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Comprehensive Development Plan, CY 2012-2014 by Municipal Development Council, Municipality of Leganes

2011

Printed in Leganes, Iloilo, Philippines

Citation: Municipal Development Council-Leganes. 2011. Comprehensive Development Plan CY 2012-2014. Municipality of Leganes, Iloilo, Philippines. This publication was made possible through the efforts of the Municipal Planning and Development Office of the Municipality of Leganes. The publication may be reproduced or quoted in other publications as long as proper reference is made to the source.

CDP Document No. 01-CDP/2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title List of Tables List of Figures List of Acronyms and Abbreviations Sangguniang Bayan Ordinance Municipal Development Council Resolution Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Policy Considerations 1.2 Legal Mandate 1.3 Sectoral Concerns 1.4 Comprehensive Development Planning Process 1.5 The Actors 1.6 The Organization of this Volume Chapter 2. Development Issues and Concerns 2.1 Analytical Framework 2.2 Beyond Profiling 2.3 Problem Trees Chapter 3. Development Goals, Objectives and Targets 3.1 Vision Statement 3.2 Vision Elements, Descriptors and Success Indicators 3.3 Vision-Reality Gap Chapter 4. Social Development Plan 4.1 Social Development Potentials 4.2 Social Development Constraints 4.3 Social Development Objectives 4.4 Social Development Strategies and Policies 4.5 Social Development Programs and Projects Chapter 5. Economic Development Plan 5.1 Economic Development Potentials 5.2 Economic Development Constraints 5.3 Economic Development Objectives 5.4 Economic Development Strategies and Policies 5.5 Economic Development Programs and Projects Chapter 6. Environmental Management Plan 6.1 Environmental Management Potentials 6.2 Environmental Management Constraints 6.3 Environmental Management Objectives

Page iv v vi ix x 1 1 1 3 4 7 8 10 10 13 13 30 30 30 32 46 46 47 48 48 59 66 66 68 70 71 78 83 83 85 89

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Title 6.4 Environmental Management Strategies and Policies 6.5 Environmental Management Programs and Projects Chapter 7. Physical Development Plan 7.1 Physical Development Potentials 7.2 Physical Development Constraints 7.3 Physical Development Objectives 7.4 Physical Development Strategies and Policies 7.5 Physical Development Programs and Projects Chapter 8. Institutional Development Plan 8.1 Institutional Development Potentials 8.2 Institutional Development Constraints 8.3 Institutional Development Objectives 8.4 Institutional Development Strategies and Policies 8.5 Institutional Development Programs and Projects Chapter 9. Summary of Proposed Programs and New Legislations 9.1 Summary of Programs and Projects 9.2 Proposed New Legislations Annex

Page 89 98 104 104 104 107 107 110 113 113 113 115 115 122 126 126 128 130

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LIST OF TABLES

No. 1.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Title Sectors in the Comprehensive Development Plan Social-economic Intersectoral Issues Economic-institutional Intersectoral Issues Physical-institutional Intersectoral Issues Environmental-physical Intersectoral Issues Social-environmental Intersectoral Issues Social-institutional Intersectoral Issues Social-physical Intersectoral Issues Economic-environmental Intersectoral Issues Environmental-institutional Intersectoral Issues Economic-physical Intersectoral Issues Vision-reality Gap Matrix Social Development Sector Vision-reality Gap Matrix Economic Development Sector Vision-reality Gap Matrix Environmental Management Sector Vision-reality Gap Matrix Physical Development Sector Vision-reality Gap Matrix Institutional Development Sector

Page 2 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 34 37 40 42 44

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LIST OF FIGURES

No. 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Title Sectoral Development Planning Process Organization for the Comprehensive Planning Intersectoral Consultations in Sequential Order Problem-finding and Solution Analysis Social Development Problem Tree Economic Development Problem Tree Physical Development Problem Tree Environmental Management Problem Tree Institutional Development Problem Tree

Page 5 9 11 12 25 26 27 28 29

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AIP ALERT ATI BALA BFP BGPMS BHW BIR BNS CCA CCT CDD CDP CDSA CEDAW CiCha CLUP COA COMPAC CRM CRMP CSO CUI DA DAR DCW DENR DILG DOH DOLE DOST DRR DRRMC EO ERPAT FITS FMR GAD GSO HH HLURB HRMO

Annual Investment Program Active Leganes Emergency Response Team Agricultural Training Institute Barangay Livestock Aide Bureau of Fire Protection Barangay Performance Management System Barangay Health Worker Bureau of Internal Revenue Barangay Nutrition Scholar Climate Change Adaptation Conditional Cash Transfers Community-driven Development Comprehensive Development Plan Congressional District Sports Association Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Citizens Charter Comprehensive Land Use Plan Commission on Audit Community Police Assistance Center Coastal Resource Management Coastal Resource Management Plan Civil Society Organizations Canadian Urban Institute Department of Agriculture Department of Agrarian Reform Day Care Worker Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department of Interior and Local Government Department of Health Department of Labor and Employment Department of Science and Technology Disaster Risk Reduction Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council Executive Order Empowerment and Reaffirmation of Paternal Abilities Farmers Information and Technology Services Farm to Market Roads Gender and Development General Services Office Household Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board Human Resource Management Office

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IAD IEC IGC IPCC IRA IRR JICA LAN LBP LCC LDC LDIP LEDO LGC LGDP LGU LIGC LNHS LPMP LTCEC MDC MDG MFARMC MIDC MIGEDC MIS MIWD MOA MPDO MPS MRF MSME MSWDO MTPDP NDRRMP NEDA NFA NGA NGO NIA PABX PCCARD PDP PES PEZA PNP

Integrated Area Development Information Education Campaign Industrial Growth Center International Panel on Climate Change Internal Revenue Allotment Implementing Rules and Regulations Japan International Cooperation Agency Local Area Network Land Bank of the Philippines Leganes Commercial Complex Local Development Council Local Development Investment Program Local Economic Development Office Local Government Code Local Government Development Program Local Government Unit Leganes Industrial Growth Center Leganes National High School Leganes Pabahay sa Mahirap Program Leganes Training and Competency Enhancement Center Municipal Development Council Millennium Development Goals Municipal Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council Metro Iloilo Development Council Metro Iloilo Guimaras Economic Development Council Management Information System Metro Iloilo Water District Memorandum of Agreement Municipal Planning and Development Office Mean Percentage Score Materials Recovery Facility Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office Medium Term Philippine Development Plan National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan National Economic and Development Authority National Food Authority National Government Agency Non-governmental Organization National Irrigation Administration Private Automatic Branch Exchange Program for Agriculture Research and Resources Development Philippine Development Plan Parent Effectiveness Seminar Philippine Economic Zone Authority Philippine National Police

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PO PopCom PPGD PPP PWD RDC RHU RPS RPT SB SEAFDEC SFR SME SPES SRA STP STW SWM TMAA UN WCED ZO ZSL

Peoples Organization Commission on Population Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive Development Public-private Partnership Persons with Disability Regional Development Council Rural Health Unit Rationalized Local Planning System Real Property Tax Sangguniang Bayan Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Small Farm Reservoir Small and Medium Enterprise Special Program for the Employment of Students Social Reform Agenda Sewage Treatment Plant Shallow Tube Well Solid Waste Management Traffic Management Action Agenda United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development Zoning Ordinance Zoological Society of London

viii

SB ORDINANCE

ix

xi

xii

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

The preparation of the Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) of Leganes is based on the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) Memorandum Circular No. 2008-156, dated October 22, 2008, entitled, Guide to Comprehensive Development Plan Preparation for Local Government Unit. The CDP Guides puts into operation the concepts and processes enunciated in the Rationalized Local Planning System (RPS) on harmonization of local planning, investment programming, budgeting and revenue administration. As a reference, the CDP Guide offers procedures tools and techniques along each step of the comprehensive development planning process and is presented in four major parts with corresponding chapters detailing each part: Part I Part II Part III Part IV Organizing and Mobilizing the Planning Structure Preparing the CDP Implementing the CDP Plan Monitoring and Evaluation

1.1

Policy Considerations

In addition to the policy guide from the approved Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of the municipality, other ideas, concepts, principles and policies from development references in general, on-going policies and programs of higher levels of government, and international conventions and commitments were adapted to the extent that these had relevance to the local conditions. Also, the CDP pays utmost sensitivity to the value of gender equality which has preoccupied national and international development advocates but has seldom been implemented in the local level. Finally, the 8-Point Agenda of Mayor Enrique M. Rojas has been considered in the formulation of different sectoral programs and projects.

1.2

Legal Mandate

The Comprehensive Development Plan is referred to in the Local Government Code (LGC) as the comprehensive multi-sectoral development plan to be initiated by its development council and approved by its Sanggunian (Sec. 106). Each local government unit shall have a long-term, medium-term and annual socio-economic development plans and policies that local Development Councils are directed to prepare under Section. It is comprehensive in that it covers the five development sectors and their respective sub-sectors. Each of these sectors has a complete development plan in itself and the time frame is set at three (3) years.

Table 1.1 SECTORS IN THE COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT PLAN


Social Development 1. 2. Population (size, growth, distribution) Social services and status of well-being a) Education and culture, spiritual b) Health c) Recreation and sports d) Welfare e) Housing f) Protective services Gender and development Vulnerable groups Economic Development 1. Primary Sector a) Agricultural crops b) Fisheries (inland, brackish, marine) c) Livestock d) Forestry 2. Secondary Sector a) Mining and quarrying b) Manufacturing c) Construction d) Electricity, water, gas utilities Physical Development 1. Economic Support a) Roads, bridges, ports, terminals b) Transportation c) Power generation d) Irrigation systems e) Flood control and drainage f) Telecommunications Environmental Management 1. Lands a) Lands of public domain b) Private lands and alienable and disposable lands 2. Forest Lands a) Protection forests b) Production forests 3. Parks and wildlife reservations 4. Water resources a) Freshwater (ground, surface) b) Marine waters 5. Air quality 6. Waste management a) Solid waste b) Liquid waste c) Toxic and hazardous Institutional Development 1. Organization and management 2. Fiscal management 3. Local legislation 4. LGU-NGO-PO linkages 5. National-Local Government linkages 6. City-barangay linkages

3. 4.

3. Tertiary Sector a) Wholesale and retail trade b) Transportation c) Telecommunications d) Finance, insurance and related services e) Real estate f) Personal and community services g) Tourism 4. Informal sector

2. Social Support a) Waterworks and sewerage b) Schools c) Hospitals d) Public socialized housing e) Facilities for vulnerable groups 3. Public Administrative Support a) Government buildings b) Halls of justice c) Parks and open spaces d) Public assembly areas

1.3

Sectoral Concerns

The five development sectors are an abstract concept which is nevertheless a useful in understanding the even more abstract concept of development. Each of the sectors may be seen as an aspect or dimension of development. Each sector has specific functions to contribute to development; the absence of one or a few of these sectors makes holistic development impossible. Conversely, development cannot be perceived or experienced except by means of the indicators and measuring devices that the sectors employ. The central concerns of each sector are described briefly below. The sub-sectoral components of the five sectors are listed in Table 1.1.

1.3.1 Social development plan This component of the CDP is concerned with improving the state of well-being of the local population and upgrading the quality of social services such as health, education, welfare, housing and the like. Questions of equity, social justice and gender sensitivity are also addressed by this sectoral plan. The preservation and enrichment of culture as mandated by the Local Government Code (Sec. 16) are also major concerns of the social sector.

1.3.2 Economic development plan It is the responsibility of the government to ensure that the state of health of the economy is sound. This is because the level of family income and employment, hence the level of well-being of residents, depend on sound economic development. The Economic Development Plan embodies what the local government intends to do to create a favorable climate for private investments. Through a combination of policies and public investments, the government enables private investments to flourish and ultimately assure the residents of a steady supply of goods, services, jobs and household income. Two of the general welfare goals in the LGC (Sec. 16) that are relevant to the Economic Sector are the promotion of full employment and use of appropriate and self-reliant technology. A very significant component of this sectoral plan is the LGUs support to agriculture and other food production activities to ensure a certain degree of local food security. The status of the local economy also determines to a large extent the amount of locally derived revenues of the LGU.

1.3.3 Physical development plan This component deals with the infrastructure building program and the land acquisition required as right-of-way or easements of public facilities. Such physical facilities are directed toward ensuring public health and safety, comfort and convenience of the citizens, as well as laying down the efficient base for local economic development. The physical development plan may involve redevelopment schemes for urban areas, opening up

new urban expansion areas in the urban fringe, or development of new growth centers in conformity with the chosen spatial strategy.

1.3.4 Environmental management plan This plan consolidates the environmental implications of all development proposals within the municipality and provides mitigating and preventive measures for their anticipated impacts. It embodies programs for maintaining cleanliness of air, water and land resources and rehabilitating or preserving the quality of natural resources to enable them to support the requirements of economic development and ecological balance across generations.

1.3.5 Institutional development plan This plan focuses on strengthening the capability of the local government bureaucracy as well as elected officials to plan and manage the municipalitys territory and serve its constituency. Planning relevant capability building includes those of fiscal management, responsive legislation, program and project management, and monitoring and evaluation. Capability building includes manpower training, scholarships, seminars, workshops, study tours and similar activities. The development of appropriate structures and recruitment of suitably qualified staff for the different offices of the municipal government also form an important concern of this sector. Membership in different functional and sectoral committees and professional leagues and participation in their planned activities is also encouraged and supported by this sectoral program. The involvement of voluntary groups or civil society organizations is likewise promoted in the preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the different sectoral programs, projects and activities as a vital component of this sectoral development plan.

1.4

Comprehensive Development Planning Process

Each of the sectoral committees prepared their respective sectoral plans following a few sequential steps described briefly below (Figure 1.2).

1.4.1 Sectoral development issues and concerns The CDP formulation benefited from the wealth of data gathered and analyzed during a series of workshops with various stakeholders. The inter-sectoral analyses done using the Problem-Solution Finding Matrix led to the identification of various sectoral issues and concerns, their implications and their possible solutions.

Figure 1.1 SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PROCESS

Ecological Profile

Sectoral Development Issues and Concerns

NGA Programs

Detailed Sectoral Studies

CLUP Policies

Sectoral Development Objectives and Targets

LGU Mandates and Thrusts

Sectoral Programs and Projects

Development Strategies and Policies

Zoning and Other Legislation

Project Ideas or Project Briefs

New Local Legislation

Local Development Investment Program

Legislative Agenda

Programs and Projects Implementation

1.4.2 Detailed/further investigations No new or additional data gathering was deemed necessary to formulate the CDP. Therefore, no further studies and investigations were conducted. In place of this activity, a series of inter-sectoral consultations wherein ten sectoral pairings produced the outputs presented in Chapter 2. The same analytical framework used in 1.4.1 above was applied in the inter-sectoral consultations.

1.4.3 Sectoral development objectives and targets These were derived from the vision statement. Because the vision statement is a long-term end-state scenario, the CDP goals and targets took a time frame of 3 years only. A useful input to this activity was the result of the vision-reality gap analysis which was one of the activities undertaken. The sectoral objectives were all based on their respective sectoral descriptors in the vision statement. Each descriptor was assigned success indicators which were then translated into sectoral objectives. Other inputs such as relevant LGU mandates and the current thrusts of the national and local governments were also considered.

1.4.4 Sectoral strategies and policies These are principles and values that shall guide the formulation and implementation of sectoral programs and projects, derived from various sources, notably from existing development literature, from higher level plans, and from the mayors executive agenda.

1.4.5 Sectoral programs and projects Programs and projects necessary to realize the objectives and achieve the targets of the sectors and sub-sectors were identified. From these programs and projects were selected those projects for which the municipality is solely responsible based on Section 17 of the LGC (RA 7160). These types of projects are the inputs to the local development investment program (LDIP). For other projects that are not the responsibility of the LGU but which are deemed essential to local development, the LGU can apply various forms of persuasion and/or pressure so that the concerned agencies will implement them at the right time and in the desired locations.

1.4.6 New local legislation Some sectoral policies and programs cannot fully be implemented by means of development projects alone. They may require enactment by the local Sanggunian of regulatory measures or by the provision of certain incentives to attract private investments. The CDP devotes a section in Chapter 9 on these needed new legislations, specifying the probable content of the ordinances or resolutions.

1.5

The Actors

The Municipal Development Council (MDC) of Leganes is tasked by the LGC to formulate a comprehensive multi-sectoral development plan to be approved by the Sangguniang Bayan (SB). Furthermore, the MDC shall assist the SB in setting the direction of economic and social development, and coordinating development efforts within its territorial jurisdiction. Sectoral committees was organized to assist the MDC in the performance of their functions and other functions enumerated in Article 182 of the Implementing Rules and Regulation of the LGC to wit: a. Provide the LDC with data and information essential to the formulation of plans, programs, and activities; b. Define sectoral or functional objectives, set targets, and identify programs, projects, and activities for the particular sector or function; c. Collate and analyze information and statistics and conduct related studies; d. Conduct public hearings on vital issues affecting the sector or function; e. Coordinate planning, programming, and implementation of programs, projects, and activities within each sector; f. Monitor and evaluate programs and projects; and, g. Perform such other functions as may be assigned by the LDC. The Sectoral committees is composed of various elected municipal and barangay officials, department heads, national government agency representatives, non-governmental organizations, informal leaders in the community and private organizations. The members are divided into five committees consistent with the five sectors in development planning. 69 members are listed in these committees. The creation of the five sectoral committees hopefully has left no aspect of local government unattended. The MPDO is given the function of providing both technical support and secretariat services detailed as follows: a. Formulate integrated economic, social, physical, and other development plans and policies for consideration of the local government development council;

b. Conduct continuing studies, researches, and training programs necessary to evolve plans and programs for implementation; c. Integrate and coordinate all sectoral plans and studies undertaken by the different functional groups or agencies; d. Monitor and evaluate the implementation of the different development programs, projects, and activities in the local government unit concerned in accordance with the approved development plan; e. Prepare comprehensive plans and other development planning documents for the consideration of the local development council; f. Analyze the income and expenditure patterns, and formulate and recommend fiscal plans and policies for consideration of the finance committee of the local government unit concerned as provided under Title Five, Book II of this Code; g. Promote people participation in development planning within the local government unit concerned; and, h. Exercise supervision and control over the Secretariat of the local development council. At least four workshops were held wherein the MDC and its sectoral committees were in attendance to give inputs. These workshops were held at certain milestones of the planning process where important decisions on various options were taken.

1.6

The Organization of this Volume

This CDP consists of nine (9) chapters. After this introductory chapter, the succeeding chapters and their respective subjects are briefly described as follows: a. Chapter 2 summarizes the development issues and concerns identified through the series of sectoral and inter-sectoral workshops conducted; b. Chapter 3 presents the refined vision statement of Leganes, the exposition on the different elements of the vision, and the implications of the vision elements to the concerns of the five development sectors; c. Chapter 4 to Chapter 8 is where the sectoral objectives and targets, development strategies and policies, and programs and projects of the social, economic, environmental, physical, and institutional sectors, respectively, are presented; and, d. Chapter 9 consolidates the major inter-sectoral programs and presents a list of proposed new legislation that the Sangguniang Bayan needs to enact to adequately address the development issues and concerns. The main instrument for implementing the development programs and projects, the Local Development Investment Program (LDIP) is presented in a separate volume.

Figure 1.2 ORGANIZATION FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING

Sangguiniang Bayan

Municipal Mayor

Municipal Development Council

Other Departments

MPDO

Technical Working Groups

Sectoral Development Committees

Social Development

Economic Development

Environmental Management

Physical/ Infrastructure Development Institutional Development

Chapter 2 DEVELOPMENT ISSUES AND CONCERNS

The identification of development issues and concerns is one of the main outcomes of workshops conducted during the plan preparation. The process involves a series of workshops by the different sectoral committees. The first round of workshops called for sectoral committees meeting separately to analyze their respective sectors and to identify development issues and concerns peculiar to their own sectors. The second round of workshops involved inter-sectoral consultations wherein each sector was paired off with every other sector in round-robin fashion (Figure 2.1). In this pairing of sectors the issues and concerns common to each pair were identified. This resulted in ten tables of issues indicated later in the chapter.

2.1

Analytical Framework

Both the sectoral and inter-sectoral workshops followed an analytical framework called Problem-Solution Finding Analysis (Figure 2.2). The analysis starts with no definite problems, only observed conditions, or simply, observations. Observations may be derived from any source: statistical data sets or intuitive knowledge. For every observation, explanations are searched. The workshop participants supply these, if they have the needed information. If no explanation or causes can be given, hypotheses or intelligent guesses are made. Such tentative explanation could be verified later. Next, the participants are asked to look into the implications of the observed condition if no intervention is introduced to significantly alter it. The implications may be either positive or negative. The preponderance of negative implications is an indication that the observed condition may indeed be a problem. Finally, policy options are identified. For positive implications, the policy intervention may come in the form of measures to reinforce or maintain the observed condition through, possibly, a system of rewards and incentives. On the other hand, the negative implications may be dealt with in two ways: tactically or strategically. Tactical policies provide temporary relief or mitigate the perceived inconveniences caused by the observed condition. Strategic solutions are more permanent. They seek to eliminate the roots or causes of the problem. Policy measures come in the form of programs and projects or suggestions for new legislation.

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Figure 2.1 INTER-SECTORAL CONSULTATIONS IN SEQUENTIAL ORDER

Social Development

Environmental Management 7

8 6

Economic Development

10 4

9 2

Physical Development

Institutional Development

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Figure 2.2 PROBLEM-FINDING AND SOLUTION ANALYSIS

Statistical compendium

Observed conditions

Explanations or causative factors

Implications when no intervention is introduced

Policy options

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2.2

Beyond Profiling

For purposes of making more meaningful and focused observations, an intermediate data input was devised simply named statistical compendium, this threedimensional data base for planning goes beyond mere profiling. Although the Ecological Profile is a major output of this undertaking it is insufficient as a basis for performing the analysis described in Section 2.1. A statistical compendium had to be constructed in such a way that data and information about Leganes and its environs in their sectoral, temporal and spatial dimensions are displayed in a comprehensive format. The sectoral dimension followed the five development sectors and sub-sectors. The temporal dimension, showing data in at least two points in time indicates change over time.

2.3

Problem Trees

The issues and concerns presented in Tables 2.1-2.10 were further summarized in the form of Problem Trees (Figure 2.3-Figure 2.7). These problem trees became one of the bases for identifying sectoral objectives and targets as well as programs and projects as presented in the succeeding chapters.

