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Romina R. Macayanan 1. Define science.

BS-Pharmacy 1-B

-Science is from the Latin scientia, which means "knowledge". It is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In an older and closely related meaning, science refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained. 2. Divisions of science. Bacteriology: the study of bacteria in relation to disease Biochemistry: the study of the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occurring in organisms Biophysics: the application of theories and methods of the physical sciences to questions of biology Biology: the science that studies living organisms Botany: the scientific study of plant life Chemical Engineering: the application of science, mathematics, and economics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms Chemistry: the science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself Climatology: the study of climates and investigations of its phenomena and causes Computer Science: the systematic study of computing systems and computation Ecology: the study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment Electronics: science and technology of electronic phenomena Engineering: the practical application of science to commerce or industry Entomology: the study of insects Environmental Science: the science of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment Forestry: the science of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources Genetics: the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms Geology: the science of the Earth, its structure, and history Marine Biology: the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems Mathematics: a science dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement Medicine: the science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease Meteorology: study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting Microbiology: the study of microorganisms, including viruses, prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes Mineralogy: the study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical)

properties of minerals Molecular Biology: the study of biology at a molecular level Nuclear Physics: the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom Neurology: the branch of medicine dealing with the nervous system and its disorders Oceanography: study of the earth's oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes Organic Chemistry: the branch of chemistry dedicated to the study of the structures, synthesis, and reactions of carbon-containing compounds 3. Scientific Methods and the Five Steps Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. Five Steps of Scientific Method 1. State the problem 2. Make Observations 3. Form a Hypothesis 4. Do the Experiment 5. Draw a

conclusion.

4. Define botany. Botany is a branch of biology dealing with plant life, its properties and life phenomena exhibited by a plant, plant type, or plant group. Traditionally, the science included the study of fungi, algae, and viruses. A person engaged in the study of botany is called a botanist. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines including structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, chemical properties, and evolutionary relationships among taxonomic groups. Botany began with early human efforts to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. 5.Branches and disciplines related to botany. a. Morphology- deals with the study of the external form and features of the plant and its parts. The morphological description mostly helps identification and classification of plants. b. Anatomy-The morphology is sometimes divided into external morphology and the internal morphology or anatomy. This anatomy involves the study of internal morphology in

the description of the internal parts of the plant and its organs. This again includes the study of plant tissues and tissue systems termed as organography. c. Taxonomy- This branch involves the study of plant classification and the relationship among the groups of plants. This is also known as systematic botany and involves the technical description of the plants for their classification. d. Plant Physiology-the study of the various living processes or the processes involving functioning of the plants, constitute a branch of botany called plant physiology. In the modern concept this involves both physical and biochemical study of various living processes. e. Cytology- This branch deals with the structure of the cell and its organells. During recent years knowledge about cell and its organells have added tremendously and as such it became and advanced branch called Cell-Biology. f. Genetics-This branch deals with the resemblance between parents and their off springs and the transmission of characters or the hereditary materials from the former to the latter. g. Ecology-is the study of organism in their natural home or habitat. In other words it deals with the study of an organism in relation to its environment. This branch is of immense importance in the present days as it deals with the pollution and control of pollution. 6. Define Plants Plants, are living organisms of the kingdom Plantae including such multicellular groups as flowering plants, conifers, ferns and mosses, as well as, depending on definition, the green algae, but not red or brown seaweeds like kelp, nor fungi or bacteria. 7.Types of plants Plant kingdom can be broadly classified into two types based on their reproductive system. A. Spore Bearing Plants Algae, mosses, ferns and their relatives belong to this type of plants. Spores are very small and are formed in the sporangia. Each spore has a small amount of fundamental genetic matter in a compact sheathe. B. Seed Bearing Plants Plants that reproduce by means of seeds belong to this type of plants. Conifers or gymnosperms and flowering plants or gymnosperms reproduce by seeds. Each seed contains an embryo and a food supply. This is surrounded by a seed casing. A germinating seed is nurtured by the food reserves until it can begin to make its own. 8.Attributes of plants.

Roots and Shoots The root, defined as the portion of a plant beneath the soil, brings in essential water and minerals from the soil. It also anchors the plant to the substrate, providing stability. The shoot includes all aerial plant structures such as stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. The shoot gathers the carbon dioxide and light energy necessary for photosynthesis, provides surfaces for gas exchange, and contains the plant's reproductive organs. Each of these parts, the root and the shoot, is dependent on the other, for roots cannot perform photosynthesis and shoots cannot take in water and inorganic nutrients. Prevention of Water Loss All plants have reproductive structures that prevent desiccation (drying out) of the gametes. These sex organs, called antheridia (male) and archegonia (female), are themselves covered by a layer of jacket cells that help to retain moisture. Autotrophism The reason that plants are autotrophic is that they carry out photosynthesis in their leaves. In the process of photosynthesis, the plant converts water, carbon dioxide, and light energy into oxygen, sugars, and more water. The oxygen is released into the surrounding air through the stomata, and the sugars (organic nutrients) are transported throughout the plant body to areas of growth and storage. Alternation of Generations Plants undergo a life cycle that takes them through both haploid and diploid generations. The multicellular diploid plant structure is called the sporophyte, which produces spores through meiotic division.