Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 39

Chapter 7:

Belt Drives and Chain Drives


CVT
Overview why used?
1.) Transfer power (torque) from one location to
another. From driver: motor,peddles,
engine,windmill,turbine to driven: conveyor belt, back
wheels/bike,generator rock crusher,dryer.
2.) Used to span large distances or need flexible x-
mission elements. Gear drives have a higher torque
capability but not flexible or cheap.
3.) Often used as torque increaser (speed reducer),
max speed ratio: 3.5:1. Gear drives?? Virtually
unlimited!

Applications? Show rust abrader, glove factory, draw sample drive of rust abrader, show slides from mechanism book.

Sometimes
desirable to
have both chain
and belt drive
(Fig 7.1)

Belt: high
speed/low
torque

Chain: Low
speed/high
torque
Belts vs. Chains
Belts

Chains
Use When:
Speed:
Dis:
Advs:

High Speed, Low T High T, Low Speed
2500 < V
t
< 7000 ft./min.

V < 1500 ft./min.

Must design with standard
lengths, wear, creep,
corrosive environment, slip,
temp., when must have
tension need idler
Must be lubricated,
wear, noise, weight,
vibration
Quiet, flexible, cost Strength, length
flexibility
Types of Belts:

a)V-belt most common for
machine design, several
types (Fig. 7.5 7.8)
Timing belt (c & d) have
mating pulleys to
minimize slippage
c) Pos retention due to
mating pulleys
d) Pos retention due to
increased contact area
Flat belt
(rubber/leather) not
shown, run on tapered
pulleys
Add notes
Types of V-Belts
V-belt Drive Design Process
Need rated power of the driving motor/prime mover. BASE
sizing on this.
Service factor based on type of driver and driven load.
Center distance (adjustment for center distance must be
provided or use idler pulley) nominal range D2 < C < 3(D2 +
D1)
Power rating for one belt as a function of size and speed of the
smaller sheave
Belt length (then choose standard size)
Sizing of sheaves (use standard size). Most commercially
available sheaves should be limited to 6500 ft/min belt speed.
Belt length correction factor
Angle of wrap correction factor. Angle of wrap on smaller
sheave should be greater than 120 deg.
Number of belts
Initial tension in belts
Key Equations
1
2
2
1
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
2 2
D
D
D D
R R
b
=
= = = =
e
e
e e
e e u
Belt speed (no
slipping) =
Speed
ratio =
Pitch dias of
sheaves
12
1 1
n D
b
t
u =
Belt speed
ft/min
Pitch dia
in inches
rpm
Key Equations
Belt length:

Center Distance:

Where,



C
D D
D D C L
4
) (
) (
2
2
2
1 2
1 2

+ + + =
t
16
) ( 32
2
1 2
2
D D B B
C
+
=
) ( 2 4
1 2
D D L B = t
Note: usually belt length standard
(use standard belt length table 7-2),
then calculate C based on fixed L
Recommended D
2
< C < 3(D
2
+D
1
)
Key Equations cont
Angle of contact of belt on each sheave
(


=

C
D D
2
sin 2 180
1 2
1
1
u
(


+ =

C
D D
2
sin 2 180
1 2
1
2
u
Note: Select Ds and Cs so maximum contact (
1
+
2
= 180). If
less then smaller sheave could slip and will need reduction factor
(Table 7-14).
V-Belt Design Example
Given: 4 cylinder Diesel runs @ 80hp, 1800 rpm to
drive a water pump (1200 rpm) for less than 6
hr./day

Find: Design V-belt drive
V-belt Design Example Cont
1.) Calculate design power:
Use table 7-1(<6h/day, pump, 4 cyl. Engine)

Design Power = input power x service factor
= 80 hp x 1.1
= 88 hp
V-belt Design Example Cont
2.) Select belt type, Use table 7-9
Design Power = 88 hp
Speed = 1800 rpm
Choose 5V
V-belt Design Example Cont
3.) Calculate speed ratio
SR = w
1
/w
2

= 1800 rpm/1200 rpm
= 1.5
V-belt Design Example Cont
4.) Determine sheave sizes
Choose belt speed of 4000 ft/min

(Recall 2500ft./min. < v
b
< 7000 ft./min)

in
n
v
D
n D
v
b
b
488 . 8
1800 *
4000 * 12 12
12
1
1
1 1
= = = =
t t
t
So
D
1
= 8.488in

D
2
= SR * D
1
= 1.5 * 8.488

D
2
= 12.732in

5.) Find sheave size (Figure 7-11)
Engine (D
1
)
8.4
8.4
8.9
X 1.5
12.6
12.6
13.35
Standard D
2
12.4
13.1
13.1
Actual n
2
1219
1154
1223
V-belt Design Example Cont
**All look OK, we will try the first one
Must find acceptable standard sheave 1, then corresponding
acceptable sheave 2
2
1 1
2
1
2
2
1
D
n D
n
D
D
n
n
= =
V-belt Design Example Cont
6.) Find rated power (use figure 7-11 again)
Rated Power = 21 hp
V-belt Design Example Cont
Adjust for speed ratio to get total power/belt
Total power = 21hp +1.55hp = 21.55hp
V-belt Design Example Cont
7.) Find estimated center distance
D
2
< C < 3(D
2
+D
1
)
12.4 < C < 3 (12.4 + 8.4)
Notice using standard
sheave sizes found
earlier, not calculated
diameters
12.4 < C < 62.4
To provide service access will try towards long end,
try C = 40
V-belt Design Example Cont
8.) Find belt length
C
D D
D D C L
4
) (
) (
2
2
2
1 2
1 2

+ + + =
t
in
in
in
in in L 765 . 112
) 40 ( 4
) 4 (
) 8 . 20 ( 57 . 1 ) 40 ( 2
2
= + + =
V-belt Design Example Cont
9.) Select standard belt length
L
calc
= 112.765
Choose 112
V-belt Design Example Cont
10.) Calculate actual center distance

) ( 2 4
1 2
D D L B = t
" 367 . 317
) 8 . 20 ( 28 . 6 ) 112 ( 4
=
=
B
B
16
) ( 32
2
1 2
2
D D B B
C
+
=
" 62 . 39
16
) 4 ( 32 367 . 317 367 . 317
2 2
=
+
=
C
C
V-belt Design Example Cont
11.) Find wrap angle, small sheave
(


=

C
D D
2
sin 2 180
1 2
1
1
u
=
(

=

2 . 174
) 62 . 39 ( 2
4
sin 2 180
1
1
1
u
u
V-belt Design Example Cont
12.) Determine correction factors
98 . =
u
C
98 . =
L
C
V-belt Design Example Cont
13.) Calculate corrected power
hp
hp
P C C Power Corrected
L
61 . 21
) 5 . 22 )( 98 )(. 98 (.
=
=
=
u
V-belt Design Example Cont
14.) Belts needed
07 . 4
/ 61 . 21
88
#
Power/belt Corrected
(hp) Power Design
#
= =
=
belt hp
hp
belts
belts
Use 4 belts!
V-belt Design Example Cont
15.) Summary

D
1
=8.4
D
2
=12.4
Belt Length = 112
Center Distance = 39.62
4 Belts Needed
Chain Drives
Chain Drives
Types of Chains
Chain Drives
Roller Chain Construction (Most common Type)
Chain Design Process
1.) # of sprocket teeth, N
1
(smaller sprocket) > 17 (unless
low speed < 100 rpm.)
2.) Speed ratio = n
1
/n
2
7
3.) 30 x Pitch Length < Center Distance < 50 x Pitch Length
4.) Angle of contact of chain on smaller sprocket > 120
5.) # sprocket teeth, N
2
(longer sprocket) < 120
s
Chain Drives
Chain Drives Design Example
Given:
Driver: Hydraulic Motor
Driven: Rock Crusher
n
i
= 625 rpm, 100 hp
n
o
= 225 rpm
Find:
Design belt drive

Chain Drives Design Example
1.) Design Power
DP = SF x HP
DP = 1.4 ( Table 7-8) x 100 hp
DP = 140 hp
Chain Drives Design Example
2.) Calculate Velocity Ratio

rpm
rpm
VR
N
N
n
n
VR
i
o
o
i
225
625
=
= =
VR = 2.78
n = speed
N = teeth
Heavy Requirement!!
Chain Drives Design Example
3.) Choose:
Size - (40, 60, 80) 80 (1in)
# Strands use 4
Required HP/chain = 140hp/3.3
= 42.42 hp/chain
Number of Roller
Chain Strands
Multiple Strand
Factor
2 1.7
3 2.5
4 3.3
5 3.9
6 4.6
25
78 . 2
o
i
o
N
N
N
VR = = =
No = 69.5 use 70 teeth
Chain Drives Design Example
Conclusion:
4 Strands
No. 80 Chain
N
i
= 25 Teeth
N
o
= 70 Teeth
Chain Drive Design Example
Guess center distance: 40 Pitches

) 40 ( 4
) 25 70 (
2
25 70
) 40 ( 2 ) (
4
) (
2
2 ) (
2
2
2
2
1 2 1 2
t
t

+
+
+ =
+
+
+
+ =
pitches L
C
N N N N
C pitches L
L = 128.8 pitches use 130 pitches
Chain Drives Design Example
Actual Center Distance, C
(
(

+
+
+
=
(
(

+
+
+
=
2
2
2
2
2
1 2
2
1 2 1 2
4
) 25 70 ( 8
2
25 75
130
2
25 70
130
4
1
) (
4
) ( 8
2 2 4
1
) (
t
t
pitches C
N N N N
L
N N
L pitches C
C = 40.6 use 40 Pitches