 Seq# Checksum 0x80000002 0x006BD2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 403 644 1392 404 1392 644 Seq# 0x80000003 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000003 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x001ECC 0x00D733 0x00CA3F 0x003705 0x00F269 0x00E773

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 14.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 645 Seq# Checksum 0x80000002 0x00BF4B

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 1119 900 813 Seq# 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x006D17 0x006427 0x00DACC Tag 100 0 0

Estado de 2006-R

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2006-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.5.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 1.1.1.0 [1/0] via 13.0.0.1 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 18.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.2, 00:32:58, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets C 172.16.5.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 O 172.16.1.0 [110/2343] via 172.16.2.1, 00:10:05, Serial0/0 C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Serial0/1 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 13.0.0.1 [110/2344] via 172.16.2.1, 00:10:06, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.2, 00:43:08, Serial0/1 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 180.0.0.0 [110/2] via 172.16.5.2, 00:33:01, FastEthernet0/0 O E1 90.0.0.0/8 [110/1581] via 172.16.3.2, 00:10:08, Serial0/1 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 15.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.2.1, 00:10:08, Serial0/0 O*E2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.5.2, 00:10:08, FastEthernet0/0 C 2006-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 18.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 1 State FULL/DR FULL/ FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:36 00:00:34 00:00:38 Address 172.16.5.2 172.16.2.1 172.16.3.2 Interface FastEthernet0/0 Serial0/0 Serial0/1

2006-R#show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 100 internal Routing Table Codes: i - Intra-area route, I - Inter-area route i 18.0.0.1 [1] via 172.16.5.2, FastEthernet0/0, ASBR, Area 0.0.0.0, SPF 7 i 14.0.0.1 [781] via 172.16.3.2, Serial0/1, ASBR, Area 0.0.0.2, SPF 5 2006-R#show ip ospf database

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OSPF Router with ID (16.0.0.1) (Process ID 100) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 Age 1456 163 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000005 0x00461B 2 0x80000227 0x00E28E 3

Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 172.16.5.2 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 Age 1436 Seq# Checksum 0x80000002 0x006BD2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 468 709 1457 468 1457 709 Seq# 0x80000003 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000003 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x001ECC 0x00D733 0x00CA3F 0x003705 0x00F269 0x00E773

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 14.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 709 Seq# Checksum 0x80000002 0x00BF4B

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 600 604 1458 Seq# 0x80000005 0x80000007 0x80000004 Checksum 0x0053C5 0x0063E0 0x00DA72 Link count 3 5 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 172.16.3.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 711 1458 1458 711 1458 1209 Seq# 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x00D733 0x0020F8 0x001006 0x00E773 0x003E2A 0x00D79C

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 712 Seq# Checksum 0x80000002 0x00BF4B

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

18.0.0.1

16.0.0.1

1460

0x80000002 0x00F71E

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 635 712 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000004 0x00C06E 3 0x80000005 0x00E566 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 472 1460 1460 1460 472 1460 1461 1212 Seq# 0x80000003 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000003 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x001ECC 0x00CA3F 0x0020F8 0x001006 0x003705 0x00F269 0x003E2A 0x00D79C

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 1461 Seq# Checksum 0x80000002 0x00F71E

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 1189 969 882 Seq# 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x006D17 0x006427 0x00DACC Tag 100 0 0

Estado de 2005-R 2005-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.2.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.2.2, 00:11:27, Serial0/1 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.2.2, 00:11:27, Serial0/1 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 18.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.2.2, 00:11:27, Serial0/1

O IA

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets O IA 172.16.5.0 [110/782] via 172.16.2.2, 00:11:27, Serial0/1 C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Serial0/1 O IA 172.16.3.0 [110/1562] via 172.16.2.2, 00:11:28, Serial0/1 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 13.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.1.1, 00:11:28, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 14.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.2.2, 00:11:29, Serial0/1 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 180.0.0.0 [110/783] via 172.16.2.2, 00:11:29, Serial0/1 O E1 90.0.0.0/8 [110/2362] via 172.16.2.2, 00:11:29, Serial0/1 15.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 15.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 O*E2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.2.2, 00:11:29, Serial0/1 2005-R#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID 16.0.0.1 13.0.0.1

Pri 1 1

State FULL/ FULL/

Dead Time 00:00:38 00:00:31

Address 172.16.2.2 172.16.1.1

Interface Serial0/1 Serial0/0

2005-R#show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 101 internal Routing Table Codes: i - Intra-area route, I - Inter-area route I 18.0.0.1 [782] via 172.16.2.2, Serial0/1, ASBR, Area 0.0.0.1, SPF 8 i 16.0.0.1 [781] via 172.16.2.2, Serial0/1, ABR/ASBR, Area 0.0.0.1, SPF 8 I 14.0.0.1 [1562] via 172.16.2.2, Serial0/1, ASBR, Area 0.0.0.1, SPF 8 2005-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (15.0.0.1) (Process ID 101) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 675 678 1534 Seq# 0x80000005 0x80000007 0x80000004 Checksum 0x0053C5 0x0063E0 0x00DA72 Link count 3 5 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 172.16.3.0 172.16.5.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 787 1534 1534 787 1534 Seq# 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x00D733 0x0020F8 0x001006 0x00E773 0x003E2A

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

180.0.0.0

16.0.0.1

1285

0x80000002 0x00D79C

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 787 1536 Seq# Checksum 0x80000002 0x00BF4B 0x80000002 0x00F71E

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 1264 1043 956 Seq# 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x006D17 0x006427 0x00DACC Tag 100 0 0

Estado de 2004-R 2004-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.3.1 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:45:19, Serial0/0 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.3.1, 00:45:19, Serial0/0 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 18.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.3.1, 00:45:19, Serial0/0 140.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets 140.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.5.0 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:45:20, Serial0/0 172.16.1.0 [110/3124] via 172.16.3.1, 00:12:22, Serial0/0 172.16.2.0 [110/1562] via 172.16.3.1, 00:45:20, Serial0/0 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.1 [110/3125] via 172.16.3.1, 00:12:23, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 180.0.0.0 [110/783] via 172.16.3.1, 00:45:21, Serial0/0 90.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 15.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.3.1, 00:45:21, Serial0/0 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.3.1, 00:45:21, Serial0/0

O IA O E2 O IA C O IA O IA O IA C O IA C O IA S O IA O*E2

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 16.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:34 Address 172.16.3.1 Interface Serial0/0

2004-R#show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 102 internal Routing Table Codes: i - Intra-area route, I - Inter-area route I 18.0.0.1 [782] via 172.16.3.1, Serial0/0, ASBR, Area 0.0.0.2, SPF 3 i 16.0.0.1 [781] via 172.16.3.1, Serial0/0, ABR/ASBR, Area 0.0.0.2, SPF 3 2004-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (14.0.0.1) (Process ID 102) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 760 839 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000004 0x00C06E 3 0x80000005 0x00E566 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 598 1586 1586 1586 598 1586 1586 1337 Seq# 0x80000003 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000003 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x001ECC 0x00CA3F 0x0020F8 0x001006 0x003705 0x00F269 0x003E2A 0x00D79C

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 1586 Seq# Checksum 0x80000002 0x00F71E

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 1316 1096 1007 Seq# 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x006D17 0x006427 0x00DACC Tag 100 0 0

Estado de 2003-R

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

2003-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.1.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/2344] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:10, Serial0/0 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:10, Serial0/0 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 18.0.0.1 [110/2345] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:10, Serial0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.5.0 [110/2344] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:10, Serial0/0 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 172.16.2.0 [110/2343] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:11, Serial0/0 172.16.3.0 [110/3124] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:11, Serial0/0 13.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.1 [110/3125] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:12, Serial0/0 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 180.0.0.0 [110/2345] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:12, Serial0/0 90.0.0.0/8 [110/3924] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:12, Serial0/0 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 15.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:12, Serial0/0 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.1.2, 00:13:12, Serial0/0

O IA O E2 O IA O IA C O O IA C O IA O IA O E1 O O*E2

2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 15.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:37 Address 172.16.1.2 Interface Serial0/0

2003-R#show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 101 internal Routing Table Codes: i - Intra-area route, I - Inter-area route I 18.0.0.1 [2344] via 172.16.1.2, Serial0/0, ASBR, Area 0.0.0.1, SPF 7 i 16.0.0.1 [2343] via 172.16.1.2, Serial0/0, ABR/ASBR, Area 0.0.0.1, SPF 7 I 14.0.0.1 [3124] via 172.16.1.2, Serial0/0, ASBR, Area 0.0.0.1, SPF 7 2003-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (13.0.0.1) (Process ID 101)

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 775 780 1637 Seq# 0x80000005 0x80000007 0x80000004 Checksum 0x0053C5 0x0063E0 0x00DA72 Link count 3 5 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 172.16.3.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 889 1637 1637 889 1637 1388 Seq# 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x00D733 0x0020F8 0x001006 0x00E773 0x003E2A 0x00D79C

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 889 1638 Seq# Checksum 0x80000002 0x00BF4B 0x80000002 0x00F71E

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 1366 1146 1059 Seq# 0x80000002 0x80000002 0x80000002 Checksum 0x006D17 0x006427 0x00DACC Tag 100 0 0

Ver que todos aprenden todas las rutas. 4.7.4. Area 0.0.0.2 como Totally-Stub

No se puede directamente porque tiene una static y la redistribuye. 2006-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 stub no-summary 2004-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 stub no-summary OSPF: Stub command is invalid when it is ASBR Recongurando: 2004-R(config)#router ospf 102 2004-R(config-router)#no redistribute static metric 800 metric-type 1 2004-R(config-router)#no redistribute static 2004-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 stub no-summary Notar que solo aprende Intra-AREA. no EXT, no Inter-AREA. Y no puede ensean ninguna ruta. Si n se le inyecta una default route.

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

2004-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.3.1 to network 0.0.0.0 140.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets 140.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 14.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 S 90.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:02:07, Serial0/0 C En este caso Inter-Area no se ven. Agregando otra loopback en 2006-R y ubicarla en el area 0.0.0.2. 2006-R#show running-config interface loopback 1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 64 bytes ! interface Loopback1 ip address 60.0.0.1 255.255.255.252 end 2006-R(config)#router ospf 100 2006-R(config-router)#network 60.0.0.0 0.0.0.3 area 0.0.0.2

2004-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.3.1 to network 0.0.0.0 140.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets 140.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0

C C C

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

90.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 60.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 60.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:41, Serial0/0 O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:42, Serial0/0 Ver que la DBD OSPF se reduce considerablemente: 2004-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (14.0.0.1) (Process ID 102) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 439 153 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000009 0x00CE5F 3 0x8000000A 0x006D8F 3

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 0.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 798 Seq# Checksum 0x80000001 0x001B12

Solo ve como ABR/ASBR al next-hop: 2004-R#show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 102 internal Routing Table Codes: i - Intra-area route, I - Inter-area route i 16.0.0.1 [781] via 172.16.3.1, Serial0/0, ABR, Area 0.0.0.2, SPF 11 En el resto de los routers desaparece la red 90.0.0.0/8 L3-2008#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 180.0.0.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 16.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.1, 01:00:56, Vlan1 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.5.1, 00:15:10, Vlan1 18.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 18.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

C O IA O IA O IA O IA O IA C O IA O IA S*

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.5.0 is directly connected, Vlan1 172.16.1.0 [110/2344] via 172.16.5.1, 00:38:02, Vlan1 172.16.2.0 [110/782] via 172.16.5.1, 01:00:56, Vlan1 172.16.3.0 [110/782] via 172.16.5.1, 01:00:57, Vlan1 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.1 [110/2345] via 172.16.5.1, 00:38:03, Vlan1 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.5.1, 00:09:04, Vlan1 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 180.0.0.0 is directly connected, Vlan2 60.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 60.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.1, 00:04:27, Vlan1 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 15.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.5.1, 01:00:58, Vlan1 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 180.0.0.2

Notar que en los dos router deben tener el mismo tipo de area sino se genera un error y no se establece la adyancecia. Si se deja normal en 2006-R y Tottally-Stub en 2004-R: 2004-R#debug ip ospf events OSPF: Rcv hello from 16.0.0.1 area 0.0.0.2 from Serial0/0 172.16.3.1 OSPF: End of hello processing OSPF: Rcv hello from 16.0.0.1 area 0.0.0.2 from Serial0/0 172.16.3.1 OSPF: Hello from 172.16.3.1 with mismatched Stub/Transit area option bit 4.7.5. Crear el Area 0.0.0.2 como Stub

2006-R(config-router)#no area 0.0.0.2 stub no-summary ! Directamente con esto alcanza 2006-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 stub 2004-R(config-router)#no area 0.0.0.2 stub no-summary ! Directamente con esto alcanza 2004-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 stub Notar que NO aprende ninguna Externa, como: E2 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.3.1, 00:45:19, Serial0/0

si Inter-AREA e Intra-AREA. Recibe adems un default. a 2004-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.3.1 to network 0.0.0.0

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O IA O IA C O IA O IA O IA C O IA C O IA S O O IA O*IA

16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:52, Serial0/0 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 18.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:52, Serial0/0 140.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets 140.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.5.0 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:52, Serial0/0 172.16.1.0 [110/3124] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:52, Serial0/0 172.16.2.0 [110/1562] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:53, Serial0/0 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.1 [110/3125] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:53, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 180.0.0.0 [110/783] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:54, Serial0/0 90.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 60.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 60.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:54, Serial0/0 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 15.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:54, Serial0/0 0.0.0.0/0 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:54, Serial0/0

En este caso la DBD crece: 2004-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (14.0.0.1) (Process ID 102) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 877 591 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000009 0x00CE5F 3 0x8000000A 0x006D8F 3

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 0.0.0.0 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1236 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 Checksum 0x001B12 0x0040AE 0x00EA22 0x0040DB 0x0030E8 0x0059E6 0x00134C 0x005E0D 0x00F77F

De cualquier forma como ABR sigue viendo el Next-HOP.

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2004-R#show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 102 internal Routing Table Codes: i - Intra-area route, I - Inter-area route i 16.0.0.1 [781] via 172.16.3.1, Serial0/0, ABR, Area 0.0.0.2, SPF 12 4.7.6. Crearla como NSSA

2004-R(config#router ospf 102 2004-R(config-router)#no area 0.0.0.2 stub 2004-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 nssa 2004-R(config-router)#redistribute static metric 800 metric-type 1 subnets 2006-R(config)#router ospf 100 2006-R(config-router)#no area 0.0.0.2 stub 2006-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 nssa Esto nos permitir Reducir el tamao de la DBD y ensear rutas externas. Ver que aprende externas a n n como N2 en este caso (solo inyectadas por routers que comparten el area). El LSA cambia de tipo 5 a tipo 7 dentro del rea. Luego cuando saln se marcan como tipo 7 por los ABR. a e 2004-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:13, Serial0/0 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:13, Serial0/0 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 18.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:13, Serial0/0 140.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets 140.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.5.0 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:13, Serial0/0 172.16.1.0 [110/3124] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:14, Serial0/0 172.16.2.0 [110/1562] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:14, Serial0/0 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.1 [110/3125] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:16, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0

O IA O N2 O IA C O IA O IA O IA C O IA C

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180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 180.0.0.0 [110/783] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:16, Serial0/0 S 90.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 60.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 60.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:16, Serial0/0 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O IA 15.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:16, Serial0/0 2004-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (14.0.0.1) (Process ID 102) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 55 55 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x8000000C 0x0056CA 3 0x8000000C 0x00F6F9 3

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 Seq# 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 Checksum 0x00C321 0x006E94 0x00C34E 0x00B35B 0x00DC59 0x0096BE 0x00E17F 0x007BF1

Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 61 89 Seq# Checksum Tag 0x80000001 0x00EE5E 0 0x80000001 0x00F09E 0

2004-R#show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 102 internal Routing Table Codes: i - Intra-area route, I - Inter-area route i 16.0.0.1 [781] via 172.16.3.1, Serial0/0, ABR/ASBR, Area 0.0.0.2, SPF 18 Que sucede si agregan ms externas: a 2003-R(config)#ip route 31.31.31.0 255.255.255.0 Serial 0/0 2003-R(config)#router ospf 101 2003-R(config-router)#redistribute static subnets metric-type 1 Ver que la ruta a la 90.0.0.0/8 aparece en los otros routers. En los de la misma rea como NSSA (N1): a

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2006-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.5.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 1.1.1.0 [1/0] via 13.0.0.1 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 18.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.2, 00:12:40, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets C 172.16.5.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 O 172.16.1.0 [110/2343] via 172.16.2.1, 00:02:45, Serial0/0 C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Serial0/1 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 13.0.0.1 [110/2344] via 172.16.2.1, 00:02:46, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.2, 00:12:22, Serial0/1 31.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E1 31.31.31.0 [110/2363] via 172.16.2.1, 00:02:47, Serial0/0 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 180.0.0.0 [110/2] via 172.16.5.2, 00:12:42, FastEthernet0/0 O N1 90.0.0.0/8 [110/1582] via 172.16.3.2, 00:02:47, Serial0/1 60.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 60.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback1 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 15.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.2.1, 00:02:47, Serial0/0 O*E2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.5.2, 00:02:47, FastEthernet0/0 C 2006-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (16.0.0.1) (Process ID 100) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 Age 594 1325 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000007 0x00421D 2 0x80000228 0x00E08F 3

Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum

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172.16.5.2

18.0.0.1

566

0x80000004 0x0067D4

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 60.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1621 960 594 1782 1621 594 1870 Seq# 0x80000004 0x80000001 0x80000004 0x80000001 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000003 Checksum 0x001CCD 0x00D932 0x00C641 0x00E30A 0x003506 0x00EE6B 0x00E574

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 386 386 Seq# Checksum 0x80000001 0x000AE2 0x80000001 0x00C14A

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 393 1748 595 Seq# 0x80000007 0x80000008 0x80000006 Checksum 0x0055BF 0x0061E1 0x00D674 Link count 3 5 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 60.0.0.1 172.16.3.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 961 595 595 1783 1872 596 350 Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000001 0x80000003 0x80000004 0x80000004 Checksum 0x00D932 0x001CFA 0x000C08 0x00E30A 0x00E574 0x003A2C 0x00D39E

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 597 Seq# Checksum 0x80000004 0x00F320

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 976 976 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x8000000C 0x0056CA 3 0x8000000C 0x00F6F9 3

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2)

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Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0

ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1

Age 980 980 980 980 980 981 981 982

Seq# 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003

Checksum 0x00C321 0x006E94 0x00C34E 0x00B35B 0x00DC59 0x0096BE 0x00E17F 0x007BF1

Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 984 1011 Seq# Checksum Tag 0x80000001 0x00EE5E 0 0x80000001 0x00F09E 0

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.0 31.31.31.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 314 106 396 964 Seq# 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000001 0x80000001 Checksum 0x006919 0x006029 0x00882D 0x007324 Tag 100 0 0 0

En los de otra rea se ve como Externa (E1): a L3-2008#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 180.0.0.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.1, 01:21:57, Vlan1 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.5.1, 00:02:03, Vlan1 18.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets 18.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.5.0 is directly connected, Vlan1 172.16.1.0 [110/2344] via 172.16.5.1, 00:59:03, Vlan1 172.16.2.0 [110/782] via 172.16.5.1, 01:21:57, Vlan1 172.16.3.0 [110/782] via 172.16.5.1, 01:21:58, Vlan1 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.1 [110/2345] via 172.16.5.1, 00:59:04, Vlan1 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets

O O E2 C C O IA O IA O IA O IA

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O IA O E1 C O E1 O IA O IA S*

14.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.5.1, 00:11:46, Vlan1 31.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 31.31.31.0 [110/2364] via 172.16.5.1, 00:02:05, Vlan1 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 180.0.0.0 is directly connected, Vlan2 90.0.0.0/8 [110/1583] via 172.16.5.1, 00:02:05, Vlan1 60.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 60.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.1, 00:25:28, Vlan1 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 15.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.5.1, 01:22:00, Vlan1 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 180.0.0.2

L3-2008#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (18.0.0.1) (Process ID 100)

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 Age 618 1347 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000007 0x00421D 2 0x80000228 0x00E08F 3

Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 172.16.5.2 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 Age 587 Seq# Checksum 0x80000004 0x0067D4

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 60.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1645 985 619 1806 1646 619 1895 Seq# 0x80000004 0x80000001 0x80000004 0x80000001 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000003 Checksum 0x001CCD 0x00D932 0x00C641 0x00E30A 0x003506 0x00EE6B 0x00E574

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 410 410 Seq# Checksum 0x80000001 0x000AE2 0x80000001 0x00C14A

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 333 127 Seq# Checksum Tag 0x80000004 0x006919 100 0x80000004 0x006029 0

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31.31.31.0 90.0.0.0

13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1

417 985

0x80000001 0x00882D 0 0x80000001 0x007324 0

Ver que externas de otros Routers en la NSSA no incorpora, la 31.31.31.0/24 no la incluye: 2004-R#show ip route 31.31.31.0 % Network not in table 2004-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (14.0.0.1) (Process ID 102) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1131 1131 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x8000000C 0x0056CA 3 0x8000000C 0x00F6F9 3

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1135 1135 1135 1135 1135 1135 1135 1135 Seq# 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 0x80000003 Checksum 0x00C321 0x006E94 0x00C34E 0x00B35B 0x00DC59 0x0096BE 0x00E17F 0x007BF1

Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 4.7.7. ADV Router 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 1137 1165 Seq# Checksum Tag 0x80000001 0x00EE5E 0 0x80000001 0x00F09E 0

Generarla como NSSA totally-stub (NSSA Totally Stub Area)

Para congurar como NSSA Totally Stub, solo en el ABR: router ospf 100 area 0.0.0.2 nssa no-summary 2006-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 nssa no-summary En el otro router, 2004-R, no es necesario ponerla como nssa no-summary, aunque por legibilidad es mejor. Ver que se reduce notablemente la DBD y la tabla de ruteo, se recibe una Default y se pueden Exportar Externas: 2004-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area

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N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.3.1 to network 0.0.0.0 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets O N2 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:55, Serial0/0 140.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 140.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 14.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 S 90.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 60.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 60.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:57, Serial0/0 O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/782] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:28, Serial0/0 2004-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (14.0.0.1) (Process ID 102) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1377 1377 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x8000000C 0x0056CA 3 0x8000000C 0x00F6F9 3

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 0.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 48 Seq# Checksum 0x80000001 0x00A282

Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 1383 1410 Seq# Checksum Tag 0x80000001 0x00EE5E 0 0x80000001 0x00F09E 0

2004-R#show ip ospf database nssa-external OSPF Router with ID (14.0.0.1) (Process ID 102) Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Routing Bit Set on this LSA

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

LS age: 267 Options: (No TOS-capability, No Type 7/5 translation, DC) LS Type: AS External Link Link State ID: 1.1.1.0 (External Network Number ) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000003 Checksum: 0xEA60 Length: 36 Network Mask: /28 Metric Type: 2 (Larger than any link state path) TOS: 0 Metric: 800 Forward Address: 60.0.0.1 External Route Tag: 0 LS age: 130 Options: (No TOS-capability, Type 7/5 translation, DC) LS Type: AS External Link Link State ID: 90.0.0.0 (External Network Number ) Advertising Router: 14.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000003 Checksum: 0xECA0 Length: 36 Network Mask: /8 Metric Type: 1 (Comparable directly to link state metric) TOS: 0 Metric: 800 Forward Address: 14.0.0.1 External Route Tag: 0 2004-R#show ip ospf database external OSPF Router with ID (14.0.0.1) (Process ID 102) 2006-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.5.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [1/0] via 13.0.0.1 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets

C S

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

18.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.2, 00:01:49, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets C 172.16.5.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 O 172.16.1.0 [110/2343] via 172.16.2.1, 00:01:49, Serial0/0 C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Serial0/1 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 13.0.0.1 [110/2344] via 172.16.2.1, 00:01:50, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.3.2, 00:01:52, Serial0/1 31.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E1 31.31.31.0 [110/2363] via 172.16.2.1, 00:01:52, Serial0/0 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 180.0.0.0 [110/2] via 172.16.5.2, 00:01:52, FastEthernet0/0 O N1 90.0.0.0/8 [110/1582] via 172.16.3.2, 00:01:52, Serial0/1 60.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 60.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback1 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 15.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.2.1, 00:01:52, Serial0/0 O*E2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.5.2, 00:01:52, FastEthernet0/0 2006-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (16.0.0.1) (Process ID 100) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 Age 1072 1803 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000007 0x00421D 2 0x80000228 0x00E08F 3

Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 172.16.5.2 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 Age 1043 Seq# Checksum 0x80000004 0x0067D4

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 60.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 79 1438 1072 332 79 1072 332 Seq# 0x80000005 0x80000001 0x80000004 0x80000002 0x80000005 0x80000004 0x80000004 Checksum 0x001ACE 0x00D932 0x00C641 0x00E10B 0x003307 0x00EE6B 0x00E375

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1

16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1

865 865

0x80000001 0x000AE2 0x80000001 0x00C14A

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 872 177 1075 Seq# 0x80000007 0x80000009 0x80000006 Checksum 0x0055BF 0x005FE2 0x00D674 Link count 3 5 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 60.0.0.1 172.16.3.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1441 1075 1075 335 337 1076 830 Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000002 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000004 Checksum 0x00D932 0x001CFA 0x000C08 0x00E10B 0x00E375 0x003A2C 0x00D39E

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 125 1077 Seq# Checksum 0x80000001 0x00C14A 0x80000004 0x00F320

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1456 1455 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x8000000C 0x0056CA 3 0x8000000C 0x00F6F9 3

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 0.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 Age 126 Seq# Checksum 0x80000001 0x00A282

Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Link ID 1.1.1.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Age 1462 1491 Seq# Checksum Tag 0x80000001 0x00EE5E 0 0x80000001 0x00F09E 0

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.0 31.31.31.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 Age 794 586 875 Seq# 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000001 Checksum 0x006919 0x006029 0x00882D Tag 100 0 0

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

90.0.0.0

16.0.0.1

1443

0x80000001 0x007324 0

L3-2008#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 180.0.0.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.1, 01:34:22, Vlan1 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.5.1, 00:14:29, Vlan1 18.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets 18.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.5.0 is directly connected, Vlan1 172.16.1.0 [110/2344] via 172.16.5.1, 01:11:29, Vlan1 172.16.2.0 [110/782] via 172.16.5.1, 01:34:22, Vlan1 172.16.3.0 [110/782] via 172.16.5.1, 01:34:23, Vlan1 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.1 [110/2345] via 172.16.5.1, 01:11:29, Vlan1 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.5.1, 00:24:11, Vlan1 31.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 31.31.31.0 [110/2364] via 172.16.5.1, 00:14:30, Vlan1 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 180.0.0.0 is directly connected, Vlan2 90.0.0.0/8 [110/1583] via 172.16.5.1, 00:14:30, Vlan1 60.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 60.0.0.1 [110/2] via 172.16.5.1, 00:37:53, Vlan1 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 15.0.0.1 [110/783] via 172.16.5.1, 01:34:24, Vlan1 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 180.0.0.2

O O E2 C C O IA O IA O IA O IA O IA O E1 C O E1 O IA O IA S*

L3-2008#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (18.0.0.1) (Process ID 100)

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 Age 1098 1827 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000007 0x00421D 2 0x80000228 0x00E08F 3

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 172.16.5.2 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 Age 1068 Seq# Checksum 0x80000004 0x0067D4

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 60.0.0.1 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 106 1465 1099 359 106 1099 399 Seq# 0x80000005 0x80000001 0x80000004 0x80000002 0x80000005 0x80000004 0x80000004 Checksum 0x001ACE 0x00D932 0x00C641 0x00E10B 0x003307 0x00EE6B 0x00E375

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Link ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 929 929 Seq# Checksum 0x80000001 0x000AE2 0x80000001 0x00C14A

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.0 31.31.31.0 90.0.0.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 852 646 936 1504 Seq# 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000001 0x80000001 Checksum 0x006919 0x006029 0x00882D 0x007324 Tag 100 0 0 0

2003-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.1.2 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/2344] via 172.16.1.2, 00:14:52, Serial0/0 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.1.2, 00:02:25, Serial0/0 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 18.0.0.1 [110/2345] via 172.16.1.2, 00:14:52, Serial0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.5.0 [110/2344] via 172.16.1.2, 00:14:52, Serial0/0

O IA O E2 O IA O IA

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

C O O IA C O IA S O IA O E1 O IA O O*E2

172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 172.16.2.0 [110/2343] via 172.16.1.2, 00:14:53, Serial0/0 172.16.3.0 [110/3124] via 172.16.1.2, 00:14:53, Serial0/0 13.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.1 [110/3125] via 172.16.1.2, 00:14:53, Serial0/0 31.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 31.31.31.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 180.0.0.0 [110/2345] via 172.16.1.2, 00:14:54, Serial0/0 90.0.0.0/8 [110/3925] via 172.16.1.2, 00:02:27, Serial0/0 60.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 60.0.0.1 [110/2344] via 172.16.1.2, 00:14:54, Serial0/0 15.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 15.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.1.2, 00:14:54, Serial0/0 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.1.2, 00:02:27, Serial0/0

2003-R#show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (13.0.0.1) (Process ID 101) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 ADV Router 13.0.0.1 15.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 905 212 1112 Seq# 0x80000007 0x80000009 0x80000006 Checksum 0x0055BF 0x005FE2 0x00D674 Link count 3 5 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 60.0.0.1 172.16.3.0 172.16.5.0 180.0.0.0 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 1478 1112 1112 372 372 1112 865 Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000002 0x80000004 0x80000004 0x80000004 Checksum 0x00D932 0x001CFA 0x000C08 0x00E10B 0x00E375 0x003A2C 0x00D39E

Summary ASB Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Link ID 14.0.0.1 18.0.0.1 ADV Router 16.0.0.1 16.0.0.1 Age 160 1114 Seq# Checksum 0x80000001 0x00C14A 0x80000004 0x00F320

Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 0.0.0.0 ADV Router 18.0.0.1 Age 829 Seq# Checksum Tag 0x80000004 0x006919 100

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

1.1.1.0 31.31.31.0 90.0.0.0 4.7.8.

16.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 16.0.0.1

621 907 1479

0x80000004 0x006029 0 0x80000001 0x00882D 0 0x80000001 0x007324 0

Ver los tipos de LSA sobre 2006-R

Router Links 2006-R#show ip ospf database router OSPF Router with ID (16.0.0.1) (Process ID 100) Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) LS age: 134 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: Router Links Link State ID: 16.0.0.1 Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000009 Checksum: 0x3E1F Length: 48 Area Border Router AS Boundary Router Number of Links: 2 Link connected to: a Transit Network (Link ID) Designated Router address: 172.16.5.2 (Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.5.1 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 16.0.0.1 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.255 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1

Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 768 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: Router Links Link State ID: 18.0.0.1 Advertising Router: 18.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 8000022A Checksum: 0xDC91 Length: 60 AS Boundary Router Number of Links: 3

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 180.0.0.0 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1 Link connected to: a Transit Network (Link ID) Designated Router address: 172.16.5.2 (Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.5.2 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 18.0.0.1 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.255 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 2004 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: Router Links Link State ID: 13.0.0.1 Advertising Router: 13.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000008 Checksum: 0x53C0 Length: 60 AS Boundary Router Number of Links: 3 Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point) (Link ID) Neighboring Router ID: 15.0.0.1 (Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.1.1 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1562 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 172.16.1.0 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1562 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 13.0.0.1 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.255 Number of TOS metrics: 0

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

TOS 0 Metrics: 1

LS age: 1191 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: Router Links Link State ID: 15.0.0.1 Advertising Router: 15.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 8000000A Checksum: 0x5DE3 Length: 84 Number of Links: 5 Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point) (Link ID) Neighboring Router ID: 16.0.0.1 (Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.2.1 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 781 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 172.16.2.0 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 781 Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point) (Link ID) Neighboring Router ID: 13.0.0.1 (Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.1.2 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1562 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 172.16.1.0 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1562 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 15.0.0.1 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.255 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1

LS age: 146 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: Router Links Link State ID: 16.0.0.1 Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000008

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

Checksum: 0xD276 Length: 48 Area Border Router AS Boundary Router Number of Links: 2 Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point) (Link ID) Neighboring Router ID: 15.0.0.1 (Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.2.2 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 781 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 172.16.2.0 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 781

Router Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 503 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: Router Links Link State ID: 14.0.0.1 Advertising Router: 14.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 8000000E Checksum: 0x52CC Length: 60 AS Boundary Router Number of Links: 3 Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point) (Link ID) Neighboring Router ID: 16.0.0.1 (Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.3.2 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 781 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 172.16.3.0 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 781 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 14.0.0.1 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.255 Number of TOS metrics: 0

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

TOS 0 Metrics: 1

LS age: 640 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: Router Links Link State ID: 16.0.0.1 Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 8000000E Checksum: 0xF2FB Length: 60 Area Border Router AS Boundary Router Number of Links: 3 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 60.0.0.1 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.255 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 1 Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point) (Link ID) Neighboring Router ID: 14.0.0.1 (Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.3.1 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 781 Link connected to: a Stub Network (Link ID) Network/subnet number: 172.16.3.0 (Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Number of TOS metrics: 0 TOS 0 Metrics: 781 Summary Links 2006-R#show ip ospf database summary OSPF Router with ID (16.0.0.1) (Process ID 100) Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) LS age: 1020 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 13.0.0.1 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000006 Checksum: 0x18CF Length: 28 Network Mask: /32 TOS: 0 Metric: 2344

Universidad Nacional de La Plata

LS age: 499 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 14.0.0.1 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000003 Checksum: 0xD534 Length: 28 Network Mask: /32 TOS: 0 Metric: 782 LS age: 13 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 15.0.0.1 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000006 Checksum: 0xC243 Length: 28 Network Mask: /32 TOS: 0 Metric: 782 LS age: 1270 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 60.0.0.1 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000003 Checksum: 0xDF0C Length: 28 Network Mask: /32 TOS: 0 Metric: 1 LS age: 1022 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 172.16.1.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000006 Checksum: 0x3108 Length: 28 Network Mask: /24 TOS: 0 Metric: 2343 LS age: 15 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 172.16.2.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1

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LS Seq Number: 80000006 Checksum: 0xEA6D Length: 28 Network Mask: /24 TOS: 0 Metric: 781 LS age: 1273 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 172.16.3.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000005 Checksum: 0xE176 Length: 28 Network Mask: /24 TOS: 0 Metric: 781

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.1) LS age: 504 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 14.0.0.1 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000003 Checksum: 0xD534 Length: 28 Network Mask: /32 TOS: 0 Metric: 782 LS age: 18 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 16.0.0.1 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000006 Checksum: 0x18FC Length: 28 Network Mask: /32 TOS: 0 Metric: 1 LS age: 19 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 18.0.0.1 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000006 Checksum: 0x80A Length: 28

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Network Mask: /32 TOS: 0 Metric: 2 LS age: 1276 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 60.0.0.1 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000003 Checksum: 0xDF0C Length: 28 Network Mask: /32 TOS: 0 Metric: 1 LS age: 1277 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 172.16.3.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000005 Checksum: 0xE176 Length: 28 Network Mask: /24 TOS: 0 Metric: 781 LS age: 21 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 172.16.5.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000006 Checksum: 0x362E Length: 28 Network Mask: /24 TOS: 0 Metric: 1 LS age: 1764 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 180.0.0.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000005 Checksum: 0xD19F Length: 28 Network Mask: /24 TOS: 0 Metric: 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.2)

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LS age: 1030 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 0.0.0.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000002 Checksum: 0xA083 Length: 28 Network Mask: /0 TOS: 0 Metric: 1 Network Links 2006-R#show ip ospf database network OSPF Router with ID (16.0.0.1) (Process ID 100) Net Link States (Area 0.0.0.0) Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 1926 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: Network Links Link State ID: 172.16.5.2 (address of Designated Router) Advertising Router: 18.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000005 Checksum: 0x65D5 Length: 32 Network Mask: /24 Attached Router: 18.0.0.1 Attached Router: 16.0.0.1 External Links 2006-R#show ip ospf database external OSPF Router with ID (16.0.0.1) (Process ID 100) Type-5 AS External Link States Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 1676 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: AS External Link Link State ID: 0.0.0.0 (External Network Number ) Advertising Router: 18.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000005 Checksum: 0x671A Length: 36 Network Mask: /0 Metric Type: 2 (Larger than any link state path) TOS: 0

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Metric: 1 Forward Address: 180.0.0.2 External Route Tag: 100 LS age: 1531 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: AS External Link Link State ID: 1.1.1.0 (External Network Number ) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000005 Checksum: 0x5E2A Length: 36 Network Mask: /28 Metric Type: 2 (Larger than any link state path) TOS: 0 Metric: 800 Forward Address: 0.0.0.0 External Route Tag: 0 Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 1896 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: AS External Link Link State ID: 31.31.31.0 (External Network Number ) Advertising Router: 13.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000002 Checksum: 0x862E Length: 36 Network Mask: /24 Metric Type: 1 (Comparable directly to link state metric) TOS: 0 Metric: 20 Forward Address: 0.0.0.0 External Route Tag: 0 LS age: 521 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) LS Type: AS External Link Link State ID: 90.0.0.0 (External Network Number ) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000003 Checksum: 0x6F26 Length: 36 Network Mask: /8 Metric Type: 1 (Comparable directly to link state metric) TOS: 0 Metric: 800 Forward Address: 14.0.0.1 External Route Tag: 0 NSSA-External Links

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2006-R#show ip ospf database nssa-external OSPF Router with ID (16.0.0.1) (Process ID 100) Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 0.0.0.2) LS age: 528 Options: (No TOS-capability, No Type 7/5 translation, DC) LS Type: AS External Link Link State ID: 1.1.1.0 (External Network Number ) Advertising Router: 16.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000003 Checksum: 0xEA60 Length: 36 Network Mask: /28 Metric Type: 2 (Larger than any link state path) TOS: 0 Metric: 800 Forward Address: 60.0.0.1 External Route Tag: 0 Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 392 Options: (No TOS-capability, Type 7/5 translation, DC) LS Type: AS External Link Link State ID: 90.0.0.0 (External Network Number ) Advertising Router: 14.0.0.1 LS Seq Number: 80000003 Checksum: 0xECA0 Length: 36 Network Mask: /8 Metric Type: 1 (Comparable directly to link state metric) TOS: 0 Metric: 800 Forward Address: 14.0.0.1 External Route Tag: 0 4.7.9. Conectar 2003-R con 2004-R

Antes de la conexin es estado era: o 2004-R#show ip route | include 31.31 O E1 31.31.31.0 [110/3144] via 172.16.3.1, 00:00:08, Serial0/0

2003-R#show ip route 14.0.0.0 Routing entry for 14.0.0.0/32, 1 known subnets O IA 14.0.0.1 [110/3125] via 172.16.1.2, 00:01:44, Serial0/0

2003-R#show ip route 16.0.0.0

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Routing entry for 16.0.0.0/32, 1 known subnets O IA 16.0.0.1 [110/2344] via 172.16.1.2, 00:01:24, Serial0/0

2003-R#show ip route 18.0.0.0 Routing entry for 18.0.0.0/32, 1 known subnets O IA 18.0.0.1 [110/2345] via 172.16.1.2, 00:01:38, Serial0/0

2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 97 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 bandwidth 128 ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 clockrate 128000 end 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 82 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 load-interval 30 end 2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 101 router ospf 101 log-adjacency-changes redistribute static metric-type 1 subnets network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.1 network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.1 network 172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.2 ! 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 102 router ospf 102 log-adjacency-changes redistribute static metric 800 metric-type 1 subnets network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.2 network 172.16.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.2 network 172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.2 ! Antes para llegar a la 14.0.0.0/24 ten un costo de: 2345 y como IA. Antes para llegar a la 16.0.0.0/24 a ten un costo de: 2344. Antes para llegar a la 18.0.0.0/24 ten un costo de: 3125. a a

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2003-R#show ip route | include 172.16.4. Gateway of last resort is 172.16.4.1 to network 0.0.0.0 O IA 16.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.4.1, 00:09:43, Serial0/1 O E2 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.4.1, 00:09:33, Serial0/1 O IA 18.0.0.1 [110/1564] via 172.16.4.1, 00:09:43, Serial0/1 C 172.16.4.0 is directly connected, Serial0/1 O IA 172.16.5.0 [110/1563] via 172.16.4.1, 00:09:43, Serial0/1 O 172.16.3.0 [110/1562] via 172.16.4.1, 00:15:12, Serial0/1 O 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.1, 00:15:12, Serial0/1 O IA 180.0.0.0 [110/1564] via 172.16.4.1, 00:09:43, Serial0/1 O E1 90.0.0.0/8 [110/1581] via 172.16.4.1, 00:09:33, Serial0/1 O 60.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.4.1, 00:15:12, Serial0/1 O*E2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.4.1, 00:09:33, Serial0/1 Antes para llegar a la 31.31.31.0/24 ten un costo de: 3144 a 2004-R#show ip route | include 172.16.4. C 172.16.4.0 is directly connected, Serial0/1 O E1 31.31.31.0 [110/801] via 172.16.4.2, 00:09:45, Serial0/1 Si se coloca el enlace entre 2003-R y 2004-R con el mismo bandwidth que el de 2003-R y 2005-R: 2003-R(config)#interface Serial 0/1 2003-R(config-if)#bandwidth 64 2004-R(config)#interface Serial 0/1 2004-R(config-if)#bandwidth 64 A la 14.0.0.0/24 subi el costo pero sigue siendo dentro de la misma rea: o a 2003-R#show ip route 14.0.0.0 Routing entry for 14.0.0.0/32, 1 known subnets O 14.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.4.1, 00:01:41, Serial0/1

Ahora Tengo las rutas balanceadas: 2003-R#show ip route 16.0.0.0 Routing entry for 16.0.0.0/32, 1 known subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/2344] via 172.16.1.2, 00:03:49, Serial0/0 [110/2344] via 172.16.4.1, 00:03:49, Serial0/1 2003-R#show ip route 18.0.0.0 Routing entry for 18.0.0.0/32, 1 known subnets O IA 18.0.0.1 [110/2345] via 172.16.1.2, 00:03:53, Serial0/0 [110/2345] via 172.16.4.1, 00:03:53, Serial0/1 O IA

Que sucede si se baja ms an el BW: a u

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003-R(config)#interface Serial 0/1 2003-R(config-if)#bandwidth 32 2004-R(config)#interface Serial 0/1 2004-R(config-if)#bandwidth 32 Se ve que para la 16.0.0.0/24 y la 18.0.0.0/24 preere la antigua ruta pero para la 14.0.0.0/24 sigue preriendo la nueva, esto es debido a que preere las Intra-Area a las Inter-Area, mas all del costo. a 2003-R#show ip route 14.0.0.0 Routing entry for 14.0.0.0/32, 1 known subnets O 14.0.0.1 [110/3126] via 172.16.4.1, 00:01:09, Serial0/1 2003-R#show ip route 16.0.0.0 Routing entry for 16.0.0.0/32, 1 known subnets O IA 16.0.0.1 [110/2344] via 172.16.1.2, 00:01:13, Serial0/0 2003-R#show ip route 18.0.0.0 Routing entry for 18.0.0.0/32, 1 known subnets O IA 4.7.10. 18.0.0.1 [110/2345] via 172.16.1.2, 00:01:16, Serial0/0 Crear Virtual-LINKs

Si se da de baja el enlace entre 2006-R y 2005-R los routers 2003-R y 2004-R siguen teniendo salida. 2006-R(config)#interface Serial 0/0 2006-R(config-if)#shutdown 2003-R# show ip route 0.0.0.0 Routing entry for 0.0.0.0/0, supernet Known via "ospf 101", distance 110, metric 1, candidate default path Tag 100, type extern 2, forward metric 3908 Last update from 172.16.4.1 on Serial0/1, 00:03:51 ago Routing Descriptor Blocks: * 172.16.4.1, from 18.0.0.1, 00:03:51 ago, via Serial0/1 Route metric is 1, traffic share count is 1 2004-R#show ip route 0.0.0.0 Routing entry for 0.0.0.0/0, supernet Known via "ospf 102", distance 110, metric 1, candidate default path Tag 100, type extern 2, forward metric 783 Last update from 172.16.3.1 on Serial0/0, 00:03:53 ago Routing Descriptor Blocks: * 172.16.3.1, from 18.0.0.1, 00:03:53 ago, via Serial0/0 Route metric is 1, traffic share count is 1 Pero 2005-R queda aislado, mas all que tenga conexin f a o sica esta ca el enlace que conecta el ABR do de un rea con la otra. a 2005-R#show ip route

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Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 13.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.1.1, 00:05:36, Serial0/0 31.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E1 31.31.31.0 [110/1582] via 172.16.1.1, 00:05:36, Serial0/0 15.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 15.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 Para solucionar este problema que queda un rea NO directamente conectada con la Backbone (area a 0) se pueden usar Virtual Links. Para esto se deben congurar los ABR del rea 0 con el rea de trnsito a a a nueva y el ABR en de rea de trnsito con la que qued desconectada. a a o 2003-R(config)#router ospf 101 2003-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 virtual-link 16.0.0.1 2006-R# %OSPF-4-ERRRCV: Received invalid packet: mismatch area ID, from backbone area must be 2006-R(config)#router ospf 100 2006-R(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 virtual-link 13.0.0.1 2003-R# %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 101, Nbr 16.0.0.1 on OSPF_VL2 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done 2006-R# %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 100, Nbr 13.0.0.1 on OSPF_VL1 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done 2003-R#show ip ospf virtual-links Virtual Link OSPF_VL2 to router 16.0.0.1 is up Run as demand circuit DoNotAge LSA allowed. Transit area 0.0.0.2, via interface Serial0/1, Cost of using 3906 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:06 Adjacency State FULL (Hello suppressed) Index 1/3, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 1 First 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec

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2006-R#show ip ospf virtual-links Virtual Link OSPF_VL1 to router 13.0.0.1 is up Run as demand circuit DoNotAge LSA allowed. Transit area 0.0.0.2, via interface Serial0/1, Cost of using 3906 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:08 Adjacency State FULL (Hello suppressed) Index 2/2, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 1 First 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Ahora si 2005 tiene conexin: o 2005-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.1.1 to network 0.0.0.0 16.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.0.0.1 [110/5469] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:58, Serial0/0 1.0.0.0/28 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/800] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:00, Serial0/0 18.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 18.0.0.1 [110/5470] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:58, Serial0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets 172.16.4.0 [110/4687] via 172.16.1.1, 00:03:38, Serial0/0 172.16.5.0 [110/5469] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:58, Serial0/0 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 172.16.3.0 [110/5468] via 172.16.1.1, 00:03:39, Serial0/0 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.1 [110/1563] via 172.16.1.1, 00:03:39, Serial0/0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.1 [110/4688] via 172.16.1.1, 00:03:40, Serial0/0 31.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 31.31.31.0 [110/1582] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:35, Serial0/0 180.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 180.0.0.0 [110/5470] via 172.16.1.1, 00:03:00, Serial0/0 90.0.0.0/8 [110/5487] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:35, Serial0/0 60.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 60.0.0.1 [110/5469] via 172.16.1.1, 00:03:40, Serial0/0 15.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets

O IA O E2 O IA O IA O IA C O IA O O IA O E1 O IA O E1 O IA

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C 15.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 O*E2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:35, Serial0/0

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5.
5.1.

Otras Caracter sticas de OSPF


OSPF Distribucin de Default Route o

Como ya se vio, con OSPF se puede redistribuir una ruta esttica. Si se ce la ruta default por OSPF a a se proagarn los cambios. Por ejemplo: a L3-2008(config)#interface vlan 2 L3-2008(config-if)#shutdown 2003-R#show ip route 0.0.0.0 % Network not in table 2006-R#show ip route 0.0.0.0 % Network not in table De esta forma se pierde la ruta default. Si se quiere seguir manteniendo esta ruta, se puede agregar al comando el modicador always, de esta forma no se pierda la ruta. En el router central no esta la ruta, pero si en los dems. a L3-2008(config-router)#default-information originate always L3-2008#show ip route 0.0.0.0 % Network not in table 2003-R#show ip route 0.0.0.0 Routing entry for 0.0.0.0/0, supernet Known via "ospf 101", distance 110, metric 1, candidate default path Tag 100, type extern 2, forward metric 2344 Last update from 172.16.1.2 on Serial0/0, 00:00:12 ago Routing Descriptor Blocks: * 172.16.1.2, from 18.0.0.1, 00:00:12 ago, via Serial0/0 Route metric is 1, traffic share count is 1

5.2.

OSPF Redistribucin de Estticas o a


Para redistribuir subnets de una red classful se debe indicar expl citamente con el modicador subnets. OSPF NO redistribuye estticas que salen por un next-hop de una loopback. No tiene sentido, a aunque si servir para nes didcticos. a a OSPF env los loopback con la mscara /32 an congurando esta con otra mscara. a a u a

2004-R(config-router)#redistribute static % Only classful networks will be redistributed 2004-R(config-router)#redistribute static su 2004-R(config-router)#redistribute static subnets 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes redistribute static subnets

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network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 neighbor 172.16.4.2 ! 2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 neighbor 172.16.4.1 ! Se agrega una esttica a travs de una loopback (sin sentido solo para prueba): a e 2004-R(config)#ip route 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 14.0.0.2 2004-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [1/0] via 14.0.0.2 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.4.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/1.2 172.16.4.2/32 [110/781] via 172.16.4.2, 00:03:02, Serial0/1.2 172.16.1.0/24 [110/1562] via 172.16.4.2, 00:03:02, Serial0/1.2 13.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.2, 00:03:02, Serial0/1.2 14.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0

S C O O O C

Ver que se coloca una mscara /24, pero se manda por OSPF con /32, ver adems que la esttica que a a a sale por la loopback no se ve en los vecinos. 2004-R#show running-config interface loopback 0 Building configuration... Current configuration : 62 bytes ! interface Loopback0 ip address 14.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 end

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2003-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set !!!! NO ESTA LA RED 1.1.1.0/24 !!!!! 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks C 172.16.4.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/1.2 O 172.16.4.1/32 [110/781] via 172.16.4.1, 00:03:12, Serial0/1.2 C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0 13.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 13.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets ! ### <---- Notar que se le publica con /32 O 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.1, 00:03:12, Serial0/1.2 Pero si se la coloca a travs de una Ethernet, si se ve en los vecinos. e 2004-R#show running-config interface FastEthernet 0/0 ... ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 18.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 duplex auto speed auto end 2004-R(config)#ip route 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 Si se ve la ruta del otro extremo: 2003-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:01:31, Serial0/1.2 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.4.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/1.2

O E2 C

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O C C O

172.16.4.1/32 [110/781] via 172.16.4.1, 00:11:39, Serial0/1.2 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0 13.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 13.0.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.1, 00:11:41, Serial0/1.2

Ver que sucede si no se usa subnets, solo redistribute static. Ver que las sub-redes no se mandan. Por ejemplo si en 2004-R de generan las siguientes estticas: a 2004-R(config)# ip route 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 2.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 3.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 4.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 5.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 6.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 16.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 163.10.43.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 18.0.0.2 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes redistribute static network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.5 ! 2004-R#show ip route static 16.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 16.1.1.0 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 1.1.1.0 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 2.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 2.1.1.0 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 3.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 3.1.1.0 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 4.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 4.1.1.0 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 5.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 5.1.1.0 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 6.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 6.1.1.0 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 163.10.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 163.10.43.0 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 10.1.1.0 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2

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S S S

11.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 192.168.0.0/24 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 192.168.2.0/24 [1/0] via 18.0.0.2 Las que se ven en el otro extremo son solo las Classful:

2003-R#show ip route ospf O E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:01, Serial0/1.2 O E2 192.168.0.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:01, Serial0/1.2 O E2 192.168.2.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:01, Serial0/1.2 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:01, Serial0/1.2 Volviendo a la redistribucin Classless: o 2004-R(config-router)#redistribute static subnets 2003-R#show ip route ospf O E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:01, Serial0/1.2 O E2 192.168.0.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:01, Serial0/1.2 O E2 192.168.2.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:01, Serial0/1.2 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:01, Serial0/1.2 2003-R#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 16.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 16.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:05, Serial0/1.2 1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 1.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:05, Serial0/1.2 2.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 2.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:05, Serial0/1.2 3.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 3.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:05, Serial0/1.2 4.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 4.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:05, Serial0/1.2 5.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 5.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:06, Serial0/1.2 6.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 6.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:08, Serial0/1.2 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets 172.16.4.0 is directly connected, Serial0/1.2 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0

O E2 O E2 O E2 O E2 O E2 O E2 O E2 C C

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O E2 O O O O O E2 E2 E2 E2

163.10.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 163.10.43.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:08, Serial0/1.2 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 10.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:08, Serial0/1.2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:27, Serial0/1.2 192.168.0.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:27, Serial0/1.2 192.168.2.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:27, Serial0/1.2 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:27, Serial0/1.2

5.3.

Filtrados de Rutas Enviadas/Recibidas

Suponga que se desea ltrar las redes privadas que se tengan como estticas, es necesario tener un a mecanismo para manipular de forma exible casos como este. En el caso de cisco se puede crear un route-map: 2004-R# ! ip access-list standard FILTER-ALL permit any ! route-map RMAP-FILTER-PRIV deny 10 match ip address PRIV-NETS ! route-map RMAP-FILTER-PRIV permit 20 match ip address FILTER-ALL ! 2004-R(config-router)#redistribute static subnets route-map RMAP-FILTER-PRIV 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes redistribute static subnets route-map RMAP-FILTER-PRIV network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 neighbor 172.16.4.2 ! Si no existe la ACL asociada al Route-Map es como si se ltrase todo: 2003-R#show ip route ospf 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.1, 00:08:06, Serial0/1.2 Si se agrega la ACL: 2004-R(config)# ip access-list standard PRIV-NETS permit 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 permit 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255

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Ver que se ltraron las indicadas: 2003-R#show ip route ospf 16.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 16.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 1.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 2.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 2.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 3.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 3.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 4.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 4.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 5.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 5.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 6.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 6.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 163.10.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 163.10.43.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 10.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 O E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:00:35, Serial0/1.2 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.1, 00:09:05, Serial0/1.2 Tambin se puede ltrar la entrada (del mismo modo la salida) no necesariamente para las estticas e a sino para cualquier tipo de ruta. Por ejemplo: 2003-R#sh run ... ! router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.5 distribute-list FILTER-SOME in ! ip access-list standard FILTER-SOME deny 2.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 deny 3.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 permit any ! 2003-R#show ip route ospf !!!! NO ESTA ni 3.1.1.0, ni 2.1.1.0 !!!! 16.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 16.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:11, Serial0/1.2 1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 1.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:11, Serial0/1.2 4.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 4.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:11, Serial0/1.2

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O E2 O E2 O E2 O E2 O E2 O

5.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 5.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:11, Serial0/1.2 6.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 6.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:11, Serial0/1.2 163.10.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 163.10.43.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:11, Serial0/1.2 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 10.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:11, Serial0/1.2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:11, Serial0/1.2 14.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets 14.0.0.1 [110/782] via 172.16.4.1, 00:02:11, Serial0/1.2

5.4.

Autenticacin OSPF o

OSPF admite como RIP autenticacin, pero ya considera en la RFC las autenticaciones NULL, o TEXT-PLAIN y MD5. En el primer ejemplo se usa autenticacin TEXT, MD5 y NULL. Solo establece o adyacencia entre 2003-R y 2004-R, con 2006-R NO debido a que en los dos casos utiliza un mtodo de e autenticacin diferente en este, primero TEXT-PLAIN y luego NULL. o 5.4.1. Router 2003 con MD5

2003-R#show running-config interface FastEthernet 0/0 Building configuration... Current configuration : 168 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.3 255.255.255.0 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf authentication-key cisco duplex auto speed auto end Si se habilita cifrado dbil en la conguracin local. e o 2003-R(config)#service password-encryption !!! SOLO PARA QUE NO SE GUARDEN EN TEXTO 2003-R#show running-config interface FastEthernet 0/0 Building configuration... Current configuration : 198 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.3 255.255.255.0 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf authentication-key 7 104D000A0618 ip ospf priority 50 duplex auto speed auto end

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2003-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.3 network 172.17.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0 ! 5.4.2. Router 2004 con MD5

2004-R#show running-config interface FastEthernet 0/0 Building configuration... Current configuration : 190 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.4 255.255.255.0 ip ospf authentication message-digest ip ospf authentication-key cisco ip ospf priority 255 duplex auto speed auto end 2004-R#show running-config | begin ospf 100 7router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.4 network 172.17.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0 ! 5.4.3. Router 2006 con NULL

2006-R#show running-config interface FastEthernet 0/0 Building configuration... Current configuration : 95 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.6 255.255.255.0 !!!! NO TIENE AUTH !!!! duplex auto speed auto end ! router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 16.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.6 network 172.17.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0 !

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En el debugging se ven los errores y en los otros routers solo se ve la adyacencia entre 2. 2006-R#debug ip ospf events OSPF events debugging is on 1w2d: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 172.17.4.4, FastEthernet0/0 : type. Input packet specified type 2, we use type 1w2d: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 172.17.4.3, FastEthernet0/0 : type. Input packet specified type 2, we use type 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 5.4.4. Pri 255 State FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:37 Address 172.17.4.4 Interface FastEthernet0/0

Mismatch Authentication 0 Mismatch Authentication 0

Router 2006 con TEXT-PLAIN

2006-R(config)#interface FastEthernet 0/0 2006-R(config-if)#ip ospf authentication-key cisco 2006-R#debug ip ospf events OSPF events debugging is on 1w2d: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 172.17.4.4, FastEthernet0/0 : type. Input packet specified type 2, we use type 1w2d: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 172.17.4.3, FastEthernet0/0 : type. Input packet specified type 2, we use type 2006-R#show running-config interface FastEthernet 0/0 Building configuration... Current configuration : 153 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.6 255.255.255.0 !!!! TIENE TEXT-PLAIN !!! ip ospf authentication ip ospf authentication-key cisco duplex auto speed auto end 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 Pri 255 State FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:37 Address 172.17.4.4 Interface FastEthernet0/0

Mismatch Authentication 1 Mismatch Authentication 1

Otro ejemplo consiste en utilizar en todos el mtodo de autenticacin PLAIN-TEXT. e o 5.4.5. Router 2003 con TEXT-PLAIN

2003-R#show running-config interface FastEthernet 0/0 Building configuration...

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Current configuration : 183 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.3 255.255.255.0 ip ospf authentication ip ospf authentication-key 7 060506324F4 ip ospf priority 50 duplex auto speed auto end 5.4.6. Router 2004 con TEXT-PLAIN

2004-R#show running-config interface FastEthernet 0/0 Building configuration... Current configuration : 175 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.4 255.255.255.0 ip ospf authentication ip ospf authentication-key cisc ip ospf priority 255 duplex auto speed auto end 5.4.7. Router 2006 con TEXT-PLAIN

2006-R#show running-config interface FastEthernet 0/0 Building configuration... Current configuration : 153 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.17.4.6 255.255.255.0 ip ospf authentication ip ospf authentication-key cisco duplex auto speed auto end Establecen la adyacencia entre los 3. 2006-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Pri 50 255 State FULL/BDR FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:31 00:00:32 Address 172.17.4.3 172.17.4.4 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

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Ver que si se pone una password diferente en 2006-R se cae esa adyacencia. Ver que las passwords son Case-Sensitives, igual que en el caso de RIP. 2006-R(config)#interface FastEthernet 0/0 2006-R(config-if)#ip ospf authentication-key Cisco 2006-R#debug ip ospf events OSPF events debugging is on 1w2d: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 172.17.4.3, FastEthernet0/0 : Mismatch Authentication Key - Clear Text 1w2d: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 172.17.4.4, FastEthernet0/0 : Mismatch Authentication Key - Clear Text 2006-R#show ip ospf neighbor Ver capturas en los archivos: captures/auth/ospf-auth-md5.pcap y captures/auth/ospf-single-area-dr-bdr-auth-plain.pcap.

5.5.

Cisco OSPF y Direcciones IP Secundarias

OSPF no funciona adecuadamente sobre direcciones IP secundarias. Lo que no quiere decir que si se tiene una IP de una secundaria no la mande por OSPF, para esto debe indicar expliciatemte la network de la secundaria y esta debe estar en la misma rea que la primaria. En las referencias [SEC] se puede a encontrar ms informacin. a o 2003-R#show running-config | begin router router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 180.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.5 ! 2004-R#show running-config | begin router router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes redistribute static network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5 network 180.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.5 ! 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.2 Building configuration... Current configuration : 271 bytes ! interface Serial0/1.2 multipoint ip address 180.0.0.2 255.255.255.0 secondary ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network broadcast

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frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.1 101 broadcast frame-relay map ip 180.0.0.1 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 end 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1.2 Building configuration... Current configuration : 271 bytes ! interface Serial0/1.2 multipoint ip address 180.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 secondary ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 ip ospf network broadcast frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.2 101 broadcast frame-relay map ip 180.0.0.2 101 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 101 end 2003-R#ping 180.0.0.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 180.0.0.1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 16/16/16 ms Si se saca el network de la primaria: 2004-R(config-router)#no network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.5 2003-R(config-router)#no network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.5 2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor NO se establece la adyacencia mediante las secundarias. Esto indica que OSPF en cisco no utiliza las direcciones secundarias para enviar los LSA, solo usa la primara y si se tiene secundarias en diferentes redes con otros routers que solo estn en la red de la secundaria no establecer adyacencias. Si se la pasa e a a primaria SI funciona: 2003-R# interface Serial0/1.2 ip address 180.0.0.2 255.255.255.0 2004-R# interface Serial0/1.2 ip address 180.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:38 Address 180.0.0.1 Interface Serial0/1.2

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Si se utiliza cHDLC en lugar de Ethernet sucede lo mismo: 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 128 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 180.0.0.2 255.255.255.0 secondary ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 load-interval 30 end 2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 128 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 180.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 secondary ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 clockrate 128000 end Si de un lado queda como primaria y del otro no, tampoco funcionar. a 2003-R# ! router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes network 13.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5 network 180.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5 ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 secondary ip address 180.0.0.2 255.255.255.0 load-interval 30 ! 2004-R# ! interface Serial0/1 ip address 180.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 secondary ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 clockrate 128000 ! router ospf 100 log-adjacency-changes redistribute static network 14.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5

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network 172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5 network 180.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.5 ! 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor 2003-R#debug ip ospf events OSPF events debugging is on 2003-R# 6d23h: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 172.16.4.1, Serial0/1, area 0.0.0.5 : src not on the same network 6d23h: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 172.16.4.1, Serial0/1, area 0.0.0.5 : src not on the same network 6d23h: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 172.16.4.1, Serial0/1, area 0.0.0.5 : src not on the same network 2004-R#debug ip ospf events OSPF events debugging is on 6d23h: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 180.0.0.2, Serial0/1, area 0.0.0.5 : src not on the same network 6d23h: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 180.0.0.2, Serial0/1, area 0.0.0.5 : src not on the same network La solucin de cisco para esto es utilizar Sub-interfaces. Esto tiene algunos problemas, por ejemplo o con Ethernet solo se pueden usar Sub-interfaces con trunking/tagging de VLANs como DOT1Q o ISL. Con cHDLC con Sub-interfaces no funciona, falla el mapping de L2 con L3. Hay que usar algn protocolo u que nos permita hacer el mapping. Por ejemplo Frame Relay con DLCIs. 2003-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 101 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address encapsulation frame-relay load-interval 30 no keepalive end interface Serial0/1.3 point-to-point ip address 180.0.0.2 255.255.255.0 ! ### No lo usa es P2P frame-relay map ip 180.0.0.1 103 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 103 no shut interface Serial0/1.4 point-to-point ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0 ! ### No lo usa es P2P frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.1 104 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 104 no shut

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2003-R#show frame-relay map Serial0/1.4 (up): point-to-point dlci, dlci 104(0x68,0x1880), broadcast Serial0/1.3 (up): point-to-point dlci, dlci 103(0x67,0x1870), broadcast

2004-R#show running-config interface Serial 0/1 Building configuration... Current configuration : 101 bytes ! interface Serial0/1 no ip address encapsulation frame-relay no keepalive clockrate 128000 end interface Serial0/1.3 point-to-point ip address 180.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 ! ### NO lo usa es P2P frame-relay map ip 180.0.0.2 103 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 103 no shut interface Serial0/1.4 point-to-point ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 ! ### NO lo usa es P2P frame-relay map ip 172.16.4.2 104 broadcast frame-relay interface-dlci 104 no shut 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 14.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/ FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:31 00:00:30 Address 180.0.0.1 172.16.4.1 Interface Serial0/1.3 Serial0/1.4

2004-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 13.0.0.1 13.0.0.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/ FULL/ Dead Time 00:00:37 00:00:39 Address 180.0.0.2 172.16.4.2 Interface Serial0/1.3 Serial0/1.4

5.6.

Proceso OSPF en cisco

Esta seccin se muestra como se implementa el proceso OSPF en un router cisco. o 2003-R#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 14.0.0.1 Pri 1 State FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:32 Address 172.16.4.1 Interface Serial0/1.2

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2003-R#clear ip ospf 100 process Reset OSPF process? [no]: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 100, Nbr 14.0.0.1 on Serial0/1.2 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 100, Nbr 14.0.0.1 on Serial0/1.2 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done 2004-R#show processes cpu | include OSPF 23 92 1777 51 0.00% 64 280 17005 16 0.00% 2004-R#show processes mem | include OSPF 23 0 5688 2736 10488 64 0 31712 16200 15996

0.00% 0.02%

0.00% 0.00%

0 OSPF Hello 0 OSPF Router

0 0

0 OSPF Hello 0 OSPF Router

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Referencias
[Huitema] Routing in the Internet. Prentice Hall, 1995. Christian Huitema. [RFC-1131] OSPF Specication V1. 1984. [RFC-1247] OSPF version 2, J. Moy (Proteon, Inc.), 1991. [RFC-1583] OSPF version 2, J. Moy (Proteon, Inc.), 1994. [RFC-1584] Multicast Extensions to OSPF. J. Moy (Proteon, Inc.), 1994. [RFC-1587] The OSPF NSSA Option. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1587.txt. R. Coltun (RainbowBridge Communications), V. Fuller (Stanford University), 1994. [RFC-2178] OSPF version 2, J. Moy (Cascade Communications Corp.), 1997. [RFC-2328] http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2328.txt. OSPF version 2, J. Moy (Ascend Communications, Inc.), 1998. [RFC-2740] http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2740.txt. OSPF for IPv6 (version 3), R. Coltun (Siara Systems), D. Ferguson (Juniper Networks), J. Moy (Sycamore Networks), 1999. [JOSPFA] Juniper, OSPF Overview. http://www.juniper.net/techpubs/software/junos/ junos81/swcong81-routing/html/ospf-overview.html. [COSPFA] Cisco, OSPF Design Guide. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/1.html [COSPFB] Cisco, Conguring OSPF. http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ ios122/122cgcr/pr c/ipcprt2/1cfospf.htm. [COSPFC] Cisco, OSPF NSSA. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/nssa.html. [COSPFD] Cisco, How Does OSPF Generate Default Routes. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/21.html [COSPFE] Cisco, What Are OSPF Areas and Virtual Links http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/8.html. [COSPFF] Cisco, OSPF Type of Areas. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/ technologies tech note09186a0080094a74.shtml#typesofospfareas. [CDXI] Cisco, ATM over Serial Lines: http://cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios113ed/ 113ed cr/wan c/wcatmser.htm. [COSPFn1] Cisco, Initial Congurations for OSPF over Non-Broadcast Links. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/18.html [COSPFn2] Cisco, Initial Congurations for OSPF over Frame Relay Subinterfaces. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/22.html [COSPFn3] Cisco, Problems with Running OSPF in NBMA and Broadcast Mode over Frame Relay. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/24.html [COSPFn4] Cisco, Initial Congurations for OSPF over a Point-to-Point Link. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/ technologies conguration example09186a0080094057.shtml

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[COSPFn5] Cisco, Frame-Relay FAQ. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk713/tk237/ technologies q and a item09186a008009457a.shtml [SEC] Referencias con Cisco OSPF y Direcciones Secundarias. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1829/ products feature guide09186a0080268d88.html http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/2.html http://web.nether.net/lists/cisco-nsp/1322.html http://web.nether.net/lists/cisco-nsp/1329.html http://safari.ciscopress.com/1587050714/ch11 http://safari.ciscopress.com/1587050714/ch11lev1sec5

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Indice
1. Introduccin o 1.1. Caracter sticas de Protocolos de Estado de Enlace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2. Equipamiento para Prcticas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a 2. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) 2.1. Caracter sticas de OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Tipos de Rutas OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1. Rutas intra-Area OSPF . . . . . . . 2.2.2. Rutas inter-Area OSPF . . . . . . . 2.2.3. Rutas Externas OSPF . . . . . . . . 2.2.4. Rutas NSSA OSPF . . . . . . . . . . 2.3. OSPF Link Types (Tipo de Links) . . . . . 2.3.1. L1: Router Links . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2. L2: Network Links . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3. L3, L4: Summary Links . . . . . . . 2.3.4. L5: External Links . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5. L6: Group Membership Mcast Links 2.3.6. L7: NSSA External Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 2 2 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 12 14 16 19 19 23 25 25 25 28 31 34 36 37 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 43

3. OSPF Tipos de Redes y Ejemplos 3.1. Routers Designados en OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1. Descubrimiento de Vecinos en OSPF . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2. Timeout para Vecindad OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2. Ejemplos sobre Ethernet, Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1. Conguraciones de los Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2. Ver Routers DR y BDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3. Ver Mensajes OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4. Re-eleccin de DR y BDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 3.3. OSPF sobre ATM-DXI, NBMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1. Conguraciones y NBMA con Broadcast . . . . . . . . 3.3.2. Point-to-Point sobre Multi-acceso, ATM-DXI . . . . . 3.3.3. Point-to-Multipoint sobre Multi-acceso, ATM-DXI . . 3.4. OSPF sobre Frame-Relay, NBMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1. Conguraciones y NBMA con Broadcast, FR . . . . . 3.4.2. NBMA sin Broadcast, Frame-Relay . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.3. Point-to-Point sobre Multi-acceso, Frame-Relay . . . . 3.4.4. Point-to-Multipoint sobre Multi-acceso, Frame-Relay . 3.4.5. Point-to-Multipoint, NO Broadcast, Frame-Relay . . . 3.4.6. NO Broadcast (Frame-Relay), Point-to-Point (HDLC) 4. OSPF M ltiple Area u 4.1. Normal Area . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. Stub Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3. NSSA (No So Stubby Area) . . . 4.4. Totally Stub Area . . . . . . . . 4.5. NSSA Totally Stub Area . . . . . 4.6. Topolog Bsica . . . . . . . . . a a 4.7. Conguracin OSPF Multi-Area o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4.7.1. 4.7.2. 4.7.3. 4.7.4. 4.7.5. 4.7.6. 4.7.7. 4.7.8. 4.7.9. 4.7.10.

Conguraciones de los Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comandos a Ejecutar en cada Router Para ver el Estado . . . Todos en areas Normales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Area 0.0.0.2 como Totally-Stub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crear el Area 0.0.0.2 como Stub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crearla como NSSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generarla como NSSA totally-stub (NSSA Totally Stub Area) Ver los tipos de LSA sobre 2006-R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conectar 2003-R con 2004-R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crear Virtual-LINKs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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43 49 49 58 61 63 69 77 87 90 94 94 94 99 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 104 105 109

5. Otras Caracter sticas de OSPF 5.1. OSPF Distribucin de Default Route . . . o 5.2. OSPF Redistribucin de Estticas . . . . o a 5.3. Filtrados de Rutas Enviadas/Recibidas . . 5.4. Autenticacin OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . o 5.4.1. Router 2003 con MD5 . . . . . . . 5.4.2. Router 2004 con MD5 . . . . . . . 5.4.3. Router 2006 con NULL . . . . . . 5.4.4. Router 2006 con TEXT-PLAIN . . 5.4.5. Router 2003 con TEXT-PLAIN . . 5.4.6. Router 2004 con TEXT-PLAIN . . 5.4.7. Router 2006 con TEXT-PLAIN . . 5.5. Cisco OSPF y Direcciones IP Secundarias 5.6. Proceso OSPF en cisco . . . . . . . . . . .

Indice de guras
1. 2. 3. Topolog utilizada para la prctica de OSPF Broadcast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a a Topolog utilizada para la prctica de OSPF NBMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a a Topolog utilizada para la prctica de OSPF Multi-area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a a 10 19 42