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Table 2.1 SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations 1. Most workers in factories are not from Leganes Explanations Workers in Leganes do not have skills that factories need Implications No increase in income; Policy Options Skills training for women;

2. Recipient of livelihood projects failed to return the capitalization provided by the national/ local government while others spend it on other purposes 3. No sustainable livelihood projects for women

Negative values/ attitude of recipients of livelihood projects; lack of skills to manage the project; lack of monitoring Existing livelihood projects for women are not functional

No increase in employment rate Provision of policy that will force factories/business establishments located in Leganes to hire a certain percentage of their workforce from the locality Failure in the implementation Conduct recipients training on of livelihood projects project management; capacitate LGU personnel on project monitoring and evaluation

Increase in unemployment and Increase allocation for financial dependency of women livelihood projects for women; on their husbands conduct training on business management and skills development; construction of womens development center

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Table 2.2 ECONOMIC-INSTITUTIONAL INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations Explanations 1. Local tax code is not updated Current tax code was updated way back in 2002 Implications Updated tax code will answer the current financial needs of the municipality; increased tax collection Policy Options The Committee on Ways and Means and the Committee on Budget, Appropriation and Finance should take lead in the updating of the tax code Lost revenues for the Conference with delinquent municipality that would finance lessees and strike a other projects to be compromise agreement like implemented condonation of penalties, etc. simply to ensure collection of arrearages The would be stall lessees Strict implementation of LCC choose to sell their wares policies and provide maximum outside the LCC rather than pay support to LCC stall owners for a market stall inside for the reason of low overhead and accessibility Our locally generated revenues Exert more effort on tax are not sufficient to finance campaign through education different priority projects of the campaign, sending our of LGU reminders, and apply sanctions on delinquent tax payers Would be investors does not Conduct investment have enough information promotions campaign and regarding business disseminate the provisions of opportunities in the locality the investment code

2. Nonpayment of RPT, fishery rental fees and other municipal fees of businesses

Lease contracts not respected by lessees

3. Stalls inside the LCC are not fully occupied

High cost of rentals; no proper sectioning of stall occupants, if there was a plan, it was not implemented properly

4. Poor tax campaign

Record shows that there are many delinquent tax payers

5. Lack of marketing and promotion strategies for local investment

The LGU do not have a personnel tasked for the purpose

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Table 2.3 PHYSICAL-INSTITUTIONAL INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations 1. Not all offices provided with decent place and presentable area: a. Legislative building b. Municipal Administrators Office c. GSO d. Engineering e. Police f. Fire g. Treasurer h. Assessor i. HRMO h. Accounting Explanations Overcrowded and temporary office space Implications Low productivity Policy Options Make representation to national agencies

Unavailability of lot to be donate by the LGU

Opportunity loss to avail of a modern facility for the Police and Fire

Pass resolution for lot donation and counterpart funding

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Table 2.4 ENVIRONMENTALPHYSICAL INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations 1. No proper usage and implementation of MRF 2. No identified suitable site for sanitary landfill Explanations Unskilled manpower to operate the MRF The residents of Aquaville and its neighboring sitios suffer from air pollution and insect infestation One garbage truck is not enough to collect all the garbage throughout the municipality Clogged drainage canals Implications Unsegregated waste materials Policy Options Conduct training for unskilled manpower/personnel Strict implementation of laws and ordinances governing solid waste management Purchase at least one garbage truck to supplement the existing truck Conduct regular declogging and maintenance of drainage system; strict implementation of SWM

3. Garbage not collected

Unsanitary surroundings; deterioration of health conditions Contamination of potable water sources; increase in morbidity; disruption of economic activities; damage to properties, livestock and human lives

4. Flooding during heavy rains

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Table 2.5 SOCIALENVIRONMENTAL INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations 1. Some informal settlers are located in riverbanks and coastal areas which are flooded during rainy seasons Explanations Low lying areas near rivers and creeks; improper disposal of waste materials; improper waste segregation Implications Increase of diseases leading to malnutrition; absenteeism in school children; depletion of family income; damage to property; risk to limbs and lives of residents Increase morbidity leading to malnutrition Mitigating mechanisms are not based on actuality; Damage to lives and property Health hazard to surrounding households Air pollution Policy Options Ordinance on proper waste disposal/segregation; dredging of river/creek

2. Some residents dont practice proper waste disposal 3. No updated hazard map

Inadequate information dissemination Lack of information and capability for hazard mapping

Ordinance on proper waste disposal/segregation Identify hazard areas in the municipality/conduct hazard mapping Enact ordinance ensuring sanitation in commercial poultry Enact regulatory ordinance against smoke belching; establishment of air quality monitoring stations; twostrokes motorcycle must be phased out Enact local ordinance in consonance with Clean Air Act; increase advocacy

4. Abundance of houseflies on commercial poultry 5. Existence of smoke belchers

Uncollected chicken dung

No local regulation against smoke belching for tricycles and other vehicles

6. Open burning of farm Limited knowledge on SWM residues, plastics and dry leaves is still practiced

Air pollution; fire hazard; sickness

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Table 2.6 SOCIALINSTITUTIONAL INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations 1. No suggestion box installed 2. No support for the establishment of LAN to connect offices 3. No publication of a newsletter 4. Codification of social welfare legislations (i.e. local code for children and adoption of national laws concerning the social welfare sectors senior citizens, women and children) Explanations No serious efforts done No serious efforts done Implications Policy on full disclosure not implemented Policy on full disclosure not implemented Policy on full disclosure not implemented Inadequate protection of social welfare sector since there is no specific local ordinance that covers such problem Policy Options Pay extra attention for full implementation Pay extra attention for full implementation Pay extra attention for full implementation Update the status of codification of social legislations as well as the drafting of the local code; full implementation of local code and national laws adopted; establishment of cross-sectoral center to cater the needs of the social welfare sector Intensify information campaign on proper health and nutrition practices

No serious efforts done Drafting of local code for children has already been started but not yet finalized/approved by the Sanggunian

5. Lack of citizen participation in the formulation, implementation and monitoring of health and nutrition programs

Citizens does not give importance on health and nutrition programs

Proper health and nutrition practice are not observed

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Table 2.7 SOCIALPHYSICAL INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations 1. No recreation center for children and the youth 2. Informal settlers without toilets 3. Absence of barangay health station in some barangays Explanations Barangays cant find means to provide space for recreation center Some barangays have informal settlers where landowners dont allow the construction of toilets Unavailability of lot for barangay health station Implications More incidence of crimes Policy Options Provide available lot for recreation center Provide relocation areas for informal settlers

Increased morbidity

Low productivity or performance; no decrease in morbidity

4. Lack of school buildings 5. Lack of relocation site for informal settlers

Overcrowded classroom The municipality has not yet identified a suitable relocation site 6. Inadequate office furnishings The senior citizens office is for senior citizens building sharing space with the tourism office 7. Inadequate facilities and equipment for the Resource Center for Persons with Disabilities and Exceptional Children; irregular schedule of physical therapist 8. Inadequate space for Bureau of Fire Protection office The physical set up of the center is not conducive for rehabilitation activities

Acquisition of lot for barangay health station through donations or from national agencies Area not conducive for learning Provide additional classrooms Mushrooming of squatters/ Identify and incorporate in the informal settlers CLUP a designated relocation site The senior citizens are not Full implementation of R.A. comfortable holding their 9944; provide necessary activities in the building furnishings that would improve because of inadequate space space utilization Poor rehabilitation services Improvement of facilities and hiring of regular physical therapist

The space provided was not conducive for clients

Poor accommodation of client

Improvement of office; provision of lot

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Table 2.8 ECONOMICENVIRONMENTAL INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations 1. Not enough facilities to be used for waste recycling and disposal 2. Absence of specific office to address SWM problems 3. Low SWM awareness of residents Explanations No segregation of wastes; lack of garbage trucks to collect garbage SWM is an intervening duty of designated employee Segregation at source not well implemented; need more IEC especially among school children Establishments operates prior to securing a business permit; lack of training of workers; sewage treatment plant (STP) especially in factories are not in place Implications Increased vulnerability of residents to sickness Policy Options Identify area for garbage disposal; strict implementation of proper waste disposal through municipal ordinance Creation of Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office Passing of SWM legislation in every barangay

SWM not fully implemented

Big bulk of waste are biodegradable which can be composted, recycled or reused Building may not be suitable for proposed business; waste is not disposed of properly posing hazard to health and environment; contamination of water sources

4. Some factories do not practice proper waste (liquid/ solid) disposal

5. Backyard animal raising (i.e. pigs, ducks and chickens) is not regulated even in densely populated areas 6. The proliferation of fish traps and oyster culture in rivers and coastal areas impede the flow of water

People do not know the implication/ hazard of animal raising No alternative livelihood

Air pollution and contamination of water resources; pose a health hazard to people Siltation

Strict implementation od laws and ordinances; implementation of solid waste management program; establishment of STP; ensure that pollution control mechanisms should be in place in all factories in the locality Ordinance regulating backyard animal raising should be in place Ordinance regulating the fish traps and oyster culture in waterways

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Table 2.9 ENVIRONMENTALINSTITUTIONAL INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations 1. CLUP not updated 2. No updated ordinance against illegal fishing 3. No coastal resource management plan Explanations CLUP is existing and updating is still on-going There is an existing ordinance but it is not updated to cover hodhod and electric fishing No approved coastal resource management plan which will cover protection and sustainable use of coastal resources such as marine products Air shed area has not been identified and protected Implications Policy Options Land use might not be balanced CLUP must be updated There will be shortage in fish production Exhaustion of coastal resources will affect livelihood and food supply Enactment of ordinance against illegal fishing Formulation of policies and implementation of coastal resource management plan through an ordinance

4. No policies on air shed protection

Increase incidence of air pollution related sickness

5. No policy on watershed rehabilitation and protection (i.e. regulation on water extraction and sale, rehabilitation and protection of rivers aquifers) 6. Problems on climate change is not addressed

Watershed area is not identified; there is indiscriminate water extraction and sale in the municipality

Exhaustion of water resources in the locality

Formulation of policies on air shed protection and enactment of ordinance by the Sangguniang Bayan Formulation of policies on watershed rehabilitation and protection through an ordinance of the Sangguniang Bayan for the implementation Formulation of policies on the establishment and maintenance of ecological park in the municipality; provide funds for the purpose; reforestation/ tree planting

No policy on the establishment and maintenance of ecological park in the municipality

Ecological imbalance

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Observations 7. Exploitation of coastal resources

Explanations Limited knowledge on coastal resource management

Implications Vulnerable to disaster/ calamities/ climate change

8. Prevalence of illegal fishing

Lack of alternative sustainable livelihood 9. Existence of multiple tasuk Proliferation of water stations and peddlers in the municipality 10. Quarrying at Jalaur River No specific municipal-based (Nabitasan area) office assigned to monitor and regulate extraction activities

Depletion of marine and other coastal resources Saltwater intrusion; scarcity of potable water Degradation of riverbank including destruction of riprap; damage to nearby houses, livestock and human lives

Policy Options Activation of MFARMC; implementation of the Fisheries Code (R.A. 8550); pass a fisheries regulatory ordinance Activate Bantay Dagat Enact and ordinance regulating ground water extraction Organization of Bantay Suba; constant advocacy; enactment of regulatory ordinance with coordination with DENR

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Table 2.10 ECONOMICPHYSICAL INTERSECTORAL ISSUES Observations 1. Lack of identified area for the relocation of informal settlers at Jalaur riverbank since said area will be converted into the Leganes Riverwalk and Promenade 2. Completion of tourism souvenir shop and other amenities Explanations Informal settlers refuse to vacate the area Implications Eyesore; Non-implementation of proposed project Policy Options Provide relocation site and alternative livelihood for displaced residents

Non-operational due to lack of products for sale/display

3. Inadequate water supply for farm irrigation

Limited to no maintenance of existing irrigation facilities

If operational, products could be promoted; provide additional income for household engaged in livelihood project Low agricultural production/ yield

Encourage small and medium scale entrepreneurs to engage in production of souvenirs and other products Pass a resolution requesting for the rehabilitation of irrigation facilities in the municipality

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Figure 2.3 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PROBLEM TREE

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Figure 2.4 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROBLEM TREE

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Figure 2.5 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PROBLEM TREE

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Figure 2.6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROBLEM TREE

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Figure 2.7 INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROBLEM TREE

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Chapter 3 DEVELOPMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS

This chapter presents the most important outputs in a series of workshops conducted in collaboration with the Department of Interior and Local Government Iloilo Provincial Office. The outputs are in three parts: 1) the updated vision statement of the municipality; 2) the success indicators for each descriptor of the vision statement; and 3) the vision-reality gap analysis.

3.1

Vision Statement

The vision of the Municipality of Leganes will serve as a guide to which all plans, programs, and projects of the municipality from the year 2012 to 2014 will be anchored. It sets the desired role the municipality can play in the development of its wider region of which it is an integral part, and the desired state of the municipality as a human habitat. Thus we envision: Leganes as the indispensable partner in the rapid economic development of Metro Iloilo with god-loving, vigilant and empowered citizenry living in an ecologically-balanced environment, enjoying a competitive and sustainable economy, having adequate support facilities, under the stewardship of transparent, proactive and dynamic leaders.

3.2

Vision Elements, Descriptors and Success Indicators

The vision statement portrays the end-state scenario of the five development sectors of the municipality namely, the quality of the local population, the state of the local economy, the condition of the natural environment, the features of the built environment, and the capability of the local leaders.

3.2.1 Qualities of the People a. The people of Leganes are god-loving. This is achieved when there is a considerable decrease in the crime rate and decrease in domestic problems and dysfunctions. b. Leganesnons are vigilant if there is an increased participation of households, nongovernment organization, peoples organization and private sector in community affairs.

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c. The residents of Leganes are empowered when there is an increase in the school participation rate and decrease in the drop-out rate, improved quality of primary healthcare and nutritional status of preschool and school children, and reduced disaster risk.

3.2.2 State of the Local Economy Leganes is envisioned to be an indispensable partner in the rapid economic development of the Metro Iloilo area, as it will serve an agro-industrial center of the region. It will also cater to the spillover development of the City. a. For Leganes to be competitive, it should increase industrial zone occupancy, increase the number of investors who avails of the tax incentive of the municipality, complete its tourism support facilities, develop its ecotourism areas, promote the registration of skilled workers and professionals in the municipality, and implement PhilJobNet. b. The sustainability of the local economy is attained when there is an increase in local revenue, improved irrigation system, reduced unemployment rate, increase in per capita income, increase occupancy in the Leganes Commercial Complex, increase in local and foreign tourist arrivals in the municipality, continuous annual festivals and events, and conduct promotional activities and distribution of marketing materials

3.2.3 Condition of the Natural Environment In recent years the municipality has experienced the degradation of its environment due to climate change, overexploitation, and pollution as a by-product of development. The residents of the municipality desire to live in an ecologically-balanced environment, and to ensure the fulfillment of this goal, strict compliance to the existing land use policy should be enforced, require all industrial establishments to have pollution control facilities, establish a greenbelt in the coastal area, increase the number of households that observe proper waste management, establish a sanitary landfill, convert the waste producing industries along riverbanks and beaches into green industries, preserve the sea grass area in the waters of Barangays Gua-an and Nabitasan, increase participation of coastal dwellers in coastal management, eliminate illegal fishing practices, and improve parks and open spaces to serve as a third place where the built and natural environment converge and that will serve as the center of community life in Leganes.

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3.2.4 Feature of the Built Environment Infrastructure support facilities should be adequate to viably develop the social, economic, environment, governance and administrative aspects of the municipality. This goal can be realized through the provision of efficient flood control system, farm-tomarket roads, streetlights, and communication facilities, sufficient and affordable potable water supply, upgrading of the irrigation system, transport and recreation facilities, and improvement of the road network.

3.2.5 Capability of the Local Leadership a. Leganesnons expect their leaders to be transparent. This would mean posting government transactions and activities in three (3) conspicuous places in the municipality to ensure proper dissemination, and through the revival and publication of a quarterly municipal newsletter. b. The people of Leganes requires a proactive local government that will establish a stockpile response needs and automated data banking network, and update all municipal plans and ordinances whenever applicable. c. Being dynamic would entail the consistent prompt delivery of services to clients, improved efficiency in business transactions, institutionalize feedback mechanism, ensure continuity of government transactions, and comply with statutory obligations as required by pertinent laws and issuances.

3.3

Vision-Reality Gap

If the above scenarios paint a picture of what the people want their municipality to look like, how close is Leganes to realizing this desired end-state? The vision-reality gap approximates the distance that the municipality needs to negotiate to reach the desired end-state starting from where it is now. The measurement of the gap was undertaken by each of the five development sectors. Each sector was assigned one vision element and performed the following activities: a. Review the descriptors and success indicators they had earlier generated in previous workshops; b. Recall the current reality about the city as indicated by the sectoral profiles, statistical compendium, and other data outputs ; c. Using these two sets of data, indicate the current position of the municipality relative to each of the success indicators on a 5-point scale as follows:

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0 1 2 3 4 N

= = = = = =

Nothing at all has been achieved Very little (1%-25%) has been attained Attainment is about 26%-50% Attainment is quite high (51%-75%) Vision is very close to being realized (76%-100%) Inadequate information

d. For any indicator given a rating of less than 4 list down policies or actions that need to be undertaken to close the gap; and, e. For a rating of N indicate what information gathering needs to be undertaken. The results of the vision-reality gap analysis are presented in Table 3.1 to Table 3.5. The gap has guided the different sectors in setting sectoral objectives and targets. The vision-reality gap analysis also yielded a rich menu of policy options, legislations, projects, activities, and other measures that found themselves into the different sectoral plans that follow from Chapter 4 to Chapter 8.

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Table 3.1 VISION-REALITY GAP MATRIX SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SECTOR Descriptor God-loving Success Indicator Decrease in crime rate by 30% Rating 3 Policy Options Maintenance of peace and order through police visibility, advocacy in the effective community involvement in peacekeeping activities. Advocacy and increase awareness on the importance of being a member of an organization. Encourage and emulate community voluntarism. Giving of recognition and award to the community volunteers. Effective/Efficient implementation of PES / ERPAT Creation of team counselor for marriage and pre-marriage counseling Advocacy/Effective implementation of R.A. 9262 Gather and consolidate data from agencies concerned like POPCOM/BNS/BHW for a baseline information Logistics on the conduct

Households have at least one member of a community 2 organization doing volunteer work

Total incidence of broken marriages and families less than .5% of the total household

Empowered

Total incidence of domestic violence is less than 0.5% of the total household At least 20% increase of per capita income of at least 50% of poor household Annual skills dev. training conducted for different sectors (youth, women, fisherfolks, farmers, senior citizen) 90% of existing NGOs and POs are accredited and are represented in the different councils or social structures

3 N

Massive information campaign on the accreditation of PO/NGOs and social structure

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Descriptor

Success Indicator Formulation of at least 1 cooperative per sector Equitable distribution access to resources as indicated by: Universal coverage of Philhealth 80% of HH have access to level 3 potable water supply and water sealed toilet At least 98% participation rate in elementary education and at least 90% participation rate for secondary education Drop out rate not more than 5% for elementary and high school National Achievement Test MPS must increase by 5% for both elementary and high school level 80% of school buildings have been repaired New classrooms have been constructed At least 90% of poor households were given primary health care and welfare services

Rating 0

Policy Options Advocacy on the importance of cooperative

3 0

Advocacy on individual paying Philhealth member Advocacy of the healthful effect of safe drinking water source and importance of water sealed toilet Meaningful and interesting strategies in school

4 3

Effective teaching strategies within the ability level of pupil/student Remedial and upgrade strategies of teachers to enhance activities in the classroom Support of LGU/NGO/private sectors Support of LGU/NGO/private sectors Information education campaign on importance of primary health care and welfare services Effective strategies in holding assemblies (e.g. raffle, giving of award, etc.) Advocacy/campaign

2 4 3

Vigilant

Periodic barangay assemblies attended by at least one member of 75% of the households At least 10% of the 18 yr old and above population are enlisted as volunteers of LGU programs and activities and can respond to the needs of the community within 12 hours as needed Active participation of NGOs, Pos and private sector in local governance

3 N

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Descriptor

Success Indicator 75% attendance in planning and budgeting of the LGU 75% attendance in public bidding

Rating 3

4 1

80% of LGU clients accomplish feedback form after their transaction

Policy Options Advocacy that would redound to an improve attendance and maintenance on planning and budgeting Proper processing in conducting bidding that would led to transparency and consistency Provide feedback boxes/form in all office Put up bulletin board where feedback is posted

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Table 3.2 VISION-REALITY GAP MATRIX ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SECTOR Descriptor Competitive Success Indicator 50 has. industrial zone fully occupied Rating 3 Policy Options Identify lots for investment Campaign/encourage public-private partnership Maintain tax incentive efforts Establishment of Tourist Shop

100% investors has availed of the tax incentive 100% completion of tourist lounge facilities (i.e., functional Tourism Information Center and Souvenir Shop) 50% conversion of l km. Jalaur riverbank into the Leganes River Walk and Promenade with amenities such as slides for life and floating restaurant

4 3

90% skilled workers and professionals registered

Sustainable

100% implementation of PhilJobnet 90% increase in local revenues

3 3

1,725 has. of riceland is well irrigated

SB ordinance for the conversion of the Jalaur riverbank into the Leganes River Walk and Promenade Allocation of lot for relocation of informal settlers Private intervention to provide housing facilities Encourage voluntary registration of skilled workers and professionals Provide computers and other facilities for encoding Information campaign and computerization Aggressive tax campaign for prompt payment of taxes Update local tax code Political will to implement ordinances Improvement of water impounding and irrigation water facilities diversion dams,

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Descriptor

Success Indicator 50% reduction in unemployment rate 10 has. of fully grown mangrove in the mangrove protected area in Sitio 30 converted into an ecotourism site 100% LCC stalls fully occupied 2 3

Rating

50% increase in local and foreign tourist visits

Conduct of festivals and events

80% implementation of Special Program for Employment of Students Program of DOLE 70% of local farmers/ fisherfolks are members of cooperative/ association

FITS completion

Policy Options SFR, STW etc. Encourage investors to employ local workers Conduct job fairs Replanting and maintenance of the area Approval of the ordinance for the protection of mangroves and declaration of the area as eco-tourism site Encourage street hawkers to occupy stalls inside LCC Improvement of facilities (e.g., water, health and sanitation, compliance of BP 344) Proper marketing and information strategies Networking Encourage investors on hotel convention and accommodation services Participation in fairs and other events outside of the municipality Conduct industrial fairs and exhibits to showcase local products Appropriation should be provided as counterpart for the implementation of the program Activate and revitalize existing organizations/ associations Trainings and seminars Provide financial assistance to groups or NGOs Provide facilities and equipment Train personnel to man the facilities

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Descriptor

Success Indicator Additional post harvest facilities

Rating 3

50% increase in farmers family income

Policy Options Identify area for post-harvest facilities Encourage donors to provide site for postharvest facilities Provide equity Crop diversification Trainings and seminars on livelihood Financial assistance Encourage private intervention

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Table 3.3 VISION-REALITY GAP MATRIX ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SECTOR Descriptor Ecologicallybalanced Success Indicator Only 74% of specific land uses conforms with CLUP Utilization of modern technology to: Increase agricultural production by 80% Increase aquaculture production by 30% Industrial establishments with pollution control measures and facilities Establishment of 6km greenbelt in coastal area 70% of households observes proper SWM (i.e., segregation and disposal) Establishment of sanitary landfill Rating 3 Policy Options Updating of approved CLUP

4 2 3 2 2 0

Sustain current programs Use of modern aquaculture technology for freshwater inland projects, artificial coral reef Inventory and monitoring of operational industries

Not necessary for Leganes, where the volume of waste generated is less than 15 tons, instead adopt measures to maintain or lessen volume of solid waste

90% of town plaza beautified 70% of waste producing facilities (i.e., piggeries and poultry) along river banks and beaches converted into productive uses such as: Biogas production Organic fertilizer production 100% illegal fishing practices

1 3 3

Small scale piggeries and poultry are present in the locality are not suitable for biogas formation Enactment of ordinance against illegal fishing (e.g., hudhod,

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Descriptor

Success Indicator eliminated 100% of coastal dwellers participate in coastal resource management 2.5 has of seagrass in Barangays Guaan and Nabitasan are preserved 80% coastal resources rehabilitated and sustainably used

Rating electric fishing, etc.) 2 4 Sustain programs

Policy Options

80% of airshed identified and protected 80% of watershed identified, rehabilitated and protected Establish and maintain eco-tourism parks in the municipality (i.e., mangrove reserve area in Nabitasan and Gua-an, Municipal Ecopark, Ecotourism Park at Nabitasan dumpsite)

Formulation of comprehensive coastal resource management plan; education, capability-building and empowerment of various stakeholders (i.e., LGU, fisherfolks, businessmen, teachers and students, various organizations); establishments of marine protected areas Identification/inventory of airshed; protection and preservation of air quality in identified/designated areas Preservation and protection of fresh water sources; enactment and implementation of ordinances regulating water extraction and sale; protection of rivers and aquifers Strict implementation of related approved ordinances; regular tree-planting and clean-up drive; involvement of local residents to instill ownership; institutionalization of programs/activities

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Table 3.4 VISION-REALITY GAP MATRIX PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT SECTOR Descriptor Adequate Success Indicator 18 barangays are provided with communication facilities (two-way radio) 18 barangays provided with FMR and streetlights Rating 3 Policy Options Repair defective units Provide two way radio to the 6 remaining barangays Replace unserviceable unit Repair defective streetlights Repair/maintenance of FMR Construction of FMR from Cari Mayor to Cari Minor via Manuela Subdivision to Poblacion Representation have been made to the national agencies

Concreting of interconnecting roads Coastal Road and National Highway via CamangayGuintas National Highway with circumferential road via Jaen-Bustamante Avenue 1,242 hectare of riceland well irrigated Entire municipality provide adequate and affordable potable supply of water 12 kms. provincial road concreted

3 0 2

6 kms. Coastal Road rehabilitated and concreted 14 kms. national road widened, concreted with drainage system 2 bridges widened (i.e., Buntatala and Guinobatan) 19 kms. national and provincial roads well

3 0 0 2

Coordinate with NIA as to rehabilitation of GuintasNabitasan canal Make representation to MIWD for the provision of potable water Provincial road from Leganes to Sta. Barbara has already converted into a national road; other parts are being rehabilitated/concreted (i.e. Leganes Beach Road) Ongoing rehabilitation Make representation to the national government for the provision of funds Buntatala Bridge included in 2012 road widening; Guinobatan Bridge subject for future planning Provide streetlights

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Descriptor

Success Indicator lighted 60% informal settlers provided with low cost housing Functional drainage system Construction of cut-off channel from Buntatala River to Gui-gui Creek 15 kms. of Buntatala River rehabilitated (i.e. dredging) Completion of one centralized terminal for tricycle/trisikad Four (4) jeepney bays for loading and unloading established Parking areas established in the LCC and Saad Park Completion of Saad Park 100% of sports facilities maintained and upgraded (e.g., gym, tennis court, basketball court) One (1) unit solar panel constructed and operational for LGU use

Rating 0 2 0 0 2 2 2 2 3

Policy Options Look for potential relocation site Further interconnection of drainage system; continue construction of closed drainage system Negotiate for the right of way Provide funds for the rehabilitation Searching for possible site to accommodate the terminal On going construction of jeepney bay in front of gym Proper implementation of traffic rules and regulations Funds should be provided for the final phase of the project An annual budget should be provided for the maintenance of the sports facilities Appropriation should be provided for the project to commence

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Table 3.5 VISION-REALITY GAP MATRIX INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SECTOR Descriptor Success Indicator Dynamic 100% efficiency in prompt service which does not exceed allocated time provided in the Citizens Charter (ordinance is already approved) One-stop shop organized with an automated processing system Institutionalization of feedback mechanism through the Municipal Website, PABX, suggestion box and MIS 100% compliance for funding requirements to the following sectoral groups: 1% for senior citizens and PWD, and 5% for GAD Acquisition of generator set to ensure continuity of government transactions Transparent Saad sang Leganesnon published 100% of government transactions and activities including financial conditions of the LGU posted in the bulletin boards, website Proactive Automated data banking network established (LAN) Rating Policy Options 1 Full implementation of Citizens Charter (Cicha) 0 2 4 Identify area available office space for the establishment of on-stop shop Full implementation of the plan by putting suggestion box and MIS Maintain implementation

0 0 3

Pursue the plan of acquiring generator set Continue the plan (pursue the publication) Full implementation by posting in the website

Establish a stockpile of disaster response needs with NFA and 2 local suppliers (MOA) Annual updating of disaster risk reduction plan and area safety 4 plan; regular updating of CLUP, CRMP and Traffic Management Action Agenda Reclassification of Leganes from a 4th class to 3rd class 0 municipality

Establish local area network (LAN) and possibly a data server Establish linkage with local suppliers Secure endorsement and approval from the Sangguniang Bayan that will lead to the full implementation Push for measures that will result to an increased revenue for the municipality

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Descriptor

Success Indicator Fire hydrant provided near the proximity of the BFP

Rating Policy Options 4 Provide funds for the maintenance of the hydrant

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Chapter 4 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN

4.1

Social Development Potentials

4.1.1 Functional volunteer groups Every barangay in the municipality has an organized barangay nutrition scholars (BNS), barangay health workers (BHW), daycare workers (DCW) and barangay tanods who monitors and administers first degree intervention for nutrition, health and sanitation, early childhood development, and maintenance of peace and order respectively. Programs, projects and services from the national, provincial or municipal level are channeled through these volunteer groups that implement such in their areas of coverage. They ensure the timely delivery of interventions to residents of their respective barangays.

4.1.2 Accessibility of all barangays Accessibility to far flung areas of the municipality has never been an issue. National, provincial, municipal, barangay and NIA access roads give mobility to people, products and services which means access to basic services such as health and welfare is only a few minutes away wherever in the municipality.

4.1.3 Sentrong Sigla with 24-hrs service The main rural health unit (RHU) of the municipality is an accredited Sentrong Sigla with available laboratory, maternal, child care, and referral services. The staff of the RHU composed of one (1) doctor, two (2) nurses, one (1) medical technologist, and four (4) midwives, who are on call twenty four hours a day to attend to the needs of the public.

4.1.4 Rich religious and cultural heritage The San Vicente Ferrer Parish Church is a pilgrim destination in Western Visayas. Devotees believe that their prayers will be answered through the intercession of the patron saint. The church is famous for the palapak wherein the statue of San Vicente Ferrer is treaded on ones head and believed to heal all sorts of ailments. The palapak is usually coupled by a saad a spiritual vow of sacrifice in exchange for the favors being asked. In April 4, 2008, Archbishop Angel N. Lagdameo, Archbishop of Jaro, declared and proclaimed the Church of Saint Vincent Ferrer as a diocesan shrine.

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4.1.5 High performer in sports especially in swimming, dance sport and ball games Students from the public schools of Leganes have been consistently ranked above other municipalities and cities in sports like swimming, dance sport and ball games in the Congressional District Sports Association (CDSA), provincial and regional meet every year.

4.1.6 Trainings, scholarships and project funding are extended by the provincial and national governments, as well as non-government organizations, peoples organizations and by the private sector Opportunities for external resources abound whether in the provincial and national levels. The local government units have to tap these resources to increase its capability in delivering basic services and support infrastructures to the locality. Programs and projects that cannot be funded by the municipality can be elevated to the higher government unit or private institutions possible inclusion in the short list of programs and projects to be funded.

4.2

Social Development Constraints

4.2.1 No definite support mechanism for cultural development The Saad Festival of the municipality was started in 2005 but until now the appropriation for such activity is still discretionary rather than mandatory. The festival has yet to be deemed sustainable in the face of an ever changing socio-economic landscape of the region. Furthermore, the preservation and conservation efforts for tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the municipality have taken the backseat to activities that have high economic returns.

4.2.2 Inadequate sports facilities and training Every barangay in the municipality have a basketball court but other areas of athletic endeavors are neglected. Sports like track and field, and swimming, in which students from local schools excel, are not provided with adequate facilities and financial support to further hone their skill.

4.2.3 Insufficient support system for best practices and poor documentation practices Programs and projects implemented in the local level lack the financial stability that will ensure sustainability in the long-run. Funding for social development programs

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is dependent on the ability of the LGU to finance such undertaking. Programs that have proved their effectiveness and efficacy can be abruptly suspended for the lack of funds. The issue is further aggravated by poor documentation efforts in the part of the implementers that can be used to lobby for local appropriation or external funding.

4.3

Social Development Objectives The municipality by the end of 2014 will be able to: a. Decrease crime rate b. Decrease domestic problems and dysfunctions c. Increase participation of households, non-government organization, peoples organization and private sector in community affairs d. Increase school participation rate e. Decrease drop-out rate f. Improve quality of primary healthcare g. Improve the nutritional status of preschool and school children h. Reduce disaster risk/hazards to lives and properties i. Increase family income

4.4

Social Development Strategies and Policies

4.4.1 Gender and Development (GAD) It is the general principle and policy of the local governments to promote women's empowerment, gender equality, women's human rights and gender-responsive development, as indispensable social intervention in the task of building a progressive yet peaceful and harmonious community. Specifically, the following are hereby declared as policies: a. b. c. d. Women's rights are human rights; Women are full and equal partners of men in all spheres of life Women's and girls' human rights must be promoted, protected and fulfilled; Women's empowerment and gender equality must be pursued in all aspects of local governance to ensure that women and men equally contribute to and benefit from development; e. Local development must be rights-based and gender-responsive to ensure that human dignity, social justice and equality are upheld; f. Mainstream GAD in all plans, programs, projects, and services to ensure that the enforcement of the GAD is a responsibility of all the offices in the LGU with active partnership of civil society organizations (CSO) and the private sector; g. Allocate, utilize and monitor the use of the GAD budget;

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h. Institute affirmative actions for women in various areas of concerns and enhance women's participation in local development and in decision -making; i. Eliminate gender biases in all policies, systems, procedures and maintain these be gender fair and adherent to the principles of empowerment and equality; j. Develop and strengthen mechanisms for mainstreaming GAD; k. Maintain constant awareness and vigilance in addressing existing and emerging gender issues and concerns in the LGU to fully address discriminations and inequalities; l. Take measures aimed at the eradication of all forms of abuse against women and their children; and, m. Promote womens economic empowerment. Republic Act No. 7192 or otherwise known as the Women in Development and Nation Building Act recognizes the role of women in nation building and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men. It also ensures that the State shall provided women rights and opportunities equal to that of men to attain the foregoing policy: a. A substantial portion of official development assistance funds received from foreign governments and multilateral agencies and organizations shall be set aside and utilized by the agencies concerned to support programs and activities for women; b. All government departments shall ensure that women benefit equally and participate directly in the development programs and projects of said department, specifically those funded under official foreign development assistance, to ensure the full participation and involvement of women in the development process; and, c. All government departments and agencies shall review and revise all their regulations, circulars, issuances and procedures to remove gender bias therein. RA 7192 provides the legal mandate for involving women in development. An additional mandate comes from the Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive Development (PPGD), which envisions a society that promotes gender equality and womens empowerment and upholds human rights, among other development goals. It also commits the Philippine government to addressing issues of poverty, violence against women and other abuses of womens human rights, and the continuing invisibility of women in public affairs Another document, the Framework Plan for Women focuses on womens economic empowerment, the protection and fulfillment of womens human rights, and the promotion of gender-responsive governance. The Philippine government has adopted gender mainstreaming as its principal strategy for pursuing these goals. In August 14, 2009, the Senate and House of Representatives enacted Republic Act No. 9710, an act providing for the Magna Carta of Women. The Act recognizes that the economic, political, and socio-cultural realities affect women's current condition; the

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State should affirm the role of women in nation building and ensures the substantive equality of women and men. It shall promote empowerment of women and pursue equal opportunities for women and men and ensure equal access to resources and to development results and outcome. Further, the State realizes that equality of men and women entails the abolition of the unequal structures and practices that perpetuate discrimination and inequality. To realize this, the State shall endeavor to develop plans, policies, programs, measures, and mechanisms to address discrimination and inequality in the economic, political, social, and cultural life of women and men. The State condemns discrimination against women in all its forms and pursues by all appropriate means and without delay the policy of eliminating discrimination against women in keeping with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and other international instruments consistent with Philippine law. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination. The Convention defines discrimination against women as "...any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field." By accepting the Convention, States commit themselves to undertake a series of measures to end discrimination against women in all forms, including: a. To incorporate the principle of equality of men and women in their legal system, abolish all discriminatory laws and adopt appropriate ones prohibiting discrimination against women; b. To establish tribunals and other public institutions to ensure the effective protection of women against discrimination; and c. To ensure elimination of all acts of discrimination against women by persons, organizations or enterprises. The Convention provides the basis for realizing equality between women and men through ensuring women's equal access to, and equal opportunities in, political and public life -- including the right to vote and to stand for election -- as well as education, health and employment. States parties agree to take all appropriate measures, including legislation and temporary special measures, so that women can enjoy all their human rights and fundamental freedoms. The Convention is the only human rights treaty which affirms the reproductive rights of women and targets culture and tradition as influential forces shaping gender roles and family relations.

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The State shall accord women the rights, protection, and opportunities available to every member of society. The State affirms women's rights as human rights and shall intensify its efforts to fulfill its duties under international and domestic law to recognize, respect, protect, fulfill, and promote all human rights and fundamental freedoms of women, especially marginalized women, in the economic, social, political, cultural, and other fields without distinction or discrimination on account of class, age, sex, gender, language, ethnicity, religion, ideology, disability, education, and status. The State shall provide the necessary mechanisms to enforce women's rights and adopt and undertake all legal measures necessary to foster and promote the equal opportunity for women to participate in and contribute to the development of the political, economic, social, and cultural realms. The State, in ensuring the full integration of women's concerns in the mainstream of development, shall provide ample opportunities to enhance and develop their skills, acquire productive employment and contribute to their families and communities to the fullest of their capabilities. In pursuance of this policy, the State reaffirms the right of women in all sectors to participate in policy formulation. planning, organization, implementation, management, monitoring, and evaluation of all programs, projects, and services. It shall support policies, researches, technology, and training programs and other support services such as financing, production, and marketing to encourage active participation of women in national development. Human rights are universal and inalienable. All people in the world are entitled to them. The universality of human rights is encompassed in the words of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states that all human beings are free and equal in dignity and rights. Human rights are indivisible. Human rights are inherent to the dignity of every human being whether they relate to civil, cultural, economic, political, or social issues. Human rights are interdependent and interrelated. The fulfillment of one right often depends, wholly or in part, upon the fulfillment of others. All individuals are equal as human beings by virtue of the inherent dignity of each human person. No one, therefore, should suffer discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, gender, age, language, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, political, or other opinion, national, social, or geographical origin, disability, property, birth, or other status as established by human rights standards. All people have the right to participate in and access information relating to the decisionmaking processes that affect their lives and well-being. Rights-based approaches require a high degree of participation by communities, civil society, minorities, women, young people, indigenous peoples, and other identified groups. States and other duty-bearers are answerable for the observance of human rights. They have to comply with the legal norms and standards enshrined in international human rights instruments in accordance with the Philippine Constitution. Where they fail to do so, aggrieved rights-holders are entitled to institute proceedings for appropriate

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redress before a competent court or other adjudicator in accordance with the rules and procedures provided by law.

4.4.2 Child and Youth Welfare The Child is one of the most important assets of the nation. Every effort should be exerted to promote his welfare and enhance his opportunities for a useful and happy life. The child is not a mere creature of the State. Hence, his individual traits and aptitudes should be cultivated to the utmost insofar as they do not conflict with the general welfare. The molding of the character of the child starts at home. Consequently, every member of the family should strive to make the home a wholesome and harmonious place as its atmosphere and conditions will greatly influence the child's development. Attachment to the home and strong family ties should be encouraged but not to the extent of making the home isolated and exclusive and unconcerned with the interests of the community and the country. The natural right and duty of parents in the rearing of the child for civic efficiency should receive the aid and support of the government. Other institutions, like the school, the church, the guild, and the community in general, should assist the home and the State in the endeavor to prepare the child for the responsibilities of adulthood. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child states that in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. The United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance; convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community. The full and harmonious development of the childs personality should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding. Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity.

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The need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children. As indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth". The provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules); and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration, taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child. The importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries is given emphasis. Locally, the Child and Youth Welfare Code of the Philippines (P.D. 603) set forth the rights of all children without distinction as to legitimacy or illegitimacy, sex, social status, religion, political antecedents, and other factors to wit: a. Every child is endowed with the dignity and worth of a human being from the moment of his conception, as generally accepted in medical parlance, and has, therefore, the right to be born well; b. Every child has the right to a wholesome family life that will provide him with love, care and understanding, guidance and counseling, and moral and material security; c. The dependent or abandoned child shall be provided with the nearest substitute for a home; d. Every child has the right to a well-rounded development of his personality to the end that he may become a happy, useful and active member of society; e. The gifted child shall be given opportunity and encouragement to develop his special talents; f. The emotionally disturbed or socially maladjusted child shall be treated with sympathy and understanding, and shall be entitled to treatment and competent care; g. The physically or mentally handicapped child shall be given the treatment, education and care required by his particular condition;

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h. Every child has the right to a balanced diet, adequate clothing, sufficient shelter, proper medical attention, and all the basic physical requirements of a healthy and vigorous life; i. Every child has the right to be brought up in an atmosphere of morality and rectitude for the enrichment and the strengthening of his character; j. Every child has the right to an education commensurate with his abilities and to the development of his skills for the improvement of his capacity for service to himself and to his fellowmen; k. Every child has the right to full opportunities for safe and wholesome recreation and activities, individual as well as social, for the wholesome use of his leisure hours; l. Every child has the right to protection against exploitation, improper influences, hazards, and other conditions or circumstances prejudicial to his physical, mental, emotional, social and moral development; m. Every child has the right to live in a community and a society that can offer him an environment free from pernicious influences and conducive to the promotion of his health and the cultivation of his desirable traits and attributes; n. Every child has the right to the care, assistance, and protection of the State, particularly when his parents or guardians fail or are unable to provide him with his fundamental needs for growth, development, and improvement; o. Every child has the right to an efficient and honest government that will deepen his faith in democracy and inspire him with the morality of the constituted authorities both in their public and private lives; and p. Every child has the right to grow up as a free individual, in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, tolerance, and universal brotherhood, and with the determination to contribute his share in the building of a better world.

4.4.3 Senior Citizens Pursuant to Article XV, Section 4 of the Constitution, it is the duty of the family to take care of its elderly members while the State may design programs of social security for them. In addition to this, Section 10 in the Declaration of Principles and State Policies provides: The State shall provide social justice in all phases of national development. Further, Article XIII, Section II provides: The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged, sick, elderly, disabled, women and children. It is the declared policy of the State to promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all. It is further declared

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that the State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development and values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. In all matters relating to the care, health, and benefits of the elderly, the State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all people at affordable costs giving priority for the needs of the underprivileged sick, elderly, disabled, women and children. Further, it is declared that though the family has the duty to take care for its elderly members, the State may also help through just programs of social security. Consonant with these constitutional policies, RA 9994 or the Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2010 serves the following objectives of the State: a. To recognize the rights of senior citizens to take their proper place in society and make them a concern of the family, community, and government; b. To give full support to the improvement of the total well-being of the elderly and their full participation as an integral part of Philippine society; a. To motivate and encourage the senior citizens to contribute to nation building; b. To encourage their families and the communities they live in to reaffirm and apply the valued Filipino traditions of caring for the senior citizens; c. To provide a comprehensive health care and rehabilitation system for senior citizens with disability to foster their capacity to attain a more meaningful and productive ageing; and d. To recognize the important role of the private and the non-government sector in the improvement of the welfare of senior citizens and to actively seek their partnership. Furthermore, the Act aims to: a. Establish mechanisms whereby the contributions of the senior citizens are maximized; b. Adopt measures whereby our senior citizens are assisted and appreciated by the community as a whole; c. Establish programs beneficial to the senior citizens, their families and the rest of the community that they serve; and d. Establish community-based health and rehabilitation programs in every political unit of society.

4.4.4 Persons with Disabilities Pursuant to the Magna Carta for Disabled Persons (RA 7277), the following policies shall be applied:

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a. Disabled persons are part of Philippine society, thus the State shall give full support to the improvement of the total well-being of disabled persons and their integration into the mainstream of society. Toward this end, the State shall adopt policies ensuring the rehabilitation, self-development and selfreliance of disabled persons. It shall develop their skills and potentials to enable them to compete favorably for available opportunities. b. Disabled persons have the same rights as other people to take their proper place in society. They should be able to live freely and as independently as possible. This must be the concern of everyone the family, community and all government and nongovernment organizations. Disabled persons' rights must never be perceived as welfare services by the Government. c. The rehabilitation of the disabled persons shall be the concern of the Government in order to foster their capacity to attain a more meaningful, productive and satisfying life. To reach out to a greater number of disabled persons, the rehabilitation services and benefits shall be expanded beyond the traditional urban-based centers to community based programs that will ensure full participation of different sectors as supported by national and local government agencies. d. The State also recognizes the role of the private sector in promoting the welfare of disabled persons and shall encourage partnership in programs that address their needs and concerns. e. To facilitate integration of disabled persons into the mainstream of society, the State shall advocate for and encourage respect for disabled persons. The State shall exert all efforts to remove all social, cultural, economic, environmental and attitudinal barriers that are prejudicial to disabled persons.

4.4.5 Poverty Alleviation It is the policy of the State, as stated in R.A. 8425 to adopt an area-based, sectoral and focused intervention to poverty alleviation wherein every poor Filipino family shall be empowered to meet its minimum basic needs of health, food and nutrition, water and environmental sanitation, income security, shelter and decent housing, peace and order, education and functional literacy, participation in governance, and family care and psycho-social integrity. Asset reform or redistribution of productive economic resources to the basic sectors including the adoption of a system of public spending which is targeted towards the poor should be actively pursued. The Social Reform Agenda (SRA) should be institutionalized and enhanced, as it embodies the results of the series of consultations and summits on poverty alleviation. The SRA initiative continued the Cory administrations Preferential Options for the Poor (Pro-Poor initiative). The SRA initiative integrated the twin approaches of implementation: localization and convergence strategies. The SRA was intensively localized and where the convergence strategy (i.e., different NGAs converge to collaborate with local government units or LGUs and the basic sectors concerned in

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specific poor communities in addressing identified problems and reform issues) was implemented. Moreover, the State shall adopt and operationalize the following principles and strategies as constituting the national framework integrating various structural reforms and anti-poverty initiatives such as: a. Social reform shall be a continuing process that addresses the basic inequities in Philippine society through a systematic package of social interventions; b. The SRA shall be enhanced by government in equal partnership with the different basic sectors through appropriate and meaningful consultations and participation in governance; c. Policy, programs and resource commitments from both government and the basic sectors shall be clearly defined to ensure accountability and transparency in the implementation of the SRA; d. A policy environment conducive to sustainable social reform shall be pursued; e. The SRA shall address the fight against poverty through a multi-dimensional and cross-sectoral approach which recognizes and respects the core values, cultural integrity, and spiritual diversity of target sectors and communities; f. The SRA shall pursue a gender-responsive approach to fight poverty; g. The SRA shall promote ecological balance in the different ecosystems, in a way that gives the basic sectors a major stake in the use, management, conservation and protection of productive resources; h. The SRA shall take into account the principle and interrelationship of population and development in the planning and implementation of social reform programs thereby promoting self-help and self-reliance; and i. The SRA implementation shall be focused on specific target areas and basic sectors.

4.4.6 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) In September 2000, the United Nations General Assembly concluded the Millennium Summit with the adoption of a Millennium Declaration renewing the global commitment to peace and human rights and setting specific goals and targets towards reducing poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), set within 2015, affirm and reinforce the agreements on the goals and targets toward eliminating extreme poverty worldwide. Its eight objectives have measurable outcomes, timelines for achievements, and clear indicators for monitoring progress. The Philippines, as UN-member, is a signatory to the Millennium Declaration and has committed to craft its Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) around the MDGs. By committing to this declaration, it does not mean that the country is simply keeping pace with the rest of the developing world, but ensuring that we are able to maximize all available resources in providing the right policy framework and the right

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environment for helping our people gain access to the best quality of life possible. As the goals are holistic and interrelated, the process of working together in partnership at the national, regional and local levels is very important. Meeting the requirements for MDGs will entail collaborative efforts of major, stakeholders the national and local government units (LGUs) as well as the private sector for interventions geared toward mainstreaming the MDGs in the local development agenda. The Millennium Development Goals and targets are as follows: Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Targets: a. Reduce by 50% the number of people living in extreme poverty between 1990-2015 b. Reduce by 50% the number of population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption and reduce by 50% the number of underweight children (under five years old) c. Reduce by 50% the number of people with no access to safe drinking water or those who cannot afford it by 2015 Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target: Achieve universal access to primary education by 2015 Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality Target: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and all levels of education not later than 2015 Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Target: Reduce children under-five mortality rate by 67% by 2015 Goal 5: Improved Womens Reproductive Health Targets: a. Reduce maternal mortality rate by 75% by 2015 b. Increase access to reproductive health services to 60% by 2005, 80% by 2010 and 100% by 2015 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDs, Malaria and Other Diseases Targets: a. Prevent the spread and halt HIV/AIDs by 2015 b. Reduce the incidence of malaria and other major infectious diseases and halt HIV/AIDs by 2015 Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Targets: a. Implement national strategies for sustainable development by 2005 and recover loss of environmental resources by 2015 b. Achieve a significant improvement in the lives of 1.3 million informal settler families Goal 8: Develop global partnership for development Targets: a. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system; include commitment to good governance, development and of poverty reduction-both nationally and internationally

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b. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long-term.

4.4.7 Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016 The Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016 provides the overall development framework of the administration of President Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III. The Plan aims to improve the access of Filipinos to quality basic social service delivery in education, training and culture; health and nutrition; population and development; housing; social protection; and asset reform. The country is on track in pursuing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on poverty, gender and equality, child health, disease control and sanitation. However, the country lags in achieving universal primary education, improving maternal health, and combating HIV/AIDS. Moreover, large discrepancies across regions need to be addressed by the social development sector in the next six years. The social development sector shall focus on ensuring an enabling policy environment for inclusive growth, poverty reduction, convergence of service delivery, maximized synergies and active multistakeholder participation. Priority strategies include: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Attaining the MDGs; Providing direct conditional cash transfers (CCT) to the poor; Achieving universal coverage in health and basic education; Adopting the community-driven development (CDD) approach; Converging social protection programs for priority beneficiaries and target areas; Accelerating asset reform; Mainstreaming climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in social development; Mainstreaming gender and development; Strengthening civil society-basic sector participation and public-private partnership; Adopting volunteerism; and Developing and enhancing competence of the bureaucracy and institutions.

The Plan translates the Presidents Social Contract with the Filipinos in ensuring inclusive growth and equitable access to quality basic social services, especially by the poor and vulnerable.

4.5

Social Development Programs and Projects

There is a growing realization from within the Social Development Sector that the scope and concerns of this particular sector are so huge and entail a sizeable budget that it

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is difficult to rely solely on what the local government can do for the municipality. The emergence of non-government organizations (NGOs) helping the various disadvantaged sub-sectors of the society in their own way or in collaboration with other NGOs has provided some positive prospects on how human and financial resources can be extended and multiplied to cater to more people and additional areas. Local government private sector collaboration, although on a limited scale has started. This is one avenue which can be further explored inasmuch as there are areas such as community organizing and administration of sustainable projects where the recognized NGOs are acknowledged to have strong points. The programs and projects enumerated in this section tap the resources of both the government (national and local) and the private sector. In some instances, even the international organizations funding support and expertise are tapped and utilized. Given a three-year period and with limited resources, there has not been an attempt to develop and implement a program or project for each identified concern of the social development sector. Besides, there are issues which can be addressed by merely improving efficiency among the regular government offices and functionaries. The consensus is to focus on concrete interventions with strategic impact rather than covering all its broad sub-sectors. The approach is to concentrate pooled resources in harnessing the energies of people who will in turn assist others to help themselves. Realizing, subsequently, that working together can help a larger group or community, then the multiplier effect follows reaching out to more people and other areas of concern. The programs and projects of the social development sector are all about the people. And because they deal with people and impact on people, these programs and projects require ample time to come to fruition. In complementation with the strategies and policies previously discussed these programs and projects hinge on the basic concepts of going back to the basics; empowerment and unity; and genuine love and concern for others.

4.5.1 Malinong kag Matawhay Ka Leganes Project The Municipality of Leganes, through the joint effort of the police, fire department and the community, is considered as one of the most peaceful municipalities of the Province of based on the low crime rate recorded. No heinous or sensational cases have ever been recorded and there are no existing criminal groups in the area for several years. The police, fire department and the community are doing its part in keeping with the said status purposely to attract more investors to do business in the area and maintain a peaceful and ideal place to live, work and conduct business. However, it was observed that there is deficiency with regard to the necessary equipment that is needed by the police and fire personnel in carrying out their mandated job. As expected, if the police and fire department will be more equip , they will be more motivated and inspired in carrying out their mandated job particularly in keeping every households and streets safe at any time of the day and night. From the simple conduct of

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police visibility patrol, checkpoint and chokepoint, hot pursuit operations, complying with required reports for the higher headquarters and other police intervention activities will be easier if the needed gadget and equipment are available for the police. The same is true with fire prevention; the response time will be further reduced. The project will provide the necessary equipage to the police and fire department. Necessary improvement of the Community Police Assistance Center (COMPAC) will be undertaken, together with the improvement of the Bureau of Fire Protection Office to accommodate high risk clients (e.g., senior citizens, pregnant women, persons with disabilities, etc.). It should be noted that no matter how well constructed our roads and bridges and other edifices, prosperity is still far from reality when people dont feel safe in the streets and even at their respective houses.

