Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 66

Polymer

Greek word meros


many mers or units generally repeated hundred or thousand times

Often, the term polymer is used interchangeably with the term plastics.
Greek word plastikos easily molded or formed

General Characteristics
Light weight Low density, strength and stiffness Low thermal and electrical conductivity Good resistance to corrosion High coefficient of thermal expansion Easy to fabricate Low cost

Polymers are giant organic molecules consisting of long chains of repeating monomers.

Monomers are organic molecules in which the carbon atoms such as H, O, F, Cl and S. These smