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WHITEPAPER

ThreeUniqueApproachesfor DynamicDatabaseDesignChallenges

Abstract
Physicaldatabasedesignisthemostvitalaspectof databaseadministration.Whilephysicaldesigncaters tospecificandstaticworkloadsforacertainperiodof time,boththedesignandworkloadscanchange. Thus,theremaybedifferentapproachestofocusing ondynamicphysicaldesign,whichcanaccountfor timevaryingworkloads.Thiswhitepapertakesinto considerationdynamicapproachesaswellassome constrainedapproaches. Thegoalistorecommenddynamicphysicaldesigns thatreflectmajorworkloadtrends.Thewhitepaper alsopresentsitsdefinitionofadynamicphysicaldesign problemanddiscussesseveraltechniquesforsolving it.

ImpetusTechnologies,Inc. www.impetus.com July2011

ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

Tableo ofConte ents


Introduction..... ...................... ............................................................... .......2 tadesignchallenges......... ............................................................... .......3 Dat Overcomingdat tadesignchallenges................................................... .......4 Bus sinessscenar .................. rio ............................................................... .......4 Solutionapproa aches............. ............................................................... .......5 1.Reusa ableColumns .............................................................. .......5 LimitationsofReusableColumns.......................................... .......6 Schema......... ............................................................... .......7 2.XMLS LimitationsofXMLSchema................................................... .......9 3.PIVOT TTable .......... . ............................................................... .....10 LimitationsofthePIV VOTTable.............................................. .....12 nclusion ....... . ...................... ............................................................... .....13 Con

In ntroduct tion
Anyinform mationthatisconceptualandneedstob bestored,isa aconceptual designfora adatabase.It tdescribestheconceptsto obesaved.Convertingthe e conceptualdesignintoa aphysicaldes sign,oraplan nforactuallyimplementin ngthe ncode,iscalle edthephysic caldesignoft thedatabase. .Alotofworkhas databasein beendoneforsolvingth heproblemofautomatingphysicaldata abasedesign. . Today,ente erprisedatad designhasbe ecomemuchm morecomple exthanmodeling traditionaldatastores.E Enterprisedatadesignnee edstocopew withdifferent typesofdata,changingdataandevo olvingdatabas seschemaov veraperiodo of time. Variousdat tabasemanag gementsyste emsofferafeaturecalleda adatabasede esign advisor.Forthesedesignadvisors,th hephysicalda atabasedesig gnismoreofa a lem.Foragiv vensetofque erieswhichde escribethew workloadwith staticprobl someconst traints,thede esignadvisorrecommendsasetofphy ysicaldatabas se structuresw withoptimize edindexesan ndmaterialize edviews,whichminimizet the costofexecution.

ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

Data adesignchallenges
Severalcha allengescanc comeupwhenworkisonw withstaticda atadesign, includingis ssuesrelatedtodataquality,datadesig gn,dataarchi itecture,and processes.Thelimitatio onsofthedes signadvisorsavailablewith hvarious databasesi isthatthesea advisorsdon notkeepintoaccountthec changesof workloado overtimei.e.itmayforins stance,bereq quiredtochan ngethe databasesphysicaldesi ignforaccum mulatingthelo oad.Auserw workingwitha a datasetforjustafewye earsmaybec capableofma aintainingclea andata.How wever, assoonasmultipleuser rsareinvolved,errorsandinconsistenc ciesbegintoc creep intoapoor rlydesignedstaticdatabas se.Iftheinten ntionistodes signastatic databaseth hatmanagesitselfaccordingtotheloadandtime,v variouschallenges andlimitationsmaycom meupwiththestaticdatab basedesign: emostseriou usenemyofc cleandatainl longlivedsta aticdatabase The sys stemsisredun ndantcopiesofinformatio on. For raccumulatin ngtheload,if fthereisane eedtochange ethephysical stru uctureofthedatabase,th henallthedep pendenciesm mustalsobe cha angedaccordingly. Ifo onemanagestoaccumulat tetheloadth hroughcomplexdesign, wit thoutchangin ngthephysica alstructure,t thenitrequiressubstantiv ve wo orktomanage eboththebackendandfr rontend.Sign nificantredes sign and dcodingarep possiblyrequired. Iftheactualpro oblemofpoor rdatabasede esignisnotad ddressed,itw will con ntinuetoaffe ectfuturepro ojects. Per rformanceislikelytobesi ignificantlyim mpactedifthe eexistingobje ects are etobemappe edwiththechangeddatab basestructure,resultingin nthe ove erheadofmappingobjects stothedatab baseandthetransformations req quiredtosupp portthosemappings. The edatabasedo ocumentation nwillhaveto ochangeagain nandagain cor rrespondingt tophysicalstr ructureandd dependencyc changes. Ifrefactoringisdoneorschemachangeis srequiredint theexisting dat tabasetoreflectthenewd dataschema, ,thenthecor rresponding app plication(s)w willalsorequir rechanges.Therewillbea aneedtoiden ntify and dthenfixalld datarelatedproblems,req quiringsignifi icanteffortto o ach hieve. Ifthebackendkeepschanginginaccorda ancewiththe erequirement tand ad,thenthein ntegrationpo ointfortheap pplicationand ddatabasewould loa bec comeasignif ficantproblem m.Insomeca asesapplicatio onsmaybe

ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

rew writtentouse ethenewacc cessapproach handensureintegritywith hin the edatabase.

Overcom O mingdata adesignchallenges


Ifcomplete econtrolasw wellasaclean ndatabaseisr required,ady ynamicphysical databasedesignisrecom mmendedtha atwillalsoke eepintoaccou untthetrend dsin increasingi inputworkloa ad.Byimplem mentingadyn namicdesign, ,onecan overcomet thechallenge esassociatedwithastaticphysicaldata abasedesign.The resultingda atabasecanh havethefollo owingfeature es: 1. 2. 3. 4. The edatabaseisscalablewith houtchanging gthephysicalstructure,an ndis flex xibleenoughtoexpandas sinputworklo oadchangesw withtime. The edatabaseiseasytomain ntain,asthere eisnochange einthephysi ical stru uctureforacc commodating gtheload. The edatabaseha asminimalre econstructionofdata. The ereisanover rallreductionindevelopm menttimeand dcost,throughthe acc commodation nofthechang gingrequirem mentsandthe elargenumbe erof bus sinessrules.

Inthiswhit tepaper,wew willtalkabou utthesolution nofadynami icphysical databasedesign.

Busine essscena ario


esystemshav veacommon nbusinessreq quirementtoprovidea Mostofthe storagemo odelwhosesc chemamaybeextendedo oralteredbyitsusersafter rthe systemisin nproduction thatissche emathatwille enableuserstodefinethe eir owndataba aseattributes s,andcollectdatasubmitt tedonthoseattributeswithout changingth hephysicalst tructureofthedatabase.T Theobjective e,therefore,isto recommendthedesign,storageanddataaccesss strategiesforsuchascenario. LetusassumeSQLSERV VERistheprim marydatabas seandthepro oblemisof extendinga anEmployeeTableforhan ndlingmorea attributeswithoutchangin ngthe physicalstr ructure.

ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

So olutiona approaches
Foraddress singtheabov vebusinesssc cenarioofdat tabasedesign n,wecanhav vedifferent strategiesf forachievingthedynamici ityinthedata abase.Thesestrategiesare eclassified accordingt tothelevelof fdynamicbeh havior.Thefo ollowingaret thedifferentmethods throughwh hichwecanachievedynam micbehaviorinthephysica aldatabasest tructure.

1. ReusableColumns s
Thisisanobviousappro oachwhereth heEmployeetableiscreatedwithapre eset numberofreusablecolu umns,andam mappingtable eiscreatedfo orsignifyingt thetypeof attributeth hatisstoredinthereusablecolumns.T Though,thisis snota100pe ercent dynamicap pproach,itissimpleenoug ghtoprovideacertainleve elofdynamic cbehavior. Therecanb betwotables ssuchas:
1. Emp ployeeePar rtial 2. Emp ployeePart tialColumn

Insertdat taintothefollowingtables sasshown.

Thefollow wingQueryw willfetchthed desiredcolum mnsinsuchafashionthati itwillseemto obecomingf froma singleEmployeetable. .

ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

Limitatio onsofReusa ableColumn ns


Thisappro oachisnotfu ullydynamic,anddynamicityisconstrai ineduptothe enumberofreusablecolu umns.

ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

2. XMLSchema
Thisisafullydynamicap pproach,inw whichtheemp ployeetablei isequippedw with anextraco olumnasXML Ldatatype,w whichstoresth headditionalattributesan nd theirvalues sintheformofXML. thetableas Letshavet

Insertthe evaluesinthe etableasfollo ows.Thecorr respondingXMLcanbese eparatelycrea atedasshown nand storedint thetable.

ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignChallenges h

Thefollow wingQuerywillfetchthee w entireAttribute,alongsidetheirattributenames.

ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

Thefollow wingarethee examplesofA Adding/Upda ating/DeletingtheAttributesfromthe eXML.

Limitatio onsofXMLS Schema


1. Th headdition,u updatinganddeletioninX XMLareveryc complex.The efinalquerya alsobecomes svery co omplexduetoXMLmanip pulations. 2. X XMLcolumnscannotbeindexed,which hhampersthe eperformanc ceofthequer ry.

ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

3. PIVOTTable
Thisisalsoafullydynam micapproach, ,wherecolum mnvaluesare estoredasrowsina valuetableandcanbeP PIVOTforthefinalresult. Letuscreat tethefollowi ingtablesfor rstoringattrib butetypesan ndtheattribu utes values.

Insertdat taintothefollowingtables sasshown.


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ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

Wecancr reateaViewafterjoininga allthetablessothatthev viewcanbePIVOTtogetth hedesiredresult.

Thefollow wingdynamic cquerywillgivethedesire edresult.

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ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

Limitatio onsofthePIVOTTable
Theonlyl limitationoft thisapproach hisitscomple exity.Otherw wise,thisisthe eonlypreferr redapproach hfor achievingdynamicbeh haviorindata abasedesign.

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ThreeUniqueAp pproachesforD DynamicDatab baseDesignCh hallenges

Conclus sion
Thedataba aselifecycleisareminderofthefactth hatdatainad databaseneedsto bechanged dtoanewormodifiedstru uctureinthefuture.Plann ningaheadin databasedesigncanhel lpeasethesefuturemigra ationsormod difications.Inthe caseofafu ullydynamicm model,where enewattribu utesneedtob becontinually y definedand dalteredtor representane evolvingdata ascenario,the equeryandt the structurebecomesmore ecomplex.Al lthough,fora achievingsuch hdynamic flexibilityacertainlevelofcomplexit tyisaccepted d. Amongthe efullydynamicandmostre ecommended dapproaches sisthePIVOT approach,w wherethede esigniscompl letelynormalizedandinde exingcanbed done ontheunderlyingtableforperforma anceimprovement.Thisap pproachprovides thefollowin ngadvantage es: lumnscanbe erearrangeda andadded/de eleteddynam mically,withou ut 1. Col the eneedforad dump/reloadofthedataba ase.Anynewcolumndatamay besettoinitialv value(virtually)inzerodo owntime. ewscanbecre eatedoutoft thedynamicqueriesandb beusedasvir rtual 2. Vie tab blesinjoins.

AboutImpet tus

ImpetusTech hnologiesoffersProductEng gineeringandT TechnologyR& &Dservicesforsoftwareprod ductdevelopment. Withongoing ginvestmentsinresearchan ndapplicationo ofemergingte echnologyarea as,innovativeb businessmode els,and anagileappr roach,wepartnerwithourclientbasecom mprisinglarges scaleISVsandt technologyinn novatorstodeliver cuttingedge esoftwareprod ducts.Ourexpertisespansth hedomainsofBigData,SaaS,CloudCompu uting,Mobility Solutions,Te estEngineering g,Performance eEngineering,andSocialMediaamongoth hers.

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