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Zatilfarihiah Rasdi

Biochemistry I BCM211
Chapter 1:
An Introduction to Biochemistry


Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

Define the basic constituents of macromolecules (carbohydrates, a. acids, lipids, nucleic acids) and enzymes Describe the classification, structure and functions of macromolecules and enzymes Explain and identify the basic energy generated processes Demonstrate the ability to conduct basic biochemical laboratory test Verbally and in writing, discuss and report to peers the scientific investigations and data interpretation

Tests - 30% Quizzes/assign.- 10% Final exam. - 60%

Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Introduction Introduction to biochemistry Carbohydrate TEST 1 Term-break Lipid Amino acids Proteins TEST 2 Enzymes: Biological catalysts Nucleic acids TEST 3 Overview of metabolism Study week Final Examination Contents



Colorimetric tests for Campbell, M.K., and Farrell, S.O. (2009) carbohydrates Biochemistry, 6th ed. Chromatography Thompson Brooks/Cole Saponification value Boyer, R. (2005) Acid value Concepts in Biochemistry, 3rd ed. Qualitative tests for Wiley amino acid Tests for proteins Additional text The pH meter Voet, D.J, Voet, G.V, and Pratt, C.W Paper chromatography (2008) Principle of Biochemistry, 3rd ed. practice in part 3 Wiley



The study of life at the molecular level It emerged as a distinct discipline around the beginning of the 20th century when scientists combined chemistry, biology and physiology to investigate the chemistry of living system

To describe lifes processes using the language of molecules applying the principles and methods of chemistry to determine molecular structure from which it is often possible to explain biological function




Structural and functional biochemistry focuses on discovering chemical structures & 3-D arangements of biomolecules Informational biochemistry defines language(s) for storing biological data & trnasmitting it in cells and organisms Bioenergetics the flow of energy in living organisms and how it transferred from one process to another study of metabolism

lead us to fundamental understanding of life, how organisms store & transfer information, how food digested, how brain cell store information.

Understand the important issues in medicine, health & nutrition can search cures for HIV, diabetes, recombinant DNA help in find new mutation and new plant

Advance biotechnology industries - The application of biological materials to technical useful operation e.g. enzymes in pharmaceutical industry to synthesise complex drugs


Field of biochemistry draws many disciplines allows us to answer questions related to molecular nature of life Organic chemistry: the study of the compounds of carbon A biomolecule is a molecule that naturally occurs in living organisms. - biomolecules consists primarily of carbon and hydrogen, along with nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. - important classes of biomolecules: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids.

Living cells include very large molecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and lipids. - biomolecules are polymers (Greek: poly + meros, many +
parts) - are derived from monomers (Greek: mono + meros, single + part) a.acids (proteins), nucleotides (nucleic acids), monosaccharides (polysaccharides), glycerol and fatty acids (lipids)

Fig. 1-5: Two natural organometallic compounds a) heme, containing a porphyrin ring and iron; b) chlorophyll, containing a porphyrin ring and magnesium


Enzymes: a class of proteins that are biocatalysts - the catalytic effectiveness of an enzyme depends on its amino acid sequence
Genetic code: the relationship between the nucleotide sequence in nucleic acids and the amino acid sequence in proteins BCM 301


Functional group: an atom/group of atoms that shows characteristi c, physical and chemical properties



Fig. 1-6:Types of natural polymers

However, an enormous study of biochemistry has been learned from studies of their actions

Viruses: consist of a single DNA or RNA molecule wrapped in a protein package Not considered a life-form Deemed parasites unable to carry out metabolism or reproduction without the assistance of host cell Are the caused of many plants and animals maladies and has resulted in much human suffering


Biochemists and molecular biologists have been interested in learning how biological information is transferred from one generation to another. DNA, RNA, proteins and even some carbohydrates are information-rich molecules that carry instructions for cellular processes. Biochemists work with the molecules, cell components and cells in a wide range of sizes.

The Watson and Crick double helix model for DNA showing the stacking of nucleotide bases on the same strand and the hydrogen bonds between complimentary nucleotide bases on opposite strands.

Biochemistry is an experimental science. Before doing experiment, the desired object of study must be separated from its natural surroundings one tool useful for isolating cells, organelles and biomolecules is centrifuge. Scientists take advantage of the fact that biochemical entities have different physical characteristics; weight, sizes, densities, and shapes.

New biochemical research is showing that obesity not just a consequence of overeating but is often linked to malfunctions in the hormonecontrolled systems that regulated energy consumption and body weight.

ASSIGNMENT 1 (in group of 4/5) 1. Discuss the uses of biochemistry in environmental science, gene engineering & cloning and clinical chemistry.