4.5.2 Health and Nutrition Program in Day Care Centers, Schools and in Communities The total population in the Municipality of Leganes which was surveyed last 2009 was 27,673 of which almost twelve percent consists of children who are below six years old. Roughly 15.46% of the said children are malnourished, some of them are below the normal weight and others are overweight. The LGU must assume a responsibility that will supplement in the alleviation of this perennial problem which downgrades the socioeconomic and psychophysical status of the person and the community in general. The Municipal Nutrition Office in coordination with the Municipal Health Office is tasked to provide a comprehensive implementation of nutrition programs and services to malnourished children residing within the community. This is to minimize the perennial problem of malnutrition. To maximize the utilization of limited resources, this project will carry out stopgap strategies that will include food production, food and micronutrients supplementation, information education campaign (IEC) in all day care center, schools and barangays. In addition to these efforts, a regular periodic laboratory examination of all water sources will ensure safe drinking water for all residents; the zero open defecation component of the project will ensure that all households have sanitary toilets; the installation of hand washing facilities in schools and fluoride tooth brushing will ensure proper hygiene; a mass drug administration of deworming drugs to all preschool and school children three times a year; and an information, education, communication drive to integrate the message of fighting intestinal worm infection to school curriculum will hopefully reduce the number of malnourished children in the municipality.

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4.5.3 Improvement of the Municipal Water System Leganes was annexed to the service area of Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD) by virtue of a Memorandum of Agreement signed by Mayor Enrique M. Rojas and former MIWD General Manager Moises G. Molen, Jr. way back in 2000. In 2005, the MIWD laid down 13,013.70 linear meters of various sizes of transmission and distribution lines, including appurtenances, installation of new service connections and rehabilitation of the town's existing well source but as to this date the MIWD pipeline is not functional. No household within the municipality has been supplied with water from the MIWD. The need for water is immediate. It is proposed that the municipality should operate its own water system independent of the MIWD to ensure the access of all households in the municipality to potable water.

4.5.4 Cross-sectoral Welfare and Development Program The cross-sectoral welfare and development program is an integrated approach to the delivery of programs and service for the welfare and empowerment of the different social welfare sectors. These different sectors are both the beneficiaries and partners in the development efforts of the local government. Varied laws specific to each sector mandates for their maximum participation to nation building. The Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office (MSWDO) functions to provide comprehensive social services to a wide variety of clients who are distressed by reason of old age, disability, gender biases, poverty and other distressing circumstances, and there is a need to improve the facilities and provide opportunities for the different sectors to enhance their capacities. The program aims to provide opportunities for economic and socio-cultural development; strengthen the different sectoral organizations and enhance leadership capacities; harness the potentials of the different sectoral group members for volunteer service; and provide minimal facilities to the different organizations center.

4.5.5 Street Lighting Project Good street lighting contributes to the quality of urban life. Lighting improvements in general have a positive impact on the publics fear of crime and on the incidence of crime. There is an inverse proportionality relationship between crime and street lighting. The project is initiated to resolve problems involving car crime (in car parks) and vandalism, arson, burglary, and reduce anxiety on the part of pedestrians. The project will cover the areas along the coastal road and the Poblacion of the municipality. The project should be able to make a considerable difference as a crime deterrent and demonstrably improving peoples freedom of movement.

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4.5.6 Construction of Barangay Health Centers The project will construct barangay health centers in Barangays Nabitasan, Napnud and Gua-an, all coastal barangays of the municipality. These barangay health centers are located in depressed areas were there is a high incidence of poverty and limited access to health services. Travel time from these barangays to the main health center can take up to 30 minutes due to the limited means of transportation in the area. The project aims to provide adequate space to accommodate patients. Additional manpower to provide the needed health services of the underserved clients shall be augmented along with essential equipments, supplies and medicines which are of necessity in order to implement the different health interventions.

4.5.7 Leganes Pabahay sa Mahirap Program Housing symbolizes the physical structure where the family dwells and is strengthened as the basic foundation of the society. The program is considered a priority undertaking in view of the many residents living in and/or near environmentally critical areas such as river easements and coastal zones. The program covers socialized housing projects to include both on-site and resettlement areas. One undertaking under the project involves the enumeration of informal settlers and identification of a resettlement site. This socialized housing project considers the provision of basic services and livelihood opportunities. The LGU cannot afford to fund this project from local funds; instead it is proposed that the LGU should explore external funding sources available. The project will provide assurance to real poor men and women an equal access to equitable housing and other pro-poor projects of the government.

4.5.8 Sports Development Program This program involves the rehabilitation and/or improvement of both indoor and outdoor sports and recreation facilities. It also includes the development of sports organizations and clinics and the sponsorship of tournaments. The program will encourage the students and the out of school youth to actively participate or get involved in different sports activities in order to divert their attention from harmful vices such as smoking, drinking and drug addiction. It will also help the entire community to stay fit and prevent lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and coronary heart problems by engaging themselves in sports recreation.

4.5.9 Public Employment Program The program has two components, the Special Program for the Employment of Students and the conduct of job fair. The Special Program for the employment of students

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(SPES) is mandated under Republic Act No. 7323 was enacted on February 6, 1992. The program aims to help the poor but deserving students to pursue their education by encouraging their employment during summer and Christmas vacation for the purpose of providing them an income to finance, augment or subsidized their studies. Through the SPES, the Department of Labor and Employment is mandated to facilitate the employment of students and drop-outs. They are at least 15-25 years old, must be enrolled in school or university of the current semester or school year immediately preceding the summer and Christmas vacation, or a drop-out who intends to continue his/her schooling. The program will hire students/drop-outs. Sixty percent (60%) of the salaries shall be shouldered by the municipality and forty percent (40%) shall be from the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). These agreements shall be entered through a Pledge of Commitment to be submitted to the DOLE. This program will be a vehicle for the LGU to expand the reach of employment facilitation services of the government, ensure the speedy, equitable and efficient delivery of employment services to maximize the impact of various employment programs and services to the grassroots level, serve as referral and information center, and provide a venue where men and women could explore simultaneously various employment options and actually seek assistance they prefer.

4.5.10 Completion of Saad Park The Saad Park was established back in 2005. It is the official venue of the Saad Festival, the flagship cultural activity of the municipality. The Saad Festival is celebrated in honor of patron saint Vicente Ferrer. Every Sunday, parishioners and peddlers alike converge in and around the park. The park has instilled a sense of community to the men and women residents of the municipality. The project will complete the unfinished concrete tiling and fill portions of the park that are not leveled to improve drainage.

4.5.11 Disaster Risk Preparedness, Relief and Recovery Program The program employs a cross-sectoral approach to disaster risk reduction and management. The social development efforts of the program are detailed here. The rest of the components of the program are detailed in the economic development, environmental management, infrastructure development and institutional development sectoral plans. One of the components of the program is the creation of the Active Leganes Emergency Response Team (ALERT). Under this component, the LGU will undertake the identification of volunteers and their subsequent training on disaster risk preparedness and climate change adaptation measures.

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The other components of the program include a massive information drive or public awareness campaign, advocacy and conduct of emergency drills involving the community; production of advisories/manuals; purchase of emergency kit and equipment for quick response; stockpiling food, medicines, medical equipments and supplies; conversion of Agrarian Reform Office into a stockroom for the stockpiling of disaster risk reduction equipments and relief goods; acquisition of a generator set; integration of surveillance, mitigation and response on climate-sensitive waterborne and vector diseases; bloodletting activities; and other relief and recovery efforts.

4.5.12 Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle Program Obesity continues to be a major public health issue that is becoming prevalent in Philippines. Lifestyle diseases such as cardio-vascular disease and hypertension are due to sedentary lifestyle. This program is a preventive measure to ensure healthy constituents. The program approach involves the conduct of exercise activities in a group setting, incorporating some of the potentially beneficial aspects of shared goal-setting, lifestyle skills teaching, ongoing follow-up and support as well as promoting the establishment of peer support networks, which have been suggested as a useful tool for improving compliance with interventions for weight loss and diabetes prevention. Delivery of this program in a group setting rather than on an individual basis was aimed at reducing the resources required for the delivery of the program.

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Chapter 5 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN

5.1

Economic Development Potentials

5.1.1 Accessibility to land and air travel Leganes is only about eleven kilometers from Iloilo City and few kilometers from the Iloilo Airport of International Standards. It can be reached from Iloilo City through the National Highway to the north or the Coastal Highway to the Municipality of Dumangas. The Coastal Road serves as the shorter link of the town to the International Port in Barrio Obrero, Lapuz, Iloilo City and to some of the municipalities in the north. There are also barangay roads that connect the municipality to the adjacent towns like Sta. Barbara and Pavia.

5.1.2 Rich agricultural land and availability of agricultural support facilities The terrain of the municipality is characterized by level plains with a slope not exceeding 3%. The soil of the municipality can be classified in two categories: the Sta. Rita clay loam variety, which covers 75%, and the Umingan fine sandy loam type which covers the rest of the 25%. The plains are of prime agricultural lands that produce rice, which is the municipalitys prime commodity. Of the total 2,065.28 hectares devoted for rice production, 82.07% are irrigated. Surface water in Calaboa Creek, Carismo-an Creek and Janipa-an River are utilized for such purpose. Post-harvest facilities are also available in majority of the barangays (Table 24). The areas along the coastline are swampy and a large portion of these swampy areas had been converted into fishponds and salt-beds. The municipal government owns a 187 hectare fishpond that can be utilized to generate jobs in the coastal area.

5.1.3 Presence of local investment incentives code The local investment incentives code was enacted to attract and encourage investments activities that will provide livelihood and employment opportunities to the residents of the municipality. This will serve as an instrument in the rapid economic transformation that the municipality aims for.

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5.1.4 Tourism prospect Tourism is an increasingly visible and important sector in our local economy. It has substantial effects and vast linkages with other economic activities. It contributes to government revenues; generate local employment and business opportunities. Recent efforts of the municipality to reforest and conserve its mangrove areas with the support of non-governmental organizations have been successful in abating further degradation and preserve, if not restore biodiversity in the coastal areas. The Jalaur river system also has a high potential for ecotourism with its diverse fauna and thick nipa growths. Jointly, the two areas will be the springboard on which the municipality can realign itself to become an ecotourism site in the Metro-Iloilo area.

5.1.5 Leganes Industrial Growth Center (LIGC) In 1998, the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), and the Regional Development Council for Region VI (RDC VI) granted the green light for its development as the growth corridor to the Pavia Regional Agro-industrial Center, which is also located in Metro Iloilo. The Leganes IGC is positioned for medium and heavy industries, ship repair/building with wharf facilities. Leganes occupies a strategic position in the trading route of Asia-Pacific countries. The natural geographic features of Leganes makes it one of the few locations in the country that can be developed as a world class industrial center with contiguous deep water port in a well-sheltered anchorage within the Iloilo Strait. The total reclamation area will be developed by phases to restrain the impact of financial outlays. Phase 1, being the flagship of development, will be about 208 hectares including the 8 hectares wharf space. Phase 2 will be about 290 hectares; Phase 3 about 250 hectares and Phase 4 will be about 12 hectares, mostly for the expansion of the wharf. At the upper limit of the reclamation area, a 55-meter wide waterway canal shall be constructed to serve as flood control and fishermens access to the sea. A box culvert of three-barrel sections will be provided to connect the reclamation area to the mainland. From the LGU standpoint of greater importance is the real income generated by the project and the resulting income redistribution among income groups and among barangays in Leganes. Because of the magnitude of the project and various social and economic activities horizontally and vertically linked to it, its socio-economic impact is geographically far reaching, cutting across various sectors and income groups. Consequently, livelihood opportunities, either as job openings for laborers or via ancillary activities for those self-employed and entrepreneurs (whether individual or community-based) is made available. Corollary to this, as laborers undergo skills

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training/enhancement, value reorientation and community-based enterprises, they are afforded the opportunity to undergo organizational strengthening and enterprise development, new horizons are opened up which would enable themselves to have better control of their resources and subsequently enable them to mainstream into the economy. The secondary benefits/externalities of the project can be summarized as follows: a. Increased family income of farmers/producers that supply the farm inputs needed by the resource based industries; b. Increased family savings that will sustain livelihood development and generate funds for investments that will further improve their livelihood; c. Improved productivity as a result of the ready market for farm produce; revenues accruing to the local and national in terms of real property taxes, tariffs, duties, fees and licenses, import and export taxes; d. Development of family level and barangay level entrepreneurship as backward linkages to locator industries. Concomitantly, the implementation of programs geared to develop and strengthen cooperative-based undertakings in conjunction with training and skills development/capability building programs are in conjunction with the objective of empowering these groups with better and improved access and control of resources required for their livelihood; e. Considering the gender bias of some labor-intensive industries as electronics, which are encouraged to locate in the economic zone, the womenfolk are provided opportunities to be trained and to earn; f. Close backward linkage of the enterprises to the agricultural production activities will ensure that small farmers and producers will benefit from the projects social impact on small producers enhanced by the creation of wage and non-wage employment opportunities based on improving productivity and expansion of market opportunities for the agricultural-industrial sector; and g. Value added to real estate within the influence area is expected to appreciate significantly as a result of the construction and operations of the Leganes IGC. Landholders within the area of influence would realize windfall profits as a result of marked increase in the value of their lands.

5.2

Economic Development Constraints

5.2.1 Inadequate potable water source Water source for the municipality is confined to rainwater harvesting and groundwater extraction that cannot sustainably supply commercial and industrial scale requirement.

5.2.2 Inadequate water for irrigation Water supply for agriculture has decreased in recent years with the onset of climate change and the El Nio phenomenon. The local government has yet to identify

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alternative water source for agricultural purposes considering that majority of farmers are dependent on the irrigation system to provide water for their crops.

5.2.3 Underdeveloped roads The transport system has the ability to reshape a towns physical and economic pattern. From fragmented urban and isolated rural economies, the municipality can be developed into a unified, well-integrated economy where people and goods can move and trade swiftly and efficiently, locally and internationally. The municipal transport system relies heavily on the road network. While national roads serve priority production areas and population centers, roads that lead to many tourism destinations and rural areas are inadequate. Based on national data of approximately 202,000 kilometers (km) of roads nationwide, 15 percent are classified as national roads, 13 percent are provincial roads, while city/municipal roads constitute 11 percent of the total. The balance of 60 percent of the road network is classified as barangay roads, which are mostly unpaved. Farm-to-market roads fall under this last category. The maintenance of these barangay roads have been devolved to local government units, but due to limited local resource, the quality of these roads have been declining. The yearly effort of the LGU of regraveling is only a palliative solution to this issue. Efforts to increase mobility of goods and services from the urban center to the rural communities have to be more sustainable to achieve the economic development the municipal government aims to achieve.

5.2.4 Proximity to the City of Iloilo The City of Iloilo has been the strongest competitor of the municipality in attracting local and foreign investors. The Iloilo City is the economic and administrative center of the province. People from neighboring towns come to Iloilo City to seek employment, invest and for leisure. Local residents choose to spend their money in Iloilo City because of the diverse and affordable choices that are available. Economic development is dependent on the capacity of the local economy to generate revenues and attract local and foreign investments.

5.2.5 Inadequate electric power supply There is a large gap between the demand and supply of power in the Province of Iloilo that has not only resulted to rotating blackouts but it has also driven up the price of

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electricity. With increasing household and commercial power consumption, no sustainable solution has been undertaken to address the issue of inadequacy.

5.2.6 Other municipalities have a competitive advantage over local producers Local producers of agricultural products have no capacity for value adding processes. Their technical capability is limited to raw material production which has a lower value and less desirable for export. In terms of price, local producers can hardly compete with other producers in the province due to high overhead cost of production.

5.2.7 Climate change Being a coastal town, Leganes has not taken steps in adapting to the adverse effects of climate change in safeguarding the lives and livelihood of its residents. Coastal barangays will be the most vulnerable. Climate change has accelerated erosion and resulted to flooding. The erratic change in weather patterns has also affected various agricultural crops inland. The decrease in the number of cropping seasons and water availability has negative impacts on volume of production.

5.2.8 Pest infestation Leganes has an agriculture based economy that is susceptible to climatic alterations and entomological intrusion. In recent years, the incidence of pest infestation has been frequent. Farmers have to spend more on farm inputs to control pest and maintain volume of production.

5.3

Economic Development Objectives The municipality will be able to: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Attain rapid economic growth; Reduce unemployment rate; Increase per capita income; Increase the local and foreign tourist arrivals in the municipality; Increase industrial zone occupancy; Increase the number of business locators in the municipality; and Increase food production.

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5.4

Economic Development Policies and Strategies

5.4.1 Leganes in the context of the Western Visayas Physical Framework Plan: 2001-2030 The realization of complete and compact settlements is anchored on the development of a hierarchy of urban centers with Metropolitan Iloilo at the core. Metropolitan Iloilo, covering the areas of Iloilo City, Leganes, Oton, San Miguel and Pavia, shall serve as center for education, commerce and culture, being the regional center. Specifically, Metro Iloilo is the seat of the regional offices of the government and performs multiple roles of residential, financial and industrial center of the region. Likewise, it will be the transportation hub and center for processing of aqua-marine, fruit and other agri-industrial products. It will provide linkages to eco-tourism sites in other urban areas in the region as well as promote interaction between and among regions/nation. As the regional center, Metro Iloilo shall accommodate a larger share of the regions future higher density commercial and residential growth with a high level of transit access and interaction. There is a few select areas in Iloilo province that are planned to be developed as ecozones, the Leganes Industrial Growth Center in Leganes, Iloilo containing an area of 178 hectares and the Barotac Nuevo Industry and Economic Park with an area of 50 has. The present administration of the Municipality of Leganes is serious in pursuing the development of the said ecozone which had not been given the necessary push since the Asian financial crisis. With the enactment of the Special Economic Zone Act of 1995 (RA 7916), which provides for the legal framework and mechanisms for the creation, operation, administration and coordination of Special Economic Zones or ecozones, priority at the local level has shifted to these areas considering that benefits would eventually accrue to the host local government units. The available incentives provided in RA 7916 for investors, have encouraged three local government units in the region to apply as ecozones. These are Buenavista in Guimaras, Leganes and Pavia in Iloilo.

5.4.2 Leganes place in the Iloilo Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan for CY 2008-2013 Iloilo City, the provincial capital, is the metropolitan core of Western Visayas. It is the center for governance, residential, commercial, financial and educational activities, not only of the province but the whole region as well. It is the nucleus of development from which growth takes place in a radial fashion. The development in Iloilo City has spilled over to the surrounding municipalities of Pavia, Oton, San Miguel, Leganes and Sta. Barbara to form the Metro Iloilo Development Council (MIDC). Currently, the Province of Guimaras became part of the alliance because of its proximity to Iloilo City

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and its potential in eco-tourism. The alliance is now known as the Metro Iloilo Guimaras Economic Development Council (MIGEDC). The alliance has resulted in municipalities playing individual roles: Pavia as agroindustrial center, Leganes as the center for light to heavy industries, San Miguel as the agricultural basket and Oton as the residential area. Sta. Barbara, being the gateway to the New Iloilo Airport of international standard, becomes the center for agriculture and heritage tourism. As members of the MIGEDC, some of these municipalities assume the role of Iloilo City as the seat of regional governance. Pavia and Leganes are already hosts to regional offices of some national government agencies. Metro Iloilo would still be the seat of the regional offices of the government and would still perform multiple roles of residential, financial and industrial center of the region. It will be the transportation hub and center for processing of aqua-marine, fruit and other agri-industrial products. It will provide linkages to tourism sites in other urban areas in the region as well as promote interaction between and among regions/nations. As the regional center, Metro Iloilo shall accommodate a larger share of the regions future higher density commercial and residential growth with a higher level of transit access and interaction.

5.4.3 The Concept of Development It is useful to adopt a simple but comprehensive concept of development development is the sustained capacity to achieve a better life. Better life, the object of development, is one that is long and of higher quality. The quality of life, in turn, involves the capacity to be (e.g., to be educated, to be healthy and well-nourished, to be secure from harm) and the capacity to do (e.g., to do productive and creative work, to participate in community affairs, to bear and rear the desired number of children, to travel in search of economic and social opportunities). Underlying these capacities is the freedom of choice. Hence, development is also about expanding the range of choices for people (Sen, 1988). How is better life achieved? The means of development includes: a. Consumption of basic goods and services; b. Generation of more productive employment; and c. Reduction of inequalities in income and access. In the context of this definition of development, we understand the importance of the many interrelated factors social, economic and environment necessary in the attainment of development or a better life. The higher the rate of economic growth, the higher the rate of per capita income increases, and the more goods and services are available for consumption. Therefore, stable economic growth, income equality, employment, reduction of poverty, access to services such as health, nutrition and education are means to help achieve the end or object of development a better life or wellbeing.

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The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) defined sustainable development as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In line with this definition, the Philippine Agenda 21 states that the ultimate aim of development is human development now and through future generations through the harmonious integration of a sound and viable economy, responsible governance, social cohesion and ecological integrity. In both conceptualizations, the key idea is intergenerational wellbeing. The definition of sustainable development implies two principles: (1) interdependence principle for development to be sustainable, we must consider the interdependence of economic, social and environmental dimensions; and (2) intergenerational principle for development to be sustainable, we must consider time dimension so that better life or improved well-being is enjoyed by both present and future generations. A widely held view of sustainable development is that it refers at once to economic, social and environmental dimensions. Therefore, all systems economic, social and environmental must be simultaneously sustainable. Satisfying one of these systems without satisfying the others is not enough because: a. Each system is independently crucial; b. Each need is urgent; and a. The three systems are interconnected. To understand the interconnectedness of social, economic and environmental systems, we use a simple framework to illustrate the roles of these systems in the development process or how better life or improved wellbeing is achieved. It highlights some sustainable development issues. a. Well-being. Consistent with our concept of development as better life or improved well-being, the outcomes of the development process are improvements in indicators of wellbeing. These indicators of abilities (to be) or capabilities (to do) include, among others, health (to be healthy); nutrition (to be well-nourished); education (to be educated or to be knowledgeable and skillful); fertility (to bear and rear the desired number of children); and migration (to travel in search of economic and social opportunities). b. Consumption of Goods and Services. The indicators of wellbeing are partly determined by the consumption of goods and services. Thus, better health is partly determined by the consumption of various types of preventive and curative health services; educational attainment is partly determined by the consumption of education services; and fertility is partly determined by the use of contraceptive services, etc. c. Income and Expenditures on Goods and Services. The consumption of goods and services, in turn, is partly determined by the availability of such goods

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d.

e.

f.

g.

and services. And this availability is in turn determined by (a) the households level of income, which determines how much goods and services it can purchase and make available to members of the household, and (b) the amount of goods and services made available by the public or private sectors. Thus, poor households with low purchasing power in the market due to low income can still increase their consumption of goods and services if they can access subsidized goods and services made available by the public or private sectors. Production and Employment. Household income is derived either from production in the case of household-operated enterprises or from employment in the wage sector. Productive Resources. Earnings or profits from own-production depend on the one hand, the households or individuals access to productive inputs such as natural capital, economic or manufactured capital, and human capital, and on the other hand, on households or individuals access to markets for its outputs. Earnings from employment depend on the quality of human capital of workers as well as the strength of labor demand from firms. Population. The demographic processes of fertility, mortality and migration affect the size, age-sex structure and distribution of the population. These in turn affect the formation and use of productive resources, and therefore, production and employment, and hence incomes and consumption. Population pressure on the land if not countered adequately with productivity-enhancing innovations and technology, contributes to declining productivity per worker. Population pressure on natural resources contributes to deforestation, erosion and degradation of the environment, which again contributes to declining productivity per worker. Rapid growth of labor supply relative to demand, tend to depress the real wage, thus adversely affecting incomes, especially of the poor who depend mainly on labor income. Rapid growth of labor supply relative to demand also contributes to greater inequality in incomes as labor income declines relative to income from capital. Markets and Government Action. The entire process operates through markets, which may be modified by government action. Government actions include protection of human rights, ensuring peace and order, and implementation of various economic, social and environmental policies to correct market failures, including the direct provision of specific goods and services, and to correct institutional failures.

By understanding and taking into account all these interrelationships as well as the time dimension of development, we can begin to do things in ways that would lead to a better life for us, for our children and for their childrens children. Hereunder are the key considerations in mainstreaming sustainable development: a. Creating a sustainable development culture sustainable development should be a way of thinking and a way of life. The integration of economic, social and environmental aspects of development and inter-generational well-being should be pursued as a routine undertaking.

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b. Institutionalizing sustainable development sustainable development efforts should be fully institutionalized and not seen as ad hoc or a one time undertaking. It should be fully mainstreamed in development policy and in the day-today functioning of government and other stakeholders. c. Putting in place appropriate legal and enforcement mechanisms legal and enforcement mechanisms are indispensable for making sustainable development a way of life. d. Coordinating effectively because sustainable development is a multisectoral and multilevel undertaking, effective coordination is essential for its success. Coordination ensures incorporating sustainable development in the government decision-making process and in the annual budget at the national, regional and local levels. e. Creating effective public communication and participation there should be regular public consultation at the national, regional and local levels to reach consensus on the development objectives for the country and also for the implementation of specific programs and projects. f. Mobilizing, engaging and strengthening national capacity for continuous sustainable development efforts it is important to identify on a regular basis what skills and capacities exist and what are needed for various mechanisms. Local capacities (human, organizational and financial resources) should be built or strengthened through formal and informal training.

5.4.4 Local Investments The Municipality of Leganes has declared its commitment to encourage new investments, expansion, and diversification of existing businesses, providing more employment opportunities to Leganesnons and furthering the battle against poverty through its 2007 Investment Incentives Code (Ordinance No. 2007-116). It shall be the policy of the municipality to further economic growth through encouraging investments in its jurisdiction considering principles of sustainable development, equitable distribution of wealth, and holistic human development; thus, redounding to the mutual benefits of the citizens and the investors. The municipality acknowledges the private sector as the primordial mover of economic progress. The local government unit, in return, shall recognize its prime role as a facility to industrial peace, security, infrastructure implementation, and responsible citizenry; moreover, it shall serve as the support mechanism mandating this framework. Lastly, the Municipality manifests its desire to attract investors on the basis of sound management, continuity of policies, fiscal incentives, and efficient service.

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5.4.5 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises It is widely accepted that small and medium enterprises play a very important and significant role in the economic and social development of a country. As a sector, SMEs account for 99 percent of total establishments in the country and employ 69 percent of the labor force. From the economic development standpoint, the histories of advanced and developing economies (including Japan and the U.S.) clearly indicate the decisive roles that SMEs continue to play in economic growth. From another standpoint, addressing SMEs by their sheer overwhelming number and unavoidable presence alone will certainly generate high socio-political returns. The municipality must take into account the relevant provisions of the Magna Carta for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (RA 6977, as amended by RA 8289, and further amended by RA 9501) especially its policy declaration. It is the policy of the State to promote, support, strengthen and encourage the growth and development of MSMEs in all productive sectors of the economy particularly rural/agri-based enterprises. To this end, the State shall recognize the specific needs of the MSMEs and shall undertake to promote entrepreneurship, support entrepreneurs, encourage the establishment of MSMEs and ensure their continuing viability and growth and thereby attain countryside industrialization by: a. Intensifying and expanding programs for training in entrepreneurship and for skills development for labor; b. Facilitating their access to sources of funds; c. Assuring to them access to a fair share of government contracts and related incentives and preferences; d. Complementing and supplementing financing programs for MSMEs and doing away with stringent and burdensome collateral requirements that small entrepreneurs invariably find extreme difficulty complying with; e. Instituting safeguards for the protection and stability of the credit delivery system; f. Raising government efficiency and effectiveness in providing assistance to MSMEs throughout the country, at the least cost; g. Promoting linkages between large and small enterprises, and by encouraging the establishment of common service facilities; h. Making the private sector a partner in the task of building up MSMEs through the promotion and participation of private voluntary organizations, viable industry associations, and cooperatives; and i. Assuring a balanced and sustainable development through the establishment of a feedback and evaluation mechanism that will monitor the economic contributions as well as bottlenecks and environmental effects of the development of MSMEs.

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5.4.6 Agriculture and Fisheries Development In agriculture and fisheries, Leganes must be able to protect its remaining agricultural lands for food production, taking into account the relevant provisions of the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act of 1997 (R.A. 8435). The goals of the national economy are more equitable distribution of opportunities, income and wealth; a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the people; and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all, especially the underprivileged. The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform, through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources, and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. In pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. Thus, it is hereby declared the policy of the State to enable those who belong to the agriculture and fisheries sectors to participate and share in the fruits of development and growth in a manner that utilizes the nations resources in the most efficient and sustainable way possible by establishing a more equitable access to assets, income, basic and support services and infrastructure. The State shall promote food security, including sufficiency in our staple food, namely rice and white corn. The production of rice and white corn shall be optimized to meet our local consumption and shall be given adequate support by the State. The State shall adopt the market approach in assisting the agriculture and fisheries sectors while recognizing the contribution of the said sector to food security, environmental protection, and balanced urban and rural development, without neglecting the welfare of the consumers, especially the lower income groups. The state shall promote market-oriented policies in agricultural production to encourage farmers to shift to more profitable crops. The State shall empower the agricultural and fisheries sector to develop and sustain themselves. Toward this end, the State shall unsure the development of the agriculture and fisheries sectors in accordance with the following principles: a. Poverty alleviation and social equity. The State shall ensure that the poorer sectors of society have equitable access to resources, income opportunities, basic and support services and infrastructure especially in areas where productivity is low as a means of improving their quality of life compared with other sectors of society; b. Food security. The State shall assure the availability, adequacy, accessibility of food supplies to all at all times;

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a. Rational use of resources. The State shall adopt a rational approach in the allocation of public investments in agriculture and fisheries in order to assure efficiency and effectiveness in the use of scarce resources and thus obtain optimal returns on its investments; b. Global competitiveness. The State shall enhance the competitiveness of the agriculture and fisheries sectors in both domestic and foreign markets; c. Sustainable development. The State shall promote development that is compatible with the preservation of the ecosystem in areas where agriculture and fisheries activities are carried out. The State should exert care and judicious use of the country's natural resources in order to attain long-term sustainability; d. People empowerment. The State shall promote people empowerment by enabling all citizens through direct participation or through their duly elected, chosen or designated representatives the opportunity to participate in policy formulation and decision-making by establishing the appropriate mechanisms and by giving them access to information; and e. Protection from unfair competition. The State shall protect small farmers and fisher folk from unfair competition such as monopolistic and oligopolistic practices by promoting a policy environment that can provide them priority access to credit and strengthened cooperative-based marketing system.

5.5

Economic Development Programs and Projects

Guided by the above principles and policies, Leganes can focus on the implementation of the following programs for the next three years. The programs and projects are initiatives of the local government in the achievement of its economic goals.

5.5.1 Rehabilitation/Construction of Farm to Market Roads Of the approximately 202,000 kilometers of roads nationwide, 15 percent are classified as national roads, provincial roads account for 13 percent, while city/municipal roads constitute 11 percent of the total. The balance of 60 percent of the road network is classified as barangay roads, which are mostly unpaved. FMRs fall under this last category and the rehabilitation and improvement of which have been devolved to the barangays based on Section 17 of Local Government Code. Considering the low financial capacity of the barangays to finance the improvement these basic facilities that the LGC mandates, they need external monetary assistance to provide such facilities. The project will cost-effectively link the production areas to major markets and increase the mobility of farmers transporting their farm products to the market. Another benefit of the project is faster and safer movement of social goods and services to rural communities. The Calaboa-Cagamutan Norte FMR, Cagamutan Sur-Guinobatan FMR, Cari Minor FMR, San Vicente Village Road, Jardeleza Subdivision-Ulong Guihaman

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FMR, and the Cari Mayor-Cari Minor via Manuela Subdivision FMR are the few examples of FMRs that needs to be rehabilitated and/or constructed.

5.5.2 Improvement of the Leganes Commercial Complex (LCC) The LCC is the center of the economic activity in the Municipality of Leganes. It houses various businesses from restaurants to agricultural supplies. The capacity of the facility to accommodate the current volume of people that come to the facility is beyond anticipation, and it has put pressure to further improve the LCC. The project will rehabilitate selected stalls in the LCC, construct a ramp for senior citizens and persons with disabilities, construct toilets in the second level of the facility, and the improvement of the existing water and drainage system.

5.5.3 Integrated Crop Production Program The program has seven (7) components that is complementary to each other. First is the farm mechanization counterpart which aims to provide machineries and postharvest facilities to farmer. The local government will shoulder the 15% cost of the farm machineries and the rest will be assumed by the Department of Agriculture. The program will avail two (2) transplanters and a tractor. The second component of the program is the establishment of a trichoderma laboratory. One of the hindrances in the use of compost is the long time in its preparation. If done naturally, it will take more than months to make compost. But, with the use of trichoderma, after two weeks the rice stubbles and animal manures can already be used to supply the fertilizer needs of the farm. It is a need for every municipality to put up a trichoderma laboratory to supply the needed stock for local needs. With the technical assistance of with the Bureau of Soils and Water Management, local capability will be built on the production of trichoderma, a microorganism which helps in the rapid decomposting of farm by-products which are turned into compost. With the use of trichoderma, rice stubbles and animal manure will be available as compost with in two weeks. Excessive use of chemicals is one factor which have caused immunity of pests and diseases. Most of our soil is already depleted of organic matter such that plants need a large amount of chemical fertilizer, which also increases the cost of production. Rice grown organically demands a higher price because of its nutrient content, and free of chemicals hence the third component of the program organic rice production and demonstration farms. Higher production starts from seed selection. Farmers come to realize that when they use certified or good quality seeds they increase their production. Binhian ng Bayan produces good quality seeds which are lower than the regular price. Increase in production means improve quality of lives of our farmers. Binhian ng Bayan - Leganes

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has only 3 farmers who are accredited seed growers. Their produce is not enough to supply the seed requirement of over 1,200 farmers with 1,721 hectares planted to rice. Under the palay seed production component of the program, the LGU will extend registered seed and fertilizer assistance to selected farmers. They will be closely supervised in their farm operations to be able to produce good quality seeds to be sold to other farmers for the next cropping season. The price of these seeds is lower than the regular price of certified seeds sold by accredited seed growers. The amount given as assistance will be paid without interest after the co-operator farmer sells his produce. Despite of many lectures and information dissemination, farmers need to see a practical application of new technologies before they can embrace it; this is the goal of the fifth component of the program. The palay check demo will reduce farm production expenses and at the same time reduce dependence on chemicals by using the integrated pest management approach. This component will use eight (8) key palay checks starting with land preparation up to harvest where student farmers actually observe situations in the field. It will establish a comparison between the farmers practice and the recommended practices using key checks. Nutrition security for every Filipino is the main thrust of the government. One way of achieving this goal is by increasing production of rice, corn and high value crops such as vegetables and fruits. Vegetables are considered as a cheap major source of recommended daily allowance of nutrients, and it can help prevent malnutrition among school-age and preschool children. The two last components of the program will encourage vegetable, corn and cut flower production. Seeds and other inputs will be provided for households and schools in every barangay.

5.5.4 Livestock Support Program Leganes is predominantly an agricultural municipality. It is composed of eighteen (18) barangays were livestock farming is the secondary source of income of men and women backyard raisers. It covers a total land area of 3,220 hectares where livestock services are provided by only one technician. With these realities on hand, extension services could hardly reach out to prospective clients on time and as a result the degree of success of disease treatment is reduced causing higher mortality rate among animals. The creation of BALA in every barangay is a breakthrough in the delineation and designation of responsibilities from the livestock technician to selected barangay constituents. They will serve as the new support force that would help boost livestock production in the entire municipality.

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5.5.5 Establishment and operation of Leganes Training and Competency Enhancement Center (LTCEC) The proposed LTCEC will conduct a variety of training programs ranging from computer operation, building construction, etc. for those who have little experience on their chosen fields to enhance their competencies. For their on the job training, the trainees will be immersed in projects implemented by the LGU. They will be given reasonable allowance in lieu of the usual wages or compensation paid to regular workers. Since this is purely an LGU-initiated project, instructors shall come from within the existing workforce of the LGU. The project will include the improvement of the existing training center, purchase of equipment, and the provision of stipend/assistance for trainees.

5.5.6 Completion of Farmers Information and Technology Services (FITS) Center In order to be competitive, farmers should be updated on the recent research results and information. The FITS Center is an information delivery service facility established to provide farmers access to the recent information and technologies in agriculture, forestry and natural resources. FITS was conceptualized by Program for Agriculture Research and Resources Development (PCCARD) and the Agricultural Training Institute (ATI) in coordination with other different consortia implemented by the local government units. Unfortunately, the Municipality of Leganes has just started the project and have yet to complete. The FITS Center has not been utilized for its intended purpose due to the fact that it has remained unfinished. Under this project, the facility will be completed and will be provided with adequate equipments and information materials.

5.5.7 Fabrication of Collapsible Table for Transient Vendors Every Saturday and Sunday of the month, transient vendors from neighboring towns come to Leganes to sell their vegetables, fruits and local delicacies, since the LGU does not have tables for them to rent or use, the vendors would rent tables from private persons to be used in displaying their goods, of which they find tiresome and inconvenient. The project will provide for the fabrication of one hundred (100) units of collapsible tables with a 1.2 by 2 meter dimension for the transient vendors to rent, and enact a Sangguniang Bayan (SB) Ordinance through the Committee on Market providing the imposition of rental fees for the tables and for the Local Economic Development Office (LEDO) to regulate the proper management and disposition of the tables. Having uniform collapsible tables would help keep the clean and orderly arrangement of the LCC area. It would be convenient and easier for transient vendors to display their goods, thus they can sell their products and wares easily.

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5.5.8 Leganes Commercial Complex (LCC) Loan Payment The Municipality of Leganes entered into contract with the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP), authorized under SB Resolution No. 2006-020 series of 2006 to avail of a loan for the construction of the Leganes Commercial Complex. The LGU, on January 16, 2007, signed a deed of assignment with the LBP to withhold in favor of the LBP the IRA of the municipality in whatever amount as may be necessary to settle any unpaid portion of the loan and/or any amortization due thereon in accordance with the terms of the loan agreement. The municipality is obligated to pay a loan amounting to P 25,000,000.00 within a 12 year term which will mature in March 2019. The principal of the loan is payable in 44 equal quarterly amortizations that started at the end of the first quarter of the second year from initial release and the interest is payable in 48 quarterly amortizations that started at the end of the first quarter from date of initial release with a prime rate at the time of availment plus a minimum of 2% spread per annum.

5.5.9 Climate Change Adaptation Program for Agriculture The project will establish a weather-based dynamic cropping calendar, develop a climate change sensitive agricultural technology, establish a rainwater harvesting facility, and advocate climate change adaptation through a farmers symposium. The symposium will be a venue for stakeholders to learn from each other. Farmers have the responsibility to protect our environment and limit the use of chemicals especially to food products, like rice and vegetables. Preparedness is better than being caught unaware when time of calamity comes.

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Chapter 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

6.1

Environmental Management Potentials

6.1.1 Presence solid waste management plan and support facility Solid waste is often perceived as a purely government function, to this end the Municipality has formulated an Integrated Solid Waste Management (SWM) Plan for CY 2004-2014. The Plan implements the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 (R.A. 9003) and its Implementing Rules and Regulations contained in DENR Administrative Order No. 2001-34 within its territorial jurisdiction. This is accomplished through waste reduction at source; segregation at source for recovery of reusables, recyclables and compostables; segregated transportation, storage, transfer, processing, treatment and disposal of solid waste, and all other waste management activities. The information and data given in this Plan was assessed for its timeliness, applicability and reliability. It is presented to incorporate interventions in the overall planning and other institutional development frameworks. Moreover, it aims to: a. Operate a materials recovery facility (MRF) as disposal site, segregation, and composting site of solid wastes in the municipality; b. Ensure that at least 25% of all solid waste from the MRF is diverted through reuse, recycling and composting activities; and c. Promote private sector participation in SWM and offer the operation and management of MRF in the form of private sector investment activities. Appropriate incentives for private sector involvement will be provided. There is an existing municipal-operated MRF at Barangay Cagamutan Sur. The MRF is equipped with a MRF building that has designated areas for disposal, segregation and recycling of wastes, a shredder for the production of organic fertilizers; a compost pit, vegetable garden and dump truck.

6.1.2 Rich coastal resources The Municipality of Leganes is endowed with diverse and economically productive coastal and marine resources. These resources if properly managed could sustainably contribute towards food security. Various species of fish and mollusk such as sap-sap, lilang, asu-os, gurayan, gonggong, balanak, pagi, gusaw, sumaral, talakitok, lapu-lapu, alimusan, bangus, lipis, liwit, lokus, lambiyaw, pasayan (shrimp), alimango (mud crab), kasag (blue crab).are abundant in the coast of the municipality. Bivalves like green shells, bay-ad and litub are seasonally bountiful.

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Aquaculture and/or mariculture are prevalent in the coastal areas of the municipality. The estimated area occupied by brackishwater ponds is 646 hectares distributed among Barangays Bigke, MV Hechanova, Napnud, Gua-an and Nabitasan. Brackishwater fishponds are utilized for bangus, tilapia and shrimp production adopting traditional culture method. Target production is from 300 kgs to 500 kgs per hectare per year. Seaweeds and oyster culture are found along the watered area of Gui-gui Creek in Barangay Nabitasan in a small scale production set-up. Approximately, 1 hectare of natural grown and planted mangrove thrive along the shorelines and estuarine of Barangay Camangay and Bigke, almost 1 hectare naturally grown mangrove in Barangay Gua-an, and estimated 3 hectares mangrove cover that sporadically grown in a 10 hectare abandoned fishpond owned by the Municipality, about 2 hectares of mangrove forest in the area previously occupied by SEAFDEC, 1 hectare fully grown mangroves that covers an islet at the delta of Jalaur River in Barangay Nabitasan, and a 3 hectares mangrove covered area that protect the riverbank along Jalaur River. Bungalon, pagatpat, bakhaw and nipa are the four dominant mangrove species found in the Municipality. A 2.50 hectares of sea grass cover was recently discovered by DOST divers about a kilometer from the shore, within the territorial waters of Municipality. The Sea grass ecosystem serves as habitat to many marine species where fish thrive and fed themselves on marine micro-organism.

6.1.3 Community, NGO and NGA awareness and involvement in environmental management efforts of the municipality There are various organizations that operate within the municipality to promote effective coastal resource management. These organizations include the municipal government, non-governmental organizations and national government agencies. A major actor outside the control of the municipal government are nongovernmental organizations (NGO) that implement environmental management related programs and projects either solely through government funding or in partnership with foreign donors. The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) and IKAW AKO Japan Negros Partnership for Environmental Protection have been active partners of the Municipality in implementing such projects. A memorandum of agreement (MOA) was signed between Zoological Society of London (ZSL) and the Municipal Government in the implementation of the CommunityBased Mangrove Rehabilitation Project that covers two sites in Barangays Bigke and Nabitasan. The project provides technical assistance and training in coastal resource

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management and rehabilitation to coastal barangays. A 10 hectare idle fishpond owned by the municipal government was planted with mangrove seedlings. The active support of Zoological Society of London (ZSL), the Metro Iloilo Guimaras Economic Development Council (MIGEDC), the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), the Department of Agriculture (DA), the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) may be a good channel to generate funds for environmental management.

6.2

Environmental Management Constraints

6.2.1 Absence of sanitary landfill As to date, no suitable site was identified by the LGU for the establishment of a sanitary landfill contrary to the provisions of R.A. 9003 which provides for the establishment and operation of a sanitary landfill five years after the effectivity of the Act, and prohibiting the operation of a controlled dumpsite after 2006. Unfortunately, no possible site within the territorial jurisdiction of the municipality that has met the minimum standards set by the Act especially Sec. 40 (e) that states that the chosen site should not detrimentally affect environmentally sensitive resources such as aquifer and groundwater reservoir. After the recent closure of the controlled dumpsite in M.V. Hechanova, it was imperative to establish a temporary controlled dumpsite to dispose of the solid waste generated by the municipality that is potentially damaging to health and the environment. Although the temporary controlled dumpsite in Nabitasan has mitigating mechanisms in place that satisfies the minimum criteria set by the Ecological Waste Management Act of 2000 for regular inert cover; surface water and peripheral site drainage control; provision for aerobic and anaerobic decomposition; restriction of waste deposition to small working areas; fence, including provision for litter control; basic record-keeping; provision of maintained access road; controlled waste picking and trading; post-closure site cover and vegetation; and hydrogeological siting. The aforementioned is only a temporary solution to the waste disposal problem of the municipality; it is the ultimate aim of the local government to purchase a site for the operation of a sanitary landfill in compliance with R.A. 9003, but that site has yet to be identified.

6.2.2 The municipality is prone to flooding The Buntatala and Janipaan are the major river systems traversing in the municipality. The Janipa-an river winds from Calaboa to Cagamutan Norte to Cari Mayor where it merges with Buntatala River then to the Jalaur River that empties into the Iloilo

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Strait. The Buntatala River traverses the barangays of Buntatala, Guintas, Napnud, Guinobatan, Gua-an, Cari Mayor and Cari Minor. The two (2) rivers (Buntatala and Janipa-an) had ceased to be an effective natural water drainage since their course have been narrowed and obstructed by nipa clumps, vegetative growth, floating logs, debris, rubbish and indiscriminate construction of fishpond dikes along both banks of the rivers. These obstructions have created bottlenecks that force back water during continuous rain and spill off towards the low lying residential and agricultural areas of the municipality. The situation resulted to the flooding of rice fields, salt beds and fishponds in Cari Mayor, Cari Minor, Guinobatan, Gua-an, Napnud and Nabitasan. At its highest level in June 21, 2008, the flood submerged the barangays of Guihaman, Guintas, Camangay, Bigke, Buntatala, and portions of Poblacion and Cagamutan Norte covering an area of about three fourths of the entire Municipality of Leganes.

6.2.3 Degradation of coastal resources Based on the recent summary of fish catch, fisherfolks could hardly get two (2) kilos of fish per fishing activity for the past three (3) years, which reveals an alarming coastal resource productivity decline. To ensure a substantial catch per unit of effort, fisherfolks resort to the use of destructive fishing methods and unregulated fishing activities that causes resource degradation. Pollution is also a major contributing factor to the degradation. Industrial and agricultural wastes, municipal waste and erosion contribute to the habitat destruction and resource degradation. Discharge of agricultural chemicals, inorganic fertilizers, industrial waste and other liquid and solid wastes by agricultural farms and land-based industries are highly concentrated at the delta of Jalaur River and the Jaro River. High suspended and settleable solids saturates the sea water area of the coastal barangays of Nabitasan, Gua-an, Napnud, M.V. Hechanova, Bigke and Camangay. This affects the on-going mariculture activities in this coastal barangays which depends on the sea as their main source of water during this fish culture period. Municipal sewage discharge directly to the Buntatala, Janipa-an and Jalaur River without undergoing treatment. Segregation of waste into biodegradable and nonbiodegradable materials is not practiced at source. Non-biodegradable wastes are evidently scattered along the coastline. Wasteful and intensive application of chemical fertilizers in agriculture pollutes the surface water or in ground water. Nitrate contamination of aquifers is widespread and in dangerously high levels in many rural regions. Fertilizer nutrients that enter surface waters (e.g., rivers, lakes, bays, etc.) can promote eutrophication, characterized initially by a population explosion of photosynthetic algae. Algal blooms turn the water bright green, prevent light from penetrating beneath surface layers, and therefore killing plants

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living on the bottom. Such dead vegetation serves as food for other aquatic microorganisms which soon deplete water of its oxygen, inhibiting the decomposition of organic residues, which accumulate on the bottom. Eventually, such nutrient enrichment of freshwater ecosystems leads to the destruction of all animal life in the water systems. Upland erosion also contributes to habitat destruction and resource degradation that causes siltation and sedimentation on water ways that also ends up in coastal areas and sea beds. It significantly affects sanctuaries and other coastal resources. Almost 30% of the coastal barangays land areas were eroded due to its exposure to open seas that directly destroy growing mangroves along the coastline. The extraction of sand and gravel from coastal ecosystems for construction, pollution from domestic and industrial sources, and the clearing of mangroves are the more pressing environmental concerns that compound the problem of depleting coastal resources.

6.2.4 Climate change Coastal zones are particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. Key concerns include sea level rise, land loss, changes in maritime storms and flooding, responses to sea level rise and implications for water resources. Sea level is rising around the world. Higher temperatures are expected to further raise sea level by expanding ocean water, melting mountain glaciers and small ice caps, and causing portions of Greenland and the Antarctic ice sheets to melt. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the global average sea level will rise between 0.6 and 2 feet (0.18 to 0.59 meters) in the next century (IPCC, 2007). Rising sea levels inundate low-lying lands, erode beaches, intensify flooding, and increase the salinity of rivers, bays, and groundwater tables. Some of these effects may be further compounded by other effects of a changing climate. Sea level rise also increases the vulnerability of coastal areas to flooding during storms, because low areas drain more slowly as sea level rises. Barangays Bigke, Camangay and M. V. Hechanova are facing chronic long-term shoreline erosion problems as a result of rising sea levels. Erosion will have significant effects on coastal habitats, which can lead to social and economic impacts on coastal communities. With the reduction of coastal habitats and the ecological services they provide, coastal communities will experience more frequent and destructive flooding, compromised water supplies and smaller beaches.

6.2.5 Ground water depletion The proliferation of unregulated ground water extraction in the coastal areas of the Municipality for domestic, commercial and industrial use has put pressure on this

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essential resource. It has depleted the ground water source which has resulted to subsidence and in some cases increased salinity. Subsidence occurs when too much water is pumped out from underground, deflating the space below the above-surface, and thus causing the ground to actually collapse. This occurs because in its natural equilibrium state, the hydraulic pressure of groundwater in the pore spaces of the aquifer and the aquitard supports some of the weight of the overlying sediments. When groundwater is removed from aquifers by excessive pumping, pore pressures in the aquifer drop and compression of the aquifer may occur. This compression may be partially recoverable if pressures rebound, but much of it is not. Saltwater intrusion is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers. It is caused by ground-water pumping from coastal wells. When fresh water is withdrawn at a faster rate than it can be replenished, the water table is drawn down as a result. This draw-down also reduces the hydrostatic pressure. When this happens near coastal areas, salt water is pulled into the fresh water aquifer. This behavior is caused because sea water has a higher density than freshwater. The lateral encroachment of seawater results to an aquifer that is with saltwater.

6.2.6 Informal settlers Based on the 2009 household enumeration, there are a total of 2,118 informal settlers in the Municipality, a majority of them located in coastal areas and rivers. These communities are characterized by unsanitary conditions, congestion, and limited access to basic social services (e.g., health centers, schools, waste disposal, safe water supply, sanitary toilets).

6.2.7 Soil depletion due to use of agrochemicals in farms Due to agricultural modernization, the ecology-farming linkage was often broken as ecological principles were ignored and/or overridden. Evidence has accumulated showing that whereas the present capital- and technology-intensive farming systems have been extremely productive and competitive; they also bring a variety of economic, environmental and social problems. The lack of crop rotations and diversification take away key self-regulating mechanisms, turning monocultures into highly vulnerable agroecosystems dependent on high chemical inputs. The need to subsidize monocultures requires increases in the use of pesticides and fertilizers, but the efficiency of use of applied inputs is decreasing and crop yields in most key crops are levelling off. In some cases, yields are actually in decline. It is believed that yields are levelling off because of the steady erosion of the productive base of agriculture through unsustainable practices.

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Many of the chemicals used in pesticides are persistent soil contaminants, whose impact may endure for decades and adversely affect soil conservation. The use of pesticides decreases the general biodiversity in the soil. Not using chemicals results in higher soil quality, with the additional effect that more organic matter in the soil allows for higher water retention.

6.3

Environmental Management Objectives The municipality will be able to: a. Abate the encroachment of settlement in areas not declared alienable and disposable; b. Control pollution; c. Establish greenbelts in coastal and urban areas; d. Strengthen the solid waste management efforts of the municipality; e. Preserve and conserve coastal resources by increasing community involvement; f. Reduce damage to crops, livestock, properties and lives in times of disaster; and g. Conserve freshwater sources.

6.4

Environmental Management Strategies and Policies

6.4.1 Principles of Bioregionalism Peter Berg coined the term bioregionalism in the early 70s to define an environmental perspective that emphasizes action over protest, lifestyle over legislation. The concept of a bioregion as the basic location where people live, and the practice of reinhabitation of that life-place by its residents, are necessary to rejoin human beings into the overall web of life. Harmonizing with the natural systems of each bioregion is a necessary step toward preserving the whole biosphere. A bioregion is defined in terms of the unique overall pattern of natural characteristics that are found in a specific place. The main features are generally found throughout a continuous geographic terrain and include a particular climate, local aspects of seasons, landforms, watersheds, soils, and native plants and animals. People are also counted as an integral aspect of a places life, as can be seen in the ecologically adaptive cultures of early inhabitants, and in the activities of present day reinhabitants who attempt to harmonize in a sustainable way with the place where they live. There are development issues that straddle across boundaries, giving birth to regional planning to effectively address concerns that are not exclusive to one local government. Regional planning has thus become a venue for sharing ideas, resources and actions so common problems can be attended to collectively.

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Recent environmental phenomena caused by climate change like the flood that hit Iloilo City and neighboring municipalities showed that regional planning may not just be enough to manage growth. In this era where the environment directs what development path communities should take, there is a need to look beyond political regions and start acknowledging that we dont just live in cities, municipalities and provinces but also in watersheds, ecosystems and bioregions. The TigumAganan watershed, for example, is not just an area found in the mountains but extends down to the hills of Maasin, Alimodian and Leon, the plains of Cabatuan, Janiuay, Santa Barbara, San Miguel and Pavia and exits along the shores of Iloilo City and Oton. A watershed, per se, is not just a forested area but a continuum of three environments the mountains, the lowlands and the coast. Bioregion is a geographic terrain and a terrain of consciousness. Anthropological studies, historical accounts, social developments, customs, traditions, and arts can all play a part. Bioregionalism utilizes them to accomplish three main goals: 1) restore and maintain local natural systems; 2) practice sustainable ways to satisfy basic human needs such as food, water, energy, housing, and materials; and 3) support the work of reinhabitation. There is a strong affinity for bioregional thinking in many fields that relate to ecological sustainability. A bioregional scale is emerging as a meaningful geographic framework for understanding place and designing long-term sustainable communities. Awareness and care for ones bioregion and its patterns is fundamental to a place-based understanding and community stewardship of sustainability to cultural and ecological well-being living in a place sustainable and respectfully. Bioregionalism acknowledges that we not only live in cities, towns, villages and country-sides; we also live in watersheds, ecosystems, and eco-regions. It is a mindfulness of local environment, history, and community aspirations that leads to a sustainable future. It relies on safe and renewable sources of food and energy. The bioregional framework supports the goal of accelerating change toward improved well-being for nature and society for a number of reasons: a. Bioregionalism identifies areas similar in transport-trade, communication networks, natural resource reliance, cultures, recreational desires, natural ecosystems, governance, and societal issues of concern. b. It makes little sense to discuss the topic of sustainability at the global scale if insufficient thought is given to the local places and scales where human life actually occurs. Societal actions that are sustainable for humans, other lifeforms, and earthly systems can best be achieved by means of a spatial framework in which people live as rooted, active, participating members of a reasonably scaled, naturally bounded, ecologically defined place. c. Considering problems and solutions from a bioregional perspective offers an opportunity to engage in comprehensive, adaptively managed change

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improving societys overall opportunity to achieve sustainability at a scale not possible within a single community effort. One can discern patterns that diminish the quality of life, sense of place, and sustainability, as well as patterns that enhance these features, by adopting community convergence activities or a bioregional view. National and international communities of people will have to undergo significant adaptive change to deal with a transition from global warming. But large-scale social change will only happen where people share common concerns, goals, and core values. Acknowledging that community-bycommunity change is too slow, the bioregion offers an example of where communities with common ecology, culture, and economy can converge for a greater good. Likewise, challenges to social change are certainly more easily overcome in a converging of local communities at the bioregion than by trying to encourage action at the national level. Bioregions are governed by nature not politics. So once we understand the inherent physical, biological, and ecologic relationships of a bioregion, we can count on actions judged to be sound according to the theory of the threelegged stool or three-overlapping circles to be much more predictable, enduring, and supportive, as well as less costly, to society than the unending quest to find technological fixes for all our problems that governing bodies can promote their next election on. Because of the many common threads that weave through the landscape tapestry of a bioregion scale, which we can personalize by calling home, the concentric circles of environment, society, and economy relationships become much easier to traverse, affording us the opportunity to leave home a little better off than we might have found it. Bioregional-based planning and action can help society narrow problems and solutions, and help participants to acknowledge the limitations of a place and its resources so that they will not continue to overestimate the carrying capacity of the regions they inhabit, and live more sustainably. This convergent, bioregional approach can influence the larger world mainstream by its regeneration of local cultures, ecosystems, and resources into the indefinite future, contributing to the more global needs of life on Earth, more effectively than a national or global scale initiative ever could. For every bioregion, there may be a unique set of practices, tools, models, and successes within individual organizations that supports planning, design, and management. Instead of reinventing the wheel with each new initiative, project, or campaign the bioregional scale of sustainability work can enhance a transfer of knowledge and technology for the betterment of the entire region.

6.4.2 Climate change It is the responsibility of the LGU to afford full protection and the advancement of the right of the people to a healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature as provided in Climate Change Act of 2009 (R.A. 9729). Set within the framework

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of Philippine Agenda 21, it espouses sustainable development to fulfill human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment for current and future generations. The State adopts the principle of protecting the climate system for the benefit of humankind, on the basis of climate justice or common but differentiated responsibilities and the precautionary principle to guide decision-making in climate risk management. As a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Philippines shall adopt the objective of the Convention which is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system which should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. As a party to the Hyogo Framework for Action, the government likewise adopts the strategic goals in order to build national and local resilience to climate change-related disasters. It shall be the policy of the government to enjoin the participation of both the national and local governments, businesses, nongovernment organizations, local communities and the public to prevent and reduce the adverse impacts of climate change and, at the same time, maximize the benefits of climate change. It shall also incorporate a gender-sensitive, pro-children and pro-poor perspective in all climate change and renewable energy efforts, plans and programs. In view thereof, the government shall strengthen, integrate, consolidate and institutionalize government initiatives to achieve coordination in the implementation of plans and programs to address climate change in the context of sustainable development. Further recognizing that climate change and disaster risk reduction are closely interrelated and effective disaster risk reduction will enhance climate change adaptive capacity, the State shall integrate disaster risk reduction into climate change programs and initiatives. Cognizant of the need to ensure that national and subnational government policies, plans, programs and projects are founded upon sound environmental considerations and the principle of sustainable development, it is hereby declared the policy of the State to systematically integrate the concept of climate change in various phases of policy formulation, development plans, poverty reduction strategies and other development tools and techniques by all agencies and instrumentalities of the government.

6.4.3 Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Management The aim of DRR, is to make sure that people are better off, or at least they are not worse off than they were before. In mainstreaming DRR, one should guide development and allocate resources toward the protection of life and assets, restoration of productive systems and livelihoods, regaining market access, and rebuilding social and human

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capital and physical and psychological health. Development plans therefore take on a critical role in disaster risk management. The subnational DRR planning may take a comprehensive view of the physical, economic, social, environmental and institutional interrelationships and understand what constitutes the susceptibility of a region or province to risks from natural hazards; integrate DRR management decisions in the spatial framework (i.e., risk mitigation, risk prevention, risk transfer and risk retention); and carry out the DRR-enhanced programs, projects and activities that are designed with consideration for potential disaster risks and to resist hazard impact; designed not to increase vulnerability to disaster in all sectors: social, physical, economic and environment; and designed to contribute to developmental aims and to reduce future disaster risks. Based on RA 10121, local governments shall: a. Uphold the people's constitutional rights to life and property by addressing the root causes of vulnerabilities to disasters, strengthening the country's institutional capacity for disaster risk reduction and management and building the resilience of local communities to disasters including climate change impacts; b. Adhere to and adopt the universal norms, principles and standards of humanitarian assistance and the global effort on risk reduction as concrete expression of the country's commitment to overcome human sufferings due to recurring disasters; c. Incorporate internationally accepted principles of disaster risk management in the creation and implementation of national, regional and local sustainable development and poverty reduction strategies, policies, plans and budgets; d. Adopt a disaster risk reduction and management approach that is holistic, comprehensive, integrated, and proactive in lessening the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of disasters including climate change, and promote the involvement and participation of all sectors and all stakeholders concerned, at all levels, especially the local community; e. Develop, promote, and implement a comprehensive National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan (NDRRMP) that aims to strengthen the capacity of the national government and the local government units (LGUs), together with partner stakeholders, to build the disaster resilience of communities, and to institutionalize arrangements and measures for reducing disaster risks, including projected climate risks, and enhancing disaster preparedness and response capabilities at all levels; f. Adopt and implement a coherent, comprehensive, integrated, efficient and responsive disaster risk reduction program incorporated in the development plan at various levels of government adhering to the principles of good governance such as transparency and accountability within the context of poverty alleviation and environmental protection; g. Mainstream disaster risk reduction and climate change in development processes such as policy formulation, socioeconomic development planning,

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budgeting, and governance, particularly in the areas of environment, agriculture, water, energy, health, education, poverty reduction, land-use and urban planning, and public infrastructure and housing, among others; Institutionalize the policies, structures, coordination mechanisms and programs with continuing budget appropriation on disaster risk reduction from national down to local levels towards building a disaster resilient nation and communities; Mainstream disaster risk reduction into the peace process and conflict resolution approaches in order to minimize loss of lives and damage to property, and ensure that communities in conflict zones can immediately go back to their normal lives during periods of intermittent conflicts; Ensure that disaster risk reduction and climate change measures are gender responsive, sensitive to indigenous knowledge systems, and respectful of human rights; Recognize the local risk patterns across the country and strengthen the capacity of LGUs for disaster risk reduction and management through decentralized powers, responsibilities, and resources at the regional and local levels; Recognize and strengthen the capacities of LGUs and communities in mitigating and preparing for, responding to, and recovering from the impact of disasters; Engage the participation of civil society organizations (CSOs), the private sector and volunteers in the government's disaster risk reduction programs towards complementation of resources and effective delivery of services to the citizenry; Develop and strengthen the capacities of vulnerable and marginalized groups to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from the effects of disasters; Enhance and implement a program where humanitarian aid workers, communities, health professionals, government aid agencies, donors, and the media are educated and trained on how they can actively support breastfeeding before and during a disaster and/or an emergency; and Provide maximum care, assistance and services to individuals and families affected by disaster, implement emergency rehabilitation projects to lessen the impact of disaster, and facilitate resumption of normal social and economic activities.

6.4.4 Solid Waste Management (SWM) Within the context of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 (R.A. 9003), the Municipality of Leganes should adopt a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program which shall: a. Ensure the protection of public health and environment; b. Utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources and encourage resources conservation and recovery;

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c. Set guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source reduction and waste minimization measures, including composing, recycling, re-use, recovery, green charcoal process, and others, before collection, treatment and disposal in appropriate and environmentallysound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically sustainable development principles; d. Ensure the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological waste management excluding incineration; e. Promote national research and development programs for improved solid waste management and resource conservation techniques, more effective institutional arrangement and indigenous and improved methods of waste reduction, collection, separation and recovery; f. Encourage greater private sector participation in solid waste management; g. Retain primary enforcement and responsibility of solid waste management with local government units while establishing a cooperative effort among the national government, other local government units, non-government organizations, and the private sector; h. Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among waste generators through the application of market-based instruments; i. Institutionalize public participation in the development and implementation of national and local integrated, comprehensive and ecological waste management programs; and j. Strengthen the integration of ecological solid waste management and resource conservation and recovery topics into the academic curricula of formal and non-formal education in order to promote environmental awareness and action among the citizenry.

6.4.5 Water Resources The development and utilization of the municipalitys water resources evolved over a long period in a setting of abundant natural resources and practically without the benefit of a broad planning framework considering available resource supply and existing needs. With fixed water resources to serve the changing growth patterns and increased use of water by the rapidly expanding population, the planning framework should be optimized and reoriented to a broader perspective. LGUs must be primarily responsible for promoting and ensuring health and hygiene of the systems by providing water facility disinfection, water quality surveillance and control programs and public and household latrines to control communicable diseases, reduce morbidity due to water-borne and sanitation-related illnesses such as diarrhea, tuberculosis, intestinal parasitism, schistosomiasis, malaria, infections, hepatitis, typhoid fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

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One of the primary objectives of the water resources subsector is increased selfsufficiency through agricultural productivity. This will result to efficient irrigation systems operation and maintenance for effective collection of irrigation services fees. With an assured supply of irrigation water for the irrigation systems and the introduction of modern agricultural technologies, extension and support services, cropping intensity will substantially increase. Farm employment will be enhanced and farm income increased, new alternatives in rice culture will be introduced and financing scheme for farm inputs and extension services will be expanded. Local governments are mandated to provide for the development, management and conservation of fisheries and aquatic resources under the Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 (R.A. 8550). It should be the policy of the government to: a. Achieve food security as the overriding consideration in the utilization, management, development conservation and protection of fishery resources in order to provide the food needs of the population. A flexible policy towards the attainment of food security shall be adopted in response to changes in demographic trends for fish, emerging trends in the trade of fish and other aquatic products in domestic and international markets, and the law of supply and demand; b. Ensure the rational and sustainable development, management and conservation of the fishery and aquatic resources, consistent with the primordial objective of maintaining a sound ecological balance, protecting and enhancing the quality of the environment; c. Manage fishery and aquatic resources, in a manner consistent with the concept of an integrated coastal area management in specific natural fishery management areas, appropriately supported by research, technical services and guidance provided by the State; and d. Grant the private sector the privilege to utilize fishery resources under the basic concept that the grantee, licensee or permittee thereof shall not only be a privileged beneficiary of the State but also an active par participant and partner of the Government in the sustainable development, management, conservation and protection of fishery and aquatic resources. Furthermore, the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (R.A. 9275) aims to protect the countrys water bodies from pollution from land-based sources (i.e., industries and commercial establishments, agriculture and domestic activities). It provides for a comprehensive and integrated strategy to prevent and minimize pollution through a multi-sectoral and participatory approach involving all the stakeholders. LGUs shall pursue a policy of economic growth in a manner consistent with the protection, preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh, brackish and marine waters. It shall be the policy of the government to: a. Streamline processes and procedures in the prevention, control and abatement of pollution of the countrys water resources;

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b. Promote environmental strategies, use of appropriate economic instruments and of control mechanisms for the protection of water resources; a. Formulate a holistic national program of water quality management that recognizes that water quality management issues cannot be separated from concerns about water sources and ecological protection, water supply, public health and quality of life; b. Formulate an integrated water quality management framework through proper delegation and effective coordination of functions and activities; c. Promote commercial and industrial processes and products that are environment friendly and energy efficient; d. Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among citizens and industries through the application of incentives and market-based instruments and to promote the role of private industrial enterprises in shaping its regulatory profile within the acceptable boundaries of public health and environment; e. Provide for a comprehensive management program for water pollution focusing on pollution prevention; f. Promote public information and education and to encourage the participation of an informed and active public in water quality management and monitoring; g. Formulate and enforce a system of accountability for short and long-term adverse environmental impact of a project, program or activity; and h. Encourage civil society and other sectors, particularly labor, the academe and business undertaking environment-related activities in their efforts to organize, educate and motivate the people in addressing pertinent environmental issues and problems at the local and national levels. The urgency of flood control works and major river basin improvement works is not merely for flood control mitigation. The other benefits are overall improvement of public works, which means that there is lesser damage to other infrastructures and a reliable transportation system, free from traffic interruption resulting from flood. There will be a resulting increase of land use potential and value of the presently existing floodcontrol areas, activation of the local economy with a flood-free urban center and clean, healthful urban community. There shall be removal of solid wastes dumped into the river and drainage channels as a result of the channel widening or deepening works. Offensive odor and unhealthy environment will be eradicated with the removal of such solid wastes at the channels. The river/drainage channel improvement will enhance the aesthetic potential of the waterfront. More importantly, local employment will be generated and trade and industry will be activated during the construction phase because of the labor and materials required by the improvement works.

6.4.6 Air Quality The Municipality of Leganes shall pursue the protection and advancement of the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature, promote and protect the global environment to attain sustainable

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development while recognizing the primary responsibility of local government units to deal with environmental problems. It should recognize the responsibility of cleaning the habitat and environment is primarily area-based and that a clean and healthy environment is for the good of all and should, therefore, be the concern of all. Finally, the Municipality should implement the principle of polluters must pay. The LGU shall pursue these undertakings within the framework of the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (R.A. 8749). To achieve sustainable development it should be the policy of the Municipality to: a. Formulate a holistic national program of air pollution management that shall be implemented by the government through proper delegation and effective coordination of functions and activities; b. Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among citizens and industries through the application of market-based instruments; c. Focus primarily on pollution prevention rather than on control and provide for a comprehensive management program for air pollution; d. Promote public information and education and to encourage the participation of an informed and active public in air quality planning and monitoring; and e. Formulate and enforce a system of accountability for short and long-term adverse environmental impact of a project, program or activity. This shall include the setting up of a funding or guarantee mechanism for clean-up and environmental rehabilitation and compensation for personal damages.

6.5

Environmental Management Programs and Projects

The demands of urbanization and the consequences of rapid economic growth pose a serious threat to the natural environment of Leganes. To keep pace with the potentials and address the constraints, the municipality must adopt a framework of development that goes hand in hand with environmental sustainability. The vision of progress shall go alongside the development of the environment. In accordance with the municipalitys vision of the natural environment, the following programs and projects have been identified and designed to properly utilize and manage the municipalitys environment and natural resources.

6.5.1 Basura ko, atipanon ko Solid Waste Management Program Occurrence of destructive heavy rains and flooding are frequent nowadays, together with increase incidence of transmissible diseases, not to mention, the ill-effects of climate change, are all clearly associated with poor solid waste management. Manmade destruction to natural resources already started long time ago; however it may not be too late to save our mother earth. Taking responsibility of ones waste is an important component.

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The program will include advocacy for segregation at source; provision of regular and adequate trisikad garbage collectors; provision and utilization of materials recovery facilities (MRF) on strategic places in the municipality; purchase of bailer needed for compacting of plastics; training and market promotion of products made from recycled materials; monitoring of final disposal; backfilling of the open dumpsite in M.V. Hechanova in compliance with the safe closure plan; access road improvement of the dumpsite in Nabitasan; encourage proper waste disposal and utilization of organic waste of livestock along riverbanks for biogas and organic fertilizer production; inventory and monitoring of local industries regarding anti-pollution control measures (e.g., sewerage treatment plant, disposal of solid and special wastes, etc.); and an incentive program for religiously compliant individuals, groups and organizations to the solid waste management efforts of the municipality.

6.5.2 Establishment, Rehabilitation, and Protection of Ecological Parks The Municipality of Leganes is composed of six (6) coastal barangays where majority of its people derive their income largely on marine products. The coastline which stretch form barangay Camangay down to Nabitasan faces great concern on environmental degradation brought about by a series of typhoon/flood destroying the municipal owned fishpond making it unsuitable to raise bangus, tilapia and other fishes. Offshore areas are eroded inhibiting the growth of shells and other crustaceans causing high degree of mortality among mangrove due to siltation. Only 10% of the coastal areas are covered with mangrove which affects the reproduction of different marine species. This project will conduct a series of activities to restore the diminishing mangrove areas along the coastal barangays of the municipality. Community involvement to instill ownership of residents is an essential component of the project. Tree planting activities aimed to reforest denuded areas will be undertaken together with a series of clean-up drives to protect and ensure mangrove survival. In addition to the mangrove protected area, the project will also include an urban greening component concentrated in the Dr. Graciano Lopez-Jaena Ecological Park. The Park provides educational opportunities for residents and tourists alike about the areas flora and fauna. Individuals, families and school groups can take advantage of the Park to learn about the environment and natural processes. Moreover, by getting the public involved in educational activities associated with urban green spaces, LGUs can raise the consciousness of the public concerning the importance of these spaces.

6.5.3 Beautiful Leganes An Urban Greening Project While air pollution indices in many cities in more developed countries have dropped over the last ten to twenty-five years, air pollution levels have been rising in

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cities throughout much of the Philippines. Those most affected by such detrimental air contaminants are children, the elderly and people with respiratory problems. Improvements in urban living conditions are essential to raise the overall quality of life. Urban greening offers improvements in air, water, and land resources by absorbing air pollutants, increasing water catchment and floodplain surfaces, and stabilizing soils. Urban forests act as temperature buffers providing shade in the summer and wind break during the rainy season in addition to reducing noise pollution and carbon dioxide levels, and providing a habitat for wildlife. Urban greening can reduce air pollutants to varying degrees. Air pollution is directly reduced when dust and smoke particles are trapped by the vegetation. In addition, plants absorb toxic gases, especially those from vehicle exhausts, which are a major component of urban smog (Nowak et al. 1996). Urban vegetation can reduce carbon dioxide levels in two ways. First, all plants, through photosynthesis, absorb carbon dioxide directly into their biomass and release oxygen in return. Secondly, when extensive vegetation cover reduces the heat island effect in an urban area, residents use fewer fossil fuels to cool buildings, thereby reducing power plant emissions of carbon dioxide (McPherson, E. Gregory et al., 1994). The project aims to ameliorate urban pollution by sustaining the tree and vegetation planting activities of the municipality in its urban areas specifically along the MacArthur Highway and the Municipal Plaza. The project will also include the rehabilitation and improvement of the Little Baguio and its catchment basin; planting of vegetation and trees; rehabilitation of the lagoon; improvement of lighting; rehabilitation and improvement of the childrens playground; and provision of toilets along the national highway to improve sanitation. The urban greening project will contribute to the mental and physical health of the populace, and the provision of recreational opportunities and an outdoor classroom for environmental education. In addition, they provide aesthetic improvements to an environment otherwise dominated by asphalt and concrete. The direct impact on human comfort is one that every person is familiar with, although it is hard to quantify. Anyone who has walked on a city street on a rainy, hot, or windy day knows from personal experience that trees can significantly increase human comfort by influencing the degree of solar radiation, air movement, humidity and air temperature and providing protection from heavy rains. Wind speeds 2 meters above the ground in a residential neighborhood were shown to decrease by 60 percent or more in areas of moderate tree cover compared to open areas (Heisler 1990). There numerous benefits that accrues from the management of green areas. Using vegetation to reduce air pollution is an effective technique that also provides other benefits such as city beautification. It improves the aesthetics of key parts of the municipality in order to increase civic pride. Areas of a municipality with enough greenery to be aesthetically pleasing, are attractive to residents and investors alike. The beautification of Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was one of the factors that

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attracted significant foreign investment that assisted those cities rapid economic growth (Braatz 1993).

6.5.4 Less Vulnerable Leganes Program The municipality takes its share of hazardous effects of typhoon, frequent flooding and other natural calamities. It is important to identify factors which causes and/or predisposes the residents to these hazards, may be non-preventable but avoidable. Preparation is very vital. The program includes identification of environmentally critical areas in the municipality; regulation of settlements in low lying areas; regulation on fish traps and oyster culture in rivers and coastal areas which impede water flow, and provide alternative livelihood for the displaced fisherfolks; dredging, desilting, declogging, clearing of rivers, creeks and canals (e.g., Buntatala Creek, Gui-gui Creek, Janipa-an River, etc.); purchase of necessary equipments; well-trained responders and residents on disaster risk preparedness.

6.5.5 Program on Coastal Resource Management (CRM) For a coastal municipality like Leganes, with much of the municipalitys territory and much of its development potential lie in its coastal and marine waters composed of seagrass beds and mangrove forests. Yet the importance and potential of our coastal and marine ecosystem have been unappreciated. Their conservation has been neglected; habitat loss, overexploitation, and destructive fishing practices are increasingly threatening coastal biodiversity and livelihoods. Our shores have come under pressure from rapid population growth and uncontrolled development. The consequence of this coastal degradation is the decline in fisheries catch-per-unit effort. As a result, we find the phenomenon of poverty amidst potential wealth in the coastal barangays. In a very short time we could find ourselves in a situation of increasing poverty, as the vicious cycle of poverty and environmental degradation proceeds at an alarming pace. While existing laws and regulations provide a basic framework for coastal management, in practice coastal management has been inefficient and piecemeal. Public participation and involvement in coastal law enforcement and heightened awareness of the state of these resources are crucial in improving management and sustainability. The protection and conservation movement will bring understanding to the importance and potential of our coastal and marine waters to the larger public. The program will focus on strengthening the governance of coastal communities through a carefully planned intervention for the protection and conservation of resources as mechanisms for achieving the goals of sustainable development. The cornerstone of the program is the approval of the Sangguniang Bayan of the Coastal Resource Management Plan formulated during the current year.

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The program is above all else aims to manage people and our negative impacts on the coastal environment. The involvement of coastal dweller is essential to the success of the program therefore it is imperative that the LGU should empower them and other stakeholders to ensure project sustainability. Other program components include the enactment of an ordinance against illegal fishing; activation of Municipal Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Council (MFARMC) and of Bantay Dagat/Gubat; identification and establishment of fish and other marine sanctuary and/or marine protected areas; rehabilitation, conservation and protection of sea grasses along Gua-an and Nabitasan; rehabilitation of coastal greenbelt area; adoption and implementation of modern aqua technology for alternative livelihoods (e.g., fresh water inland projects, artificial coral reefs, etc.); and rehabilitation/purchase of pump boat of Bantay Dagat.

6.5.6 Zero Carbon Footprint Project An individuals carbon footprint is a measurement of a persons negative impact on the environment. Everyone has a carbon footprint; it does not only apply to industry and business. It relates closely to the amount of pollution a person creates through the use of energy, for example electricity, and resources such as fossil fuels. Environmental pollution can be created every time we get into a car, bus, train or plane by the burning of fuel. Cars are the largest source of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants, reducing our dependence on oil means switching to cleaner energy sources and reducing our consumption of energy as much as we can. Today, there are more choices than ever before when considering your mode of transportation. This project will establish a trisikad-friendly commuting corridor from the back of the Municipal Hall to Leganes National High School (LNHS). In addition, adequate sidewalk for pedestrian use will be provided particularly for the use of students from LNHS.

6.5.7 Rehabilitation, protection and preservation of municipal watershed and water resources The project will include the advocacy and enactment of ordinances rehabilitating, protecting and preserving the municipal watershed (e.g., rivers, creeks, aquifers, etc.); enactment of an ordinance prohibiting quarrying at the Jalaur River in Nabitasan; and the regulation of ground water extraction and sale within the jurisdiction of the municipality.

6.5.8 Preservation and protection of air quality in identified air shed Science has discovered over the past 20 years that airborne gases, such as methane and ammonia, can add large amounts of nitrogen to water systems, sometimes hundreds of miles away. The region over which airborne gases can travel and wind up in

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a body of water is called its airshed. Airsheds can be huge and air quality controls are needed following a pattern resembling the development of water-quality regulation. The project will advocate for the enactment of a local ordinance on smoke belching and against open burning of farm residues and plastics among others.

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Chapter 7 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN

7.1

Physical Development Potentials

7.1.1 Industrial Development Prospective In May 14, 1997 the Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA), under Resolution No. 97-144, approved the application of Leganes Industrial Growth Center (IGC), as special economic zone, covering 177.6 hectares to be known as the Leganes Industrial Growth Center Special Economic Zone. On February 4, 2008, the Municipality of Leganes was able to secure an approval for the extension of the development timetable of the said economic zone. The IGC is positioned for medium and heavy industries, ship repair and building with wharf facilities. It can distribute goods easily to other parts of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Leganes occupies a strategic position in the trading route of Asia-Pacific countries. The natural geographic features of Leganes make it one of the few locations in the country that can be developed as a world class industrial center with a contiguous deep water port in a well-sheltered anchorage. It has a shallow foreshore that is technically feasible and economically viable for reclamation. Another boost to the investment potential of the municipality is the realization of the proposed bridge that will connect Leganes to the island provinces of Guimaras and Negros. Occidental.

7.2

Physical Development Constraints

There are a number of physical constraints that must be overcome in order for Leganes to move in the desired infrastructure growth pattern. These constraints that face the municipality are discussed below.

7.2.1 Insufficient Public Funds Tight budgetary constraints for capital investments and expenditures continue to be experienced by various local government units. Government funds are definitely lacking to support the implementation of infrastructure projects. The backlog in maintenance of existing facilities are requiring substantial amount to maintenance. The internal revenue allotment (IRA) dependency ration of Leganes as of the end of CY 2010 is 77.28%. The municipality is dependent on externally sourced income to finance its planned expenditures. Based on this spending pattern, without the IRA, the LGU budget would not even be enough for general public services. This dependency to

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the IRA only shows that there is a need for the municipality to raise funds in order to sustain the needs of the local community. The low tax performance of LGUs can be attributed to the inability of LGUs to utilize their revenue-raising powers more effectively due to political constraints.

7.2.2 Inadequate Maintenance, Rehabilitation and Improvement of the Existing Road Network; Inadequate Pedestrian Facilities and Sidewalks The municipalitys growth patterns require an efficient maintenance, rehabilitation and improvement of the existing roads, as well as, construction of new roads in identified gaps in the existing road network. Although the road system is basically in place and most barangay centers are already linked by roads, access to production areas in the municipality are constrained by the inadequacy of farm-to-market roads. Many roads are in poor condition because of initial low design standards relative to traffic volume and axial loading and inadequate maintenance. Sidewalk obstructions (i.e. vending of wares, signages, uneven walkways) as well as poor clearances create poor pedestrian traffic flow as well as inconveniences. Improving sidewalks by clearing obstructions and by improving quality of the walkways will reduce the conflict between pedestrians and vehicles. Providing appropriate pedestrian friendly street furniture (signals and signages) and proper enforcement of sidewalk vending ordinances, will ease both road and pedestrian traffic flow as well as increase public comfort, safety and convenience.

7.2.3 Flooding There is a need for establishing mitigating measures to prevent flooding that cause significant damage to properties and crops. The flooding problem is part of the hierarchy of problems related to the drainage network of the bigger catchment areas draining through the municipality towards the Iloilo Strait into which the system discharges. Leganes is part of the flood plain of Jalaur River which also includes the municipalities of Zarraga, Dumangas, Barotac Nuevo, Pototan, Dingle, Duenas, Passi and Calinog. Floods in these areas are usually caused by the bank overflow of the Jalaur River. With heavy rainfall, the flat estuarine alluvial soils combine with tidal action making drainage difficult. Settlements located along riverbanks are vulnerable to overflows, strong currents and storm surges. Without the proper setback or easement, these households are put at a great risk.

7.2.4 Proliferation of Informal Settlements and Housing Backlog Informal settlements are concentrated along the coast, river easements, salvage zones and other vacant public lands. As of 2009, based on household enumeration

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conducted by the municipality, there are a total of 2,118 informal settlers in the locality. In addition to this, there is a housing backlog of 694 units for doubled-up households, unacceptable housing units, and makeshift/salvage/improvised housing. Self-built houses are among the types of shelter more prone to structural damage from environmental hazards because building code provisions may have been compromised during design and construction phases. Among the important provisions that should be reviewed, adopted and enforced are the requirements on set backs, firewalls, open space, and building heights. The housing backlog of the municipality can be properly addressed by the provision of socialized housing.

7.2.5 Uncontrolled Land Use Pattern and Changes The relatively high population growth in the City of Iloilo has spilled over the municipality resulting to increasing in-migration rates and the reclassification and conversion of agricultural lands into residential and commercial lands. The higher value and demand for housing encouraged landowners to convert their unbuilt land into alienable and disposable land. With lesser areas for expansion in the Poblacion, the commercial and institutional functions continued to radiate and expand laterally from the existing built-up areas located along major thoroughfares and around the municipal center. Most land reclassification and land use conversion applications were coursed through the Office of the Zoning Officer or the Sangguniang Bayan and therefore did not follow provisions of Joint HLURB, DAR, DA, DILG Memorandum Circular dated March 21, 1995, prescribing the guidelines to implement Memorandum Circular 54 (the Authority of Cities and Municipalities to Reclassify Lands within the Limits Prescribed by Section 20 of RA 7160 otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991). Under Section 6 of the Joint Memorandum Circular, the first step in the procedure for reclassification is as follows: Step 1. Municipal Development Council/City Development Council Concerned: 1.1 Determines/checks if LGU has Comprehensive Land Use Plan [CLUP] approved after 01 January 1989. a. if not, updates CLUP/ZO as per EO 72 b. if yes, proceed to 1.2 1.2 Identifies lands for reclassification and revises Land Use Plan/ZO delineating areas endorsed for reclassification [specifying the manner of utilization and disposition of the reclassified land]. 1.3 Conducts public hearing presenting areas for reclassification. 1.4 Recommends/endorses subject land for reclassification to the Sangguniang Bayan/Sangguniang Panglungsod for approval.

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In the absence of a strong enforcement of land use policies, existing agricultural areas of the municipality were converted for urban development without the necessary provision of open space and pedestrian and vehicular circulation. Use of these areas is also constrained by seasonal floods. Encroachment on environmentally critical areas continued to threaten the natural environment and exposed the community to environmental hazards.

7.3

Physical Development Objectives

The municipality will provide adequate physical/infrastructure support to be able to achieve the following objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Reduce damage to property, crops, livestock and lives during disasters; Undisrupted economic activity even during calamities; Provide a sustainable and affordable supply of potable water; Improve the municipalitys image and attractiveness; Reduce solid waste, and noise and air pollution; Improve accessibility and increase efficiency of the circulation network and construct pedestrian-oriented facilities; and 7. Provide enough support facilities for social development and economic services.

7.4

Physical Development Strategies and Policies

To guide the implementation of programs and projects, selected strategies and policies are laid down. The strategies are derived from existing development literature and shall serve as a screen to sift the content and process of subsequent programs and projects.

7.4.1 Allocate Adequate Appropriation for Priority Programs and Projects and Timely Phasing of their Implementation With the perennial public sector funding shortfalls, there is an even greater need to tap other funding sources and to adopt a strategic approach to the provision of basic and social services. The government can maximize private sector participation to augment public resource constraints. This is made possible through various modalities such as the Build-Operate-Transfer and/or Build-Operate-Own Schemes. Encouraging private sector is pursued based on the premise of reasonably competitive transport markets and the private sectors efficient and responsive changing patterns of demand something that the government is less equipped to do.

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The government is not the sole determinant of the development agenda and the investment capital in the hands of government is relatively small compared with private capital.

7.4.2 Philippine Development Plan (PDP), 2011-2016 The Philippine Development Plan for 2011 to 2016 serves to reinforce the executive agenda of the President of the Republic. The following key interventions for infrastructure support and sustainable spatial development specified in the PDP were used as a policy guide in the formulation of the programs and projects in this CDP. The PDPs infrastructure development program aims to contribute to inclusive growth and poverty reduction. It will support the performance of the countrys economic sectors and ensure equitable access to infrastructure services, especially as these affect the peoples health, education, and housing. Toward these ends, the government will accelerate the provision of safe, efficient, reliable, costeffective, and sustainable infrastructure. The countrys inadequate infrastructure has been identified as a critical constraint to economic growth. This inadequacy, in both quantity and quality, is the result of low levels of public and private sector investments in infrastructure, which fall short of the requirements of a progressive economy and a growing population. Moreover, inequitable access to basic infrastructure services has also become an obstacle to poverty reduction and, more generally, to inclusive growth because it limits the opportunities for economic and social advancement available to marginalized sectors. Low levels of investment in infrastructure are directly caused by the countrys tight fiscal situation. The following strategies need to be implemented to make the most of available resources and investments in infrastructure: 1. Improve project preparation, development, and implementation. Inadequate project preparation, poor project quality-at-entry, and poor project execution cause delays and changes in project scope and raises costs in the course of implementation. All of these significantly reduce the projects value and hamper the attainment of project objectives. 2. Synchronize planning and budgeting. There is a need to guarantee that only those infrastructure programs and projects that will generate genuine economic benefits and are consistent with established development plans will be adequately funded for timely implementation. By synchronizing the prioritization of programs and projects on one hand and allocating appropriate funding across government agencies on the other, the government ensures that only programs and projects that are strategic and critical to the realization of developmental goals shall be prioritized for funding. As a prior step, however, government agencies must demonstrate that proposed projects indeed make positive net contributions to national economic and social welfare.

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3. Coordinate and integrate infrastructure initiatives. Development initiatives across infrastructure subsectors shall be coordinated and integrated. This ensures that the requirements of these subsectors are addressed within the fundamental levels of the infrastructure sector and that their contributions are fully utilized. Intended outcomes are better realized if there is a coordinated and integrated strategy for infrastructure initiatives. LGUs play a key role in infrastructure development. While local autonomy is duly recognized, the financial and technical capacity of LGUs must be enhanced if they are to become more effective development partners. Their capacity for planning must also be improved so that local and national plans can be harmonized. To aid planning and project development, the collection, management, and integration of key infrastructure and related data both at the national and local levels will be improved. 4. Improve the institutional and regulatory environment of the infrastructure sector. Regulatory agencies play a vital role in infrastructure development since they strongly influence, for good or ill, the provision of existing infrastructure services and the levels of forthcoming investments. They also affect the accessibility of such services, particularly the rates at which these are made available. Improving the regulatory environment for infrastructure therefore becomes contingent on institutional reforms. 5. Encourage public-private partnerships (PPPs). The huge investment requirements of the infrastructure sector, coupled with the governments need to observe fiscal discipline, means that government shall tap the private sector for the financing, construction, operation, maintenance, and rehabilitation of major infrastructure in high-priority areas, such as transportation, power and water. To this end, the environment for the implementation of PPPs shall be improved by revisiting the following guidelines and policies: a. RA 7718 and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR); b. Guidelines and Procedures for entering into Joint Venture (JV) Agreements between Government and Private Entities; and c. RA 9184 or the General Procurement Reform Act. 6. Encourage stakeholder participation. Government shall encourage the active participation of the public and civil society in governance, monitoring, and feedback. Transparency and accountability are integral to a predictable policy environment conducive for investment. 7. Adapt to climate change and mitigate the impacts of natural disasters. Institutionalize climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) in infrastructure development. The impacts of climate change and natural disasters add to the countrys infrastructure problems and hamper resolution of the constraints. Plans and designs should include the possible effects of climate change and natural disasters in order to develop disasterresilient infrastructure and help mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change. LGUs should incorporate CCA and DRRM strategies into their respective plans, programs and budgets to allow timely, efficient and effective mitigation and disaster response at the local level.

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8. Adopt a labor-intensive scheme where applicable. Infrastructure can contribute significantly to local employment generation and can harness skills and technical expertise of the workforce. To provide productive employment opportunities that will contribute to inclusive growth, the infrastructure sector shall adopt an employmentintensive or laborbased scheme whenever it is most optimal in infrastructure development.

7.5

Physical Development Programs and Projects

The following sectoral programs are deemed essential to the attainment of the foregoing physical development objectives. These programs and projects are included in the CDP which become inputs to the LDIP.

7.5.1 Improvement of Drainage System The drainage system disposes excess water on land, either used or in form of storm water. It must be distinguished from flood control which is the prevention of damage as a result of overflow from river. There are two type of drainage system adopted for waste water collection, separate sanitary and combined system. The LGU has adopted the combined system, where both the storm water and domestic water are conveyed through the same pipe network. The project will involve the rehabilitation and conversion of the open drainage to closed drainage system in three location in the municipality, first along the back of the Youth Development Center to PNP Station, second the drainage system along the Beach Road, and lastly along the Jaen-Bustamante Avenue (Calle Onse). The project aims to minimize overflows during the rainy season and prevent water stagnation that can potentially become breeding places for mosquitoes.

7.5.2 Construction of cut-off channel connecting the Buntatala and Gui-gui Creek The construction of a cut-off channel will respond to the high volume of water brought by heavy rains which threaten the lives and properties of the people living along the river banks of the municipality. The project is a river training measure that will be part of the flood mitigating public works of the LGU that aims to provide a quicker route for the water to reach the sea, reduce flood height and flood periods.

7.5.3 Construction of breakwater in Barangays Camangay and Bigke The coastal area of Leganes is experiencing rapid coastal erosion, threatening property, structures, and natural resources to an unbelievable extent. It is predicted that erosion will increase in the not too distant future because of climate change and rise in

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sea levels. Global warming is expected to raise sea levels by melting glaciers and ice sheets and by warming the upper ocean, causing it to expand and accelerate erosion, inundation, and the loss of beaches. As a result this would lead to higher storm surges which would subject the coastal area to flooding from storms and placing more land in the path of wave-driven erosion. Man-made barriers such as sea walls and groynes, which reduce the impact of waves on the coast will solve the problem of coastal erosion in the municipality. A possible solution is building offshore breakwater to reduce wave energy before it reaches the beach. Breakwaters are long heaps of rocks or concrete dumped parallel to the shore to intercept waves. The possibility of constructing submerged breakwater which offer many of the same benefits without besmirching the horizon with rock piles will be considered. In essence, a submerged breakwater acts as a coral reef, causing the waves to break before reaching shore.

7.5.4 Construction of centralized tricycle terminal A terminal may be defined as any facility where passengers and freight are assembled or dispersed. Both cannot travel individually, but in batches. Terminals may also be points of interchange involving the same mode of transport or interchange between different modes of transportation. Transport terminals are central and intermediate locations in the movements of passengers and freight. In the case of Leganes, it is proposed that a centralized tricycle terminal will constructed in front of the Leganes Commercial Complex to facilitate the efficient movement of people and goods throughout the municipality.

7.5.5 Provision of road signs The project will undertake the fabrication and installation of traffic signage, directional billboards and pedestrian lanes along the main highway of the municipality. The objective of this project is safety. Safety is the main reason traffic signs are posted along the roadways. Signs ensure that each driver is aware of the rules and hazards of the road. Road signs give drivers warning of potential hazards they may encounter on the road. Signs prepare the motorist for what they will encounter around each corner. Efficiency is another important factor in road signs. Signs ensure cars move at the correct speed and in the correct direction to keep traffic flowing uniformly. Destinations are easily found using the traffic signs that are posted for motorists as they travel the roadways. Without signs pointing out locations and directions, people would be constantly lost.

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7.5.6 Rehabilitation of concrete road along Sandoval Street The Sandoval road has fallen into a state of disrepair, littered with potholes which decrease mobility and increase travel time for motorists. It also lacks enough buffer zones for incoming traffic in its intersection. Moreover, this road was not designed to withstand traffic with higher load capacities and should be redesigned in accordance to national standard. This project will include the demolition and concreting of damaged sections, and widening of road shoulders.

7.5.7 Various Infrastructure Projects in the Barangays Section 17 (b) (1) of R.A. 7160 which provides a short list of basic services and facilities that the barangay is mandated to provide such as, barangay health center and day-care center, infrastructure facilities such as multi- purpose hall, multipurpose pavement, plaza, sports center, and other similar facilities. Considering the low financial capacity of the barangays to finance the improvement these basic facilities that the LGC mandates, they need external monetary assistance to provide such facilities. This program will implement various infrastructure support projects in all eighteen (18) barangays of the municipality. The proposed projects under this program are concerned with the improvement of various support infrastructures in the respective barangays. These projects will be implemented with close coordination with the barangays. The total funding amount will be divided by the 18 barangays equally and without prejudice to whatever infrastructure project they are proposing under this program.

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Chapter 8 INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN

8.1

Institutional Development Potentials

8.1.1 Extensive economic enterprise facilities The municipality established the Local Economic Development Office (LEDO) to manage its economic enterprise that includes the municipal-owned fishpond, slaughterhouse, market, recreational facilities and cemetery.

8.1.2 Lateral and vertical linkages are in place Leganes has been a member of the Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Economic Development Council (MIGEDC) since the early part of the decade. MIGEDC is a collaboration of the municipalities of Leganes, Pavia, Sta. Barbara, San Miguel, Oton, Iloilo City and the Province of Guimaras. Through MIGEDC, Leganes has been a recipient of various projects from international organizations such as the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Canadian Urban Institute (CUI) and Local Government Development Program (LGDP) among others. Recently, the municipality have joined the 2nd Integrated Area Development (IAD); whose members include the municipalities of Alimodian, Leon, New Lucena, San Miguel, Sta. Barbara, Pavia and Zarraga. The municipality has also established rapport with a few national government agencies stationed here in Iloilo. Assistance has been given to various projects of the municipality by the DOLE, DA and DOH. The manpower of the LGU has been beneficiaries of trainings and seminars on various topics conducted in the provincial, regional and national level.

8.2

Institutional Development Constraints

8.2.1 Poor participation of various stakeholders in planning and budgeting activities The primary mechanism through which participatory planning can be realized is through the Municipal Development Council (MDC) wherein local officials, NGOs and POs are represented. Sectoral Committees were formed to accommodate the expanded composition of each development sector. Despite the efforts of the municipality to involve various stakeholders in its planning and budgeting exercise, attendance is observed to be dwindling. The commitment and motivation of these stakeholders to local development is uncertain.

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8.2.2 Question on Adequacy and Effectiveness of Local Government Personnel Overlapping of functions and disproportionate allocation of manpower affects productivity. The absence of functional organization chart explains why there exists an obscure hierarchy and flow of authority, undefined functions and staffing pattern. Functional units are not clearly defined resulting in the lack of rational basis for recruitment of personnel. Inadequate and ineffective personnel can be attributed to the overlapping of functions, budget constraint to create new positions, and lack of training and incentives (i.e., awards and merit system) for personnel to effectively perform their functions and maximize work productivity. There is a limited training program organized by the LGU for the professional and career development of its personnel, particularly for those involved in local fiscal administration and project implementation. Records show that most of the personnel attended seminars or training programs sponsored by other organizations. As a result, some government policies, programs and projects are not effectively implemented. The Municipality has no Environment and Natural Resources Officer. The Local Government Code provides that such position is optional. In the case of Leganes which is an environmentally critical area, the need for an Environment and Natural Resources Officer is acknowledged. The municipality, however, is faced with budget limitation to afford creating new positions such as the Environment and Natural Resources Officer. Due to lack of personnel, the LGU has a limited capacity to efficiently and effectively perform the mandated functions in some areas. Unlike most offices, the Local Economic Development Office (LEDO) has one of the biggest number of staff. The LEDO is bloated with personnel whose actual function is not reflective of their position title. Another cause of ineffectiveness and low productivity is the work condition of the local employees. Some offices have inadequate work space. Work area per person is below space requirement standard due to the increasing number of personnel and acquisition of office equipment.

8.2.3 Dependence on IRA Leganes has been highly dependent on IRA due to low collection from local sources. Local revenue collection is still below the income from the external source. The low level of revenue from local sources such as tax revenues from real property taxes (RPT), business taxes and receipts from economic enterprises is attributed to inefficiency in collection and low tax base. The Local Tax Ordinance is found to be outdated. Furthermore, the low tax collection is also attributed to high delinquency rate. But the LGU is lenient in enforcing strong legal actions or demands against delinquent lessees.

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The in sufficient cash flow is causing delay in the implementation of plans, program, projects and activities of the LGU. The LGU still needs to improve its revenue generation from local sources to become self-reliant.

8.3

Institutional Development Objectives The municipality should be able to achieve the following objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Improve employee morale and productivity; Ensure consistent delivery of prompt services to clients; Institutionalize a feedback mechanism and participation; Promote transparency; Increase revenues; Ensure the prompt passage of important and appropriate measures; and Improve impact of programs/projects/activities implementation.

8.4

Institutional Development Strategies and Policies

8.4.1 The Local Government Code of 1991 The Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 provides the State policies on local autonomy and operative principles from which local government concerns are anchored (Sections 2 and 3 of RA 7160). As the State institutes a system of decentralization, the local government units are given more powers, authority, responsibilities and resources to attain their fullest development as self-reliant communities and make them more effective partners in the attainment of national goals. The Code declares that it is the policy of the State: a. To ensure that the territorial and political subdivisions of the State shall enjoy genuine and meaningful local autonomy to enable them to attain their fullest development as self-reliant communities and make them more effective partners in the attainment of national goals. Toward this end, the State shall provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization whereby local government units shall be given more powers, authority, responsibilities, and resources. The process of decentralization shall proceed from the national government to the local government units. b. To ensure the accountability of local government units through the institution of effective mechanisms of recall, initiative and referendum. c. To require all national agencies and offices to conduct periodic consultations with appropriate local government units, non-governmental and people's organizations, and other concerned sectors of the community before any project or program is implemented in their respective jurisdictions.

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Section 129 of RA 7160 provides that each local government unit shall exercise its power to create its own sources of revenue and to levy taxes, fees, and charges subject to the provisions of the Code and consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy. Considering the entitlement share of 40% of the BIR collections of the third preceding year, it is recognized that the allotment system has made the local government units dependent on the national government for resources. Conversely, the LGUs acknowledge the ramification of heavy dependence on IRA, recognizing the inequitable sharing system, uncertain receipt and inelastic nature of IRA. The fundamental principles that shall govern the Municipal Government in revenue generation are: a. Taxes, fees, charges and other impositions shall be equitable and based as far as practicable on the taxpayers ability to pay; be levied and collected only for public purposes; not be unjust, excessive, oppressive, or confiscatory; not be contrary to law, public policy, national economic policy, or in restraint of trade; b. The collection of local taxes, fees, charges and other impositions shall in no case be let to any private person; c. The revenue collected pursuant to RA 7160 shall inure solely to the benefit of, and be subject to disposition by, the local government unit levying the tax, fee, charge or other imposition unless otherwise specifically provided therein; and d. Each LGU shall, as far as practicable, evolve a progressive system of taxation. The Municipality must be resourceful and creative in coming up with potential revenue sources. Revenue generation must not be limited to local taxation. The LGU may resort to undertaking business ventures or partnership with the private sector to generate income. All these attempts to widen sources of local income must be within the limits of existing laws. The LGU should be committed in increasing revenues from local sources such as the real property tax, business tax, economic enterprises, fines and fees, among other sources. Fees in securing locational clearance, copies of tax declaration, tax maps, among others may also be increased within the limits of existing laws and in accordance with the rules and regulations set by the Department of Finance. It must be noted that the increase in local taxes must not be excessive, oppressive, or confiscatory. Just basis of local taxation must be taken into consideration in revising the Local Tax Code and formulating the Local Market Code in order to incorporate appropriate changes in the local tax base. Monitoring and enforcement of laws must be undertaken to ensure that tax payers pay on time and in accordance with law and based on truthful basis (e.g., basis of business tax and real property tax, etc.). Meanwhile, delinquent tax payers may be given amnesty through discounting interests on penalties to encourage updating of payments. It must be noted that there are tax payers who find it more difficult to pay accumulated arrears and additional charges would further disallow them from paying their obligation. Taxes are good sources of

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government revenue and sound means to regulate development. However, immense tax impositions oppress people and intensify violations rather than encourage obedience to laws. Revenue collection should also take into consideration appropriate changes in the institutional structure, particularly in the organizations that perform revenue collection, monitoring and enforcement functions. Offices must be appropriately provided with competent human resources, work environment and facilities/technology which are essential for the concerned organizations to be efficient and effective in revenue collection, monitoring and enforcement. Section 18 of RA 7160 mandates that LGUs shall have the power and authority to establish an organization that shall be responsible for the efficient and effective implementation of their development plans, program objectives and priorities. A regular monitoring of the effective performance of mandated functions for all local special bodies needs to be undertaken to ensure the active participation of the different sectors in all areas or levels of planning and implementation of local programs and projects.

8.4.2 Morally Upright and Competent Municipal Government Article II, Section 27 of the 1987 Constitution stipulates that the State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption. The operative principles that contribute to the achievement of a morally upright and competent LGU are: a. Establishment of accountable, efficient and dynamic organizational structure and operating mechanism that will meet the priority needs and service requirements of its communities; b. System of appointment to or removal from office according to merit and fitness by the appropriate appointing authority; and c. Strengthening of effective mechanisms for ensuring accountability of LGUs to their respective constituents in order to upgrade continually the quality of local leadership (Section 3, RA 7160). The Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees (RA 6713) upholds the time-honored principle that the public office is a public trust. The Code of Ethics states that it is the policy of the State to promote a high standard of ethics in public service. It further stresses that public officials shall at all times be accountable to the people and shall discharge their duties with utmost responsibility, integrity, competence, and loyalty, and act with patriotism and justice, lead modest lives, and uphold public interest over personal interest. (Section 2 of RA 6713 and Section 32 of Administrative Code of 1987)

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Transparency, efficiency and accountability must be instituted in local fiscal administration. Public spending must be in compliance with COA rules and regulations and existing pertinent laws. It should also be the policy of the LGU to improve efficiency in the delivery of government service to the public by reducing bureaucratic red tape, and prevent graft and corruption based on R.A.9485. LGUs should promote integrity, accountability, proper management of public affairs and public property as well as to establish effective practices aimed at the prevention of graft and corruption in government. Towards this end, the LGU shall maintain honesty and responsibility among its public officials and employees, and shall take appropriate measures to promote transparency in each agency with regard to the manner of transacting with the public, which shall encompass a program for the adoption of simplified procedures that will reduce red tape and expedite transactions in government. Section 3 (h) of RA 7160 provides that there shall be a continuing mechanism to enhance local autonomy not only by legislative enabling acts but also by administrative and organizational reforms. A rational streamlining is recommended to be undertaken in order to prevent overlapping of functions in a number of offices. An organizational structure that reflects the mandated functions of all offices must be adopted. The municipality recognizes that its current personnel is inadequate in responding to its growing clientele and that decreasing its personnel will not automatically increase budget allocation for its increasing expenditure to achieve its goals and implement its programs and projects. It is better for the LGU to be more conscious of expanding its revenue in order to meet its obligations and address more concerns than to be wary about decreasing expenditure on any of the items of expenditure. This means that the LGU must try its best to make the income pie bigger rather than be cautious about how to divide the given income pie. Given the limited financial resources to create additional positions, the LGU has to maximize productivity of the limited personnel. Organizational functions and job description must be clarified in order to minimize overlapping of functions. Adequate training and seminars for personnel should be provided in order to restore moral integrity, technical competence and professionalism among local public servants.

8.4.3 Strengthened LGU-NGO/PO Linkage and LGU Alliances Section 3 of RA 7160 provides that one of the operative principles of decentralization refers to the participation of the private sector in local governance, particularly in the delivery of basic services which shall be encouraged to ensure the viability of local autonomy as an alternative strategy for sustainable development. Section 34 of the Code mandates LGUs to promote the establishment and operation of peoples and non-governmental organizations to become active partners in the pursuit of local autonomy. Section 35 further provides that LGUs may enter into joint ventures and

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other cooperative arrangements with POs and NGOs to engage in the delivery of certain basic services, capability-building and livelihood projects, and to develop local enterprises designed to improve productivity and income, diversify agriculture, spur rural industrialization, promote ecological balance, and enhance economic and social wellbeing of the people. The Municipality can provide incentives and a conducive environment to encourage the different interest groups. Section 36 of RA 7160 further states the LGUs may provide assistance, financial or otherwise, to POs and NGOs for economic, sociallyoriented, environmental, or cultural projects to be implemented within its territorial jurisdiction. Beginning the early 1990s, local government units, particularly municipalities and cities, began moving towards cooperative undertakings to achieve common goals. The bases for these are found in the 1987 Constitution (Section 13, Article X) and the 1991 Local Government Code (Section 33). LGU alliances are fundamentally permitted to consolidate resources, services and efforts for purposes commonly beneficial to them. The Constitution provides the foremost basis for LGU alliances. This is reiterated and further clarified in the Local Government Code of 1991, which provides the basic legal guidelines for LGU alliances. Moreover, sectoral alliances are also indicated in separate legislation such as the Philippine Fisheries Code for coastal and fisheries management; Ecological Solid Waste Management Act for inter-LGU arrangements for solid waste disposal and facilities; National Integrated Protected Areas System Act for protected area management; and Executive Order 205 for inter-local health management. Foremost of the legal ingredients is the adoption of a binding legal instrument for LGU alliance formation. The legal instrument that is commonly used is the Memorandum of Agreement. The second legal ingredient is the LGU concurrence to the MOA. This is done when the local chief executive, with authority from the Sanggunian signs the MOA and when the Sanggunian subsequently ratifies the MOA. The local chief executives of participating LGUs must sign the MOA, which binds the LGUs to adhere to the alliances cooperative undertakings. The third legal ingredient is the mandatory review of the MOA. This stresses the importance of regular review in order to fit with the changing needs of the alliance. Hence, this is required whenever there are substantive changes to the alliance. The fourth legal ingredient is the adoption of joint resolutions by the alliance to embody agreements and decisions of majority of the members of the alliance. Aside from financial contributions, the joint resolutions will facilitate the sharing of staff, technical and related resources as well as demonstrate clear proof of consensus among alliance members. The fifth legal ingredient is LGU ratification of alliance agreements and decisions. The alliance should request the respective Sanggunian of member LGUs to ratify alliance agreements and decisions in order to assure smooth transition in the delivery of common basic services among member-LGUs. Ratification is similarly

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required for any amendment of the MOA provisions as these might affect the intrinsic agreements or objectives of the alliance. The sixth legal ingredient is the harmonization of policies by member LGUs in the alliance. This is needed for implementation of common programs and projects of the alliances. Upon agreement, LGUs in an alliance will adopt substantially similar policies to ensure coordination and consistency in policies within the LGU alliance. The seventh, and final, legal ingredient is the creation of legal mechanisms to address non-compliance to the MOA. Alliances can create legal mechanisms for any controversy relating to the implementation of alliance policy, programs and project. The alliance can use alternative dispute resolution mechanisms such as mediation, conciliation, and arbitration. In addition to the legal ingredients, there are ten critical institutional ingredients contributing to the development of an alliance as the alliance goes through stages involving confidence-building, institutionalization, and evolution. The first critical institutional ingredient is the alliance champion who can get the stakeholders together, initiate discussions regarding the formation of the alliance, see through the process until the alliance is organized, and gets the alliance going, especially through its initial stages. The alliance champion can come from an LGU, an NGO, a project, or the community. The second critical institutional ingredient is the common base that prospective member-LGUs should have in terms of adjoining jurisdiction, shared ecosystem, and related services. The type of area and service management that the alliance wants to go into should be defined. The third critical institutional ingredient is a commonly agreedupon purpose that will bind the alliance members together. The purpose may be shaped by the agenda or vision of individuals or institutions initiating the alliance. It may arise from a more rigid and systematic situational analysis and planning. Or the common purpose may be triggered by an urgent issue. The fourth critical institutional ingredient is the active involvement of local chief executives. When the LCE is already in the alliance, his/her day-to-day responsibilities in his/her own LGU might make it difficult for him/her to be fully active in the alliance. This can be addressed by a number of measures such as permanent alternates, rotation of meeting venue, decision-making by referendum, etc. When there is a change in administration, the new LCE should be briefed at once and brought onboard the alliance at the earliest possible time. The fifth critical institutional ingredient is an implementing structure which is needed as the alliance goes beyond mere coordination and starts to undertake projects and services on its own to achieve its purpose. There is no single prescribed structure but generally it should reflect the complementation between visionary leaders and pragmatic managers; local point-persons or counterpart teams if the alliance structure cannot be mirrored at the level of member-organizations; and personnel for operations, administrative support to operations, alliance secretariat services, and linkage-building. The sixth critical institutional ingredient is a trigger issue that needs urgent attention and clearly calls for concerted action by the alliance. The trigger issue can be an

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external factor like a threat to the ecosystem shared by alliance members or an internal factor like the need to improve a specific capability in alliance members. The seventh critical institutional ingredient is a strategic plan. After getting a feel of working together and a boost from early small successes, the alliance should adopt a more comprehensive or holistic approach. The eighth critical institutional ingredient is a manual of operations. The manual can start as a simple compilation of decisions, orders, and policies passed by the alliance. But later, it has to include practices that have become standard and applicable policies from other sources. The ninth critical institutional ingredient is the transformation of projects into essential services to help ensure sustainability. Such a transformation from project to service can be an augmentation of an existing service or an entirely new addition to an existing set of services. The tenth critical institutional ingredient is the capacity to adapt to changing conditions and new challenges for the alliance to continue to be relevant; to sustain the interest of members; and to strengthen relations with partners and covered communities. Financial stability is also an essential component to the sustainability of an alliance. An alliance is financially stable when it has funds sufficient to cover the cost of its operation. It has ten critical ingredients. The first critical financial ingredient is the commitment among members to share the responsibility of financing the alliance. This commitment becomes binding when contained in a legal instrument for alliance creation such as the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) and Executive Order (EO). The finance-related elements to be included in the MOA would depend on the level of flexibility decided upon by members. Preference for full flexibility means including only the agreement to contribute. All other elements can be responded to only when the need arises and decisions are contained in a board resolution. The second financial ingredient is the use of an acceptable formula for the monetary contribution of members. The formula is discussed by members with consideration of each members capacity to pay; contribution to the issues faced by the alliance; and the expected share in the benefits from joining the alliance. The third critical financial ingredient is the timely and regular collection of committed funds. Measures to encourage generous and prompt payments are needed at the alliance and LGU levels. At the alliance level, these measures include provision of clear statement on the schedule of payments, giving reminders for payments, employing incentives, involving the local legislative councils, being careful with sanctions, and setting a realistic schedule of payments. The fourth critical financial ingredient is the sharing of other monetary and non-monetary resources. Aside from the regular funds contribution, the other monetary contributions that member-LGUs usually make include payments for personnel detailed to the alliance, travel expenses of LGU representatives to alliance-related activities, payments for food when hosting an alliance meeting, and payments for utilities (such as electricity, telephone, internet service) in the alliance office, among others. Aside from funds, alliances need human resources, office space, office equipment and supplies, among others.

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The fifth critical financial ingredient is the capacity and will to generate own revenues. To ensure financial sustainability, the alliance must develop the capacity to generate its own resources. For instance, the alliances for local economic development can tap the LGU powers to establish local enterprises and public utility to generate additional revenue and increase sources of income. The sixth critical financial ingredient is the capability to tap external sources of funds. Accessing external funds requires skills in writing project proposals, knowledge of granting agencies, and lobbying for the submitted proposals. To finance simpler projects, grants and support from the province, congressional funds, and the national government are usually tapped. To finance projects with bigger scope, the national government and international funding agencies are usually tapped. Grants may also be sourced from private institutions including non-governments organizations and private corporations. The seventh critical financial ingredient is the matching of resources with goals and programs. The alliance should determine the final output that is within the capability of the alliance to produce. It should avoid addressing issues that require municipal level efforts or issues that can be best addressed by the province or higher level of government. The eighth critical financial ingredient is ensuring proper funds management arrangement. Having a trustee-LGU for government funds is safest for the alliance. The ninth critical financial ingredient is the use of approved guidelines in fund utilization. The guidelines are usually contained in the manual of operations. The tenth critical financial ingredient is transparency in financial transactions. All financial transactions of the alliance must be accurately recorded and reliable reports to account for the use of the alliance funds must be generated on a timely basis. The periodic financial reports should disclose the full operations and financial position of the alliance. The optimal mix of the critical ingredients is best left to the alliances for it would depend on factors unique to the alliance such as the purpose, stage of growth, the level, number and relationship of members, and the social, economic and political environments where the alliance operates.

8.5

Institutional Development Programs and Projects

8.5.1 Construction of a separate legislative building The devolution of some national offices carries with it the concern on office space allocation. It is in this light that we plan to construct a building adjoining our existing municipal hall which will address our need for additional office space. The second floor of this proposed building shall be for our session hall including the offices of the Vice Mayor and the members of our Sangguniang Bayan while the first floor shall house the national government offices stationed here in Leganes.

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Transparency in an organization implies visibility into the functions of the organization for its stakeholders. The way a LGU conducts its activities is important in building and retaining public trust. This is best achieved through institutionalizing transparency in policy with enough infrastructure support. The proposed session hall shall be configured to accommodate a gallery that will hopefully promote transparency by subjecting every Sanggunian proceeding to public scrutiny.

8.5.2 Publication of newsletter To attain transparency and accountability in governance, there are several ways of sharing vital information to the public. At this modern age, information can be posted in websites for fast and easy access. However, for people who are below average, they have no access to this means. It is believed that information thru printed materials is till the best option in reaching out to the greater number of the population.

8.5.3 Barangay Performance Management System (BGPMS) and Data Banking The BGPMS is an assessment tool that measures the barangays delivery of services and accomplishment in relation to their functions. It will determine and assess the barangays level of compliance especially in identified service areas through its scoring and rating system to further improve the quality of policies and programs implemented. The project will provide a computer set as counterpart for the software to be provided by the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG).

8.5.4 Premyo sa Resibo As a strategy to enhance tax collection, the BIR has launched a raffle to entice taxpayers to demand receipt for every purchase they make. Here in Leganes, similar effort is being considered though on a smaller scale. Taxpayers who have paid in full their taxes (e.g., RPT, etc.) and those tenants of the LCC who have paid in full their rentals automatically qualify for the raffle. Modest prizes in kind or in cash will be at stake.

8.5.5 Pasidungog Project More than just a tap on the shoulder, the local government of Leganes envisions to launch project Pasidungog the purpose of which is to give recognition to those personnel who have excelled in the performance of their respective functions. This may come in the form of citations and/or cash award given in an appropriate time or important events. It is believed that in so doing, this will somehow inspire and even entice other personnel to perform as well.

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8.5.6 Workplace Improvement Project The effectiveness of service delivery is dependent on the availability and quick retrieval of data. It is essential to build up a systematic database for fiscal, social and legislative information, and make sure that these data are available to the public. It is imperative for the municipality to continue to support the efforts of offices that promotes a fast retrieval database system for planning purposes. Cabinets for filing should be provided to store vast amounts of references, documentations, and reports essential to decision making and public use. The project will undertake the renovation and provision of necessary equipment, furniture and fixtures vital to the timely and systematic delivery of service to clients. In addition, it will create a client-friendly atmosphere in most, if not all, of the municipal offices.

8.5.7 Codification Program Various local ordinances covering diversified subject matters had long been in existent. The Offices of the Sangguniang Bayan and its Secretariat had been filled with bulky, old hard copies of legislative outputs, specifically ordinances, resolutions, committee reports, minutes and many others. Subsequently, identifying and retrieving certain file whenever need arises incur delay, extra time and labor. Implementation may have been affected in the absence of a quick and readily available reference. In consideration of the above premises, the Sangguniang Bayan is determined to implement the Codification of all ordinances in the municipality, update some provisions, and formulate new laws deemed needed by the demand of time. It maybe an expensive, long and tedious process, but the result is, no doubt, cost-effective and beneficial to our men and women constituency, the municipality, and the province, in general. Bookbounded, integrated and classified local laws would be easy to file, fast to retrieve and readily accessible to all. Future updates, amendments/modifications would also be easy for future legislators. Legislative staff consists of three and the Secretary to the Sangguniang is continually loaded with the regular office work. The retrieval, inventory, encoding and research warrant hiring of extra administrative workers at the disposal of the concerned proponent and/or Committee of the proposed codification.

8.5.8 Strengthening of Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Efforts Disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) is a cross-sectoral program that encompasses the five development sectors. Each sectoral development plan has listed under them various efforts towards DRRM, these programs and projects are aimed to create synergy. Under the institutional development sector, the conduct of a participatory risk assessment and contingency planning will be undertaken together with the

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effectuation of a fully functional Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council and their training and capability building.

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Chapter 9 SUMMARY OF PROPOSED PROGRAMS AND NEW LEGISLATIONS

The sectoral programs with project components presented in Chapters 4 to 8 are summarized in this concluding chapter. Some of these programs or projects have been picked for inclusion in the Local Development Investment Program (LDIP). Not all of the programs identified in this CDP will finally make it to the present and future Annual Investment Program (AIP). Of the programs that are clearly owned by the municipality, or those for which it is principally responsible as defined in Sec. 17 of RA 7160, most will be implemented through the LDIP and funded through the annual executive budget. In case the investible funds of the LGU do not suffice, other fund sources may be tapped. The Municipal Government can utilize its ample revenue raising powers, including measures to attract private investments in the provision of public services and facilities, resort to public borrowing, and forging joint venture arrangements. Still other programs can simply be loaded into the regular functions of existing offices and agencies and the funding requirements can be absorbed by the regular budget allocations of those offices. This Chapter therefore is a shopping list for different stakeholders to select programs and projects they want to adopt, implement, fund, or simply get involved in. The sectoral grouping of programs, projects and activities has been retained so that the different sectoral committees from which many of those projects emanated will have a ready reference when performing their mandated functions. Whichever way a program or project is implemented, the critical support from the Sangguniang Bayan (SB) is necessary, either in the form of appropriation ordinances, regulatory measures, or enabling resolutions. The actions needed from the SB to implement the plan and to properly manage planned change in general, are listed in the second part of this chapter.

9.1

Summary of Programs and Projects

9.1.1 Social Development Sector a. Malinong kag Matawhay Ka Leganes Project b. Health and Nutrition Program in Day Care Centers, Schools and in Communities c. Improvement of the Municipal Water System d. Cross-sectoral Welfare and Development Program e. Street Lighting Project f. Construction of Barangay Health Centers g. Leganes Pabahay sa Mahirap Program h. Sports Development Program

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i. j. k. l.

Public Employment Program Completion of Saad Park Disaster Risk Preparedness, Relief and Recovery Program Fitness and Healthy Lifestyle Program

9.1.2 Economic Development Sector a. b. c. d. e. Rehabilitation/Construction of Farm to Market Roads Improvement of the Leganes Commercial Complex (LCC) Integrated Crop Production Program Livestock Support Program Establishment and operation of Leganes Training and Competency Enhancement Center (LTCEC) f. Completion of Farmers Information and Technology Services (FITS) Center g. Fabrication of Collapsible Table for Transient Vendors h. Leganes Commercial Complex (LCC) Loan Payment i. Climate Change Adaptation Program for Agriculture

9.1.3 Environmental Management Sector a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Basura ko, atipanon ko Solid Waste Management Program Establishment, Rehabilitation, and Protection of Ecological Parks Beautiful Leganes An Urban Greening Project Less Vulnerable Leganes Program Program on Coastal Resource Management (CRM) Zero Carbon Footprint Project Rehabilitation, protection and preservation of municipal watershed and water resources h. Preservation and protection of air quality in identified air shed

9.1.4 Physical Development Sector a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Improvement of Drainage System Construction of cut-off channel connecting the Buntatala and Gui-gui Creek Construction of breakwater in Barangays Camangay and Bigke Construction of centralized tricycle terminal Provision of road signs Rehabilitation of concrete road along Sandoval Street Various Infrastructure Projects in the Barangays

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9.1.5 Institutional Development Sector a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Construction of a separate legislative building Publication of newsletter Barangay Performance Management System (BGPMS) and Data Banking Premyo sa Resibo Pasidungog Project Workplace Improvement Project Codification Program Strengthening of Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Efforts

9.2

Proposed New Legislations

The proposed programs and projects that must be implemented in the next three years can be supported by legislation or policies spearheaded by either the Mayor or the Sangguniang Bayan. These legislation or policies will be the legal backbone of the programs and projects and will ensure the implementation process to its completion.

9.2.1 On Social Development a. Enactment of a code for health and sanitation, children and for gender and development; b. An ordinance setting the guidelines for the housing program Leganes Pabahay sa Mahirap Program (LPMP); and c. An ordinance donating an identified lot for the Leganes Police Station and the Bureau of Fire Protection with a minimum area of 300 square meters each as counterpart.

9.2.2

On Economic Development

a. Enactment of a market code; b. A Sangguniang Bayan (SB) Ordinance through the Committee on Market providing the imposition of rental fees for collapsible tables and for the Local Economic Development Office (LEDO) to regulate the proper management and disposition of the tables; c. A policy that will force factories/business establishments located in Leganes to hire a certain percentage of their workforce from the locality; and d. Pass a resolution requesting the NIA for the rehabilitation of irrigation facilities in the municipality.

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9.2.3 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v.

On Environmental Management Enactment of an environmental code; Regulation of settlements in low lying areas; Enactment of ordinance against illegal fishing (e.g., hudhod, electric fishing, etc.); Regulation on fish traps and oyster culture in rivers and coastal areas which impede water flow; livelihood for displaced fisherfolks; Activation of MFARMC; Activation of Bantay Dagat and/or Gubat; Organization of Bantay Suba; Regulation of ground water extraction; Enactment of ordinance against quarrying An ordinance establishing and protecting the identified mangrove reforestation area (Leganes Eco-forest) and declaration of the area as an eco-tourism site; Formulation of policies on the establishment and maintenance of ecological park in the municipality; Ordinance for the conversion of the Jalaur riverbank into the Leganes River Walk and Promenade; A resolution adopting the Comprehensive Coastal Resource Management Plan of the municipality; Enactment of ordinances rehabilitating, protecting and preserving the municipal watershed rivers, creeks and aquifers; Enact local ordinance in consonance with Clean Air Act; Formulation of policies on air shed protection and enactment of ordinance by the Sangguniang Bayan; Regulation against open burning of farm residues, plastics, etc.; Enact regulatory ordinance against smoke belching; Ordinance on proper waste disposal/segregation; Enact ordinance ensuring sanitation in commercial poultries; Ordinance regulating backyard animal raising should be in place; and Annual updating of disaster risk reduction plan and area safety plan.

9.2.4

On Physical Development

a. Regular updating Traffic Management Action Agenda; and b. Enactment of an updated zoning ordinance.

9.2.5

On Institutional Development

a. Update local tax code; and b. An ordinance institutionalizing the Pasidungog.

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