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Vocabulary Resource

This reference tool is organized alphabeticaHy for ease of access, both within Iists and as a whole. The overall organization ties in with the language needed for Papers 2 and 5 of CAE. There are cross-references from relevant sections in the units to aH these Iists. The Ists inelude vocabulary practised in the units and also bring in other related words and phrases, as well as common coHocates. If you are unsure of the meaning of any word or phrase, use your dictionary.

1 Apologizing
apologize
express regret
give excuses for
take the blame
be / feel ashamed
distressed
embarrassed
guilty
sorry
upset

2.3 Referring to arguments and explanations


one the the aspect explanation controversy debate discussion of about / over about/on

4.2 Things
award prize shortlist

5 Complaint
5.1 Linking devices
although despite even if even though in spite of whereas while

angle issue justification theory viewpoint

2 Argument
2.1 Describing arguments and reasons
compelling convincing forceful logical powerful sound

3 Comparison and

contrast
a bit less / more than considerably better / worse than far a good deal a great deal infinitely a little somewhat exactly the same as just as good / bad as rather (too) on the one / other hand looks as if asthough like

5.2 Mentioning shortcomings


incompetence
inefficiency
ineptitude
misinterpretation
mismanagement
misunderstanding

arguments / reasons

2.2 lntroducing an argument Jt is apparellt that peaple are


pleased with this paliey. apparent
c1ear
evident
extraordinary
important
inevitable
interesting
likely
natural
obvious
possible
probable
significant
true
unlikely

5.3 Problems
abnormality
breakage
breakdown
defect
fault
flaw
weakness

4 Competition
4.1 People
competitor entrallt judge opposition runner-up winner

5.4 Solutions
compensation guarantee refund reimbursement
replacement

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Vocabulary Resource

5.5 Stating your case


anger concern dissatisfaction irritation regret

express

lodge a complaint make record threaten (legal action)

self-possessed sensitive / insensitive single- minded sloppy sympathebc / unsympath etic trustworthy / untrustworthy unflappable vacant vain zealous 6.2 Adjectives to describe a book / film / play Note: many of these adjectives collocate with the intensifying adverbs listed in 9.3. appealing brutal callous compelling excruciating exhilarating exquisite extensive fast-moving gloomy horrific impressive innovative in tense intimate intricate intrusive lively moving phoney powerful preposterous pretentious prying stunning subtle threatening tranquil trivial unconvincing under-rated vivid wooden zany 6.3 Adjectives to describe a place air-conclitioned
claustrophobic
classical
cluttered
confined
cramped
d relict
full-sized

6 Description
6.1 Adjectives to describe

character
aggressive alert approachable / unapproachable arrogant attentive / inattentive audacious boastful boisterous civil conceited considerate / inconsiderate courteous / discourteous deceitful dedicated deferential determined dominant eccentric enigmatic expansive flexible / inflexible honest / dishonest ingenious inventive knowledgeable likeable level-headed mean obsessed offensive / inoffensive organized / disorganized outgoing patient / impatient polite / impolite pompous reclusive reliable / unreliable respectful / disrespectful restrained / unres trained self-assured self-centred self-confident

fully-equipped high-tech historical idyllic isolated large-scale lively luxurious magica l neglected open-plan oppressive overcrowclecl overgrown peaceful refurbished restored run-c1own spacious spectacular sple ndid suburban tranquil uncliscoverecl well -preserved

6.4 lden tifying and pecifying


p sition

along the elige alongside this at the top / bottom / side close to immediate ly behi nd in btwe ' n in fron t ol" in lbe foreground / background in the top left hand comer near next to 0 0 the left / ri ght on top of to the left / right / side

7 Evaluation
7.1 Benefits and dra wbacks
chief great major primary advantage asse t benefit cOllce rn diffi cu lty disaclva ntage drawback

7.2 Stat in g what is typical


as a rule, broadly, by and large,

Voca bulary R esource

11

_95 _

for the most part, generally, normally, typically, usually,

90pinion
9.1 Expressing your opinion opinion view
my impression is
from my perspective
in my

10.2 Suggestions invite offer plan proposal proposition strategy

8 lnfonnation (giving and requesting)


8.1 lntroducing topic-specic information

9.2 Highlighting your opinion

Culturally. you cannot fault New York - it offers everything. culturally financially historically intellectually legally morally physically politically psychologically scientifically technically technologically visually
8.2 Referring to content
comprise
consist of
concentrate on
elaborate
focus
highlight
outline
underline
deal with
refer to

In spite ofmy reservations, the play was actltally very good. actually
additionally
admittedly
especially
mainly
notably
particularly
predominantly
primarily
reaily
specially
surely
understandably

9.3 lntensifying your opinion

11 Reporting
aggressively angrily furiously argue assert declare demand deny agree announce boast claim urge admit recognize reveal explain agree remark suggest

confidently eagerly

hesitantly reluctantly patiently politely tactfully

He is amazingly generous with his money.


It is a considerably longer
productioll than previous ones.

amazingly
considerably
exceedingly
extraordinarily
extremely
highly
immensely
noticeably
radically
remarkably
significantly
totally
truly
utterly

12 Recommendation
12.1 Making recommendations

8.3 Requesting information find out about inquire about investigate give (someone) advice about give (someone) details about seek information
8.4 Text elements conclusion example introduction paragraph quotation section statement summary

1 strongly advise you to accept his


off'e!:
Pa~d is highly experienced and I
thoroughly endorse his application
for thejob.
advise endorse recommend support urge hesitation have no reservations
12.2 R eacting to recommendations and suggestions

10 Persuasion
10.1 Persuading someone assure
convince
encourage
entice
persuade
reassure

1 will have to consideryour offer carefL/l/y before making a decision . consider contemplate reflect on think about / over

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Vocabulary Resoure,