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Forms of Energy!

Forms of Energy!

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Energy

The ability to do work. (W=F x D)

Work

Work Force applied over a distance


Force has to move an object some distance Force A push or a pull

Work
Work is done on the books when they are being lifted, but no work is done on them when they are being held or carried horizontally.

Joule

Unit used to measure energy

The Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy can be neither created nor destroyed by ordinary means.


It

can only be converted from one form to another. Energy in = Energy Out

Energy Transfer

Changing 1 form of energy into another form of energy Ex: Blender Elec. Mechanical Heat Ex: Toaster Elec. Radiant Heat Mechanical

Energy Transfer

All forms of energy can be converted into other forms.


The

suns energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. Green plants convert the suns energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).

Energy Transfer
In

an electric motor, electromagnetic energy is converted to mechanical energy. In a battery, chemical energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. The mechanical energy of a waterfall is converted to electrical energy in a generator.

Energy Transfer

In an automobile engine, fuel is burned to convert chemical energy into heat energy. The heat energy is then changed into mechanical energy.

Renewable Resource

Resource that is replaced by nature in a Human lifetime

Nonrenewable Resource

Resource that is unable to be replaced by nature in a human lifetime.

Petroleum
Flammable liquid formed by decayed ancient organisms. Petroleum

Gasoline Plastics Grease

and motor oil Asphalt

Hubberts Peak Oil Model Contiguous USA, 1900 - 2004


1 0
Million Barrels per day

Hubberts prediction Actual production 5 Price per Barrel 1900 1920 1940 1960

Consequences when pass the peak

Natural Gas

Burned to provide energy for cooking, heating, manufacturing .


Stove,

furnace, hotwater heater, clothes drier

Coal
Soil fossil fuel found underground In first half of twentieth century, most houses in the US were heated by coal

Uranium
Nuclear energy Nonrenewable The fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission is uranium.

Biomass
Biomass is fed into a furnace, it burns. The heat is used to boil water Energy in the steam is used to turn turbines and generators Includes: Manure, dead plants, wood

Hydropower
Water power Fast moving water has a lot of energy Pushes against blades in a turbine, spins a generator to produce electricity

Propane
liquefied petroleum Homes and businesses use about one-third of the propane in U.S.

Heating Cooking

Geothermal

Heat near the core of the earth is used to generate electricity.

Geothermal

Solar

Energy from the sun is used to generate electricity.

Wind

Wind forces a turbine to rotate, which spins a generator and converts to electricity.

Forms of Energy

Seven Forms of Energy in the Universe 1. Heat 2. Mechanical 3. Electrical 4. Electromagnetic 5. Nuclear 6. Chemical 7. Sound

Heat Energy
The internal motion of the atoms is called heat energy, because moving particles produce heat. Heat energy can be produced by friction. Heat energy causes changes in temperature and

Heat Energy
The internal motion of an objects atoms and molecules. Measured by temperature. The faster particles move, the more thermal energy they have.

Mechanical Energy

When work is done to an object, it acquires energy. The energy it acquires is known as mechanical energy.

Mechanical Energy

When you kick a football, you give mechanical energy to the football to make it move.

Mechanical Energy

When you throw a balling ball, you give it energy. When that bowling ball hits the pins, some of the energy is transferred to the pins (transfer of momentum).

Electrical Energy
Moving electrical charges. Electricity from batteries, power lines, lightning

Electromagnetic Energy

Power lines carry electromagnetic energy into your home in the form of electricity.

Electromagnetic Energy
Light is a form of electromagnetic energy. Each color of light (Roy G Bv) represents a different amount of electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic Energy is also carried by X-rays, radio waves, and laser light.

Nuclear Energy

The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy.

Nuclear Energy
Energy stored in center(nucleus) of an atom Fission (breaking apart) Fusion (forming) The sun Most powerful

Nuclear Energy

The suns energy is produced from a nuclear fusion reaction in which hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei.

Chemical Energy
Chemical Energy is required to bond atoms together. And when bonds are broken, energy is released.

Chemical Energy

Fuel and food are forms of stored chemical energy.

Chemical Energy
Energy that is available for release from chemical reactions.
o

The chemical bonds in a matchstick store energy that is transformed into thermal energy when the match is struck.

Sound Energy

Kinetic and Potential Energy

Potential vs. Kinetic Energy


Potential Energy Stored Energy Has the potential to be used and perform work Kinetic Energy Energy In Use Energy conversion taking place

Kinetic Energy
The energy of motion is called kinetic energy. The faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has. The greater the mass of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has.

Kinetic Energy Examples

Potential Energy

Potential Energy is stored energy.


Stored

chemically in fuel, the nucleus of atom, and in foods. Or stored because of the work done on it:
Stretching a rubber band. Winding a watch. Pulling back on a bows arrow. Lifting a brick high in the air.

Potential Energy
PE = mgh PE = Energy (in Joules) m = mass (in kilograms) g = gravitational acceleration of the earth (9.8 m/sec2) h = height above earth's surface (in meters)

Elastic Potential Energy

Energy stored by something that can stretch or compress


Ex://

rubber band, spring If you stretch a rubber band, and send it across the room, it has kinetic energy because it is in motion.

Chemical Potential Energy

Energy stored in chemical bonds


Ex://

Sandwich you eat at lunch, Gasoline

Gravitational Potential Energy

Energy stored by objects due to their position above Earths surface.


Anything

that can fall Depends on objects mass and height above the ground

GPE = mgh m = mass (kg) g = acceleration of gravity = 9.8 m/s 2 h = height (m)

Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversions

As a basketball player throws the ball into the air, various energy conversions take place.

A Roller Coaster

A roller coaster speeds along its track. It has kinetic energy because it is moving.

A Roller Coaster

As it slows to a stop at the top of a hill, it has potential energy because of where it is. It has the potential to move because it is above the ground and has somewhere to go.

Kinetic and Potential Energy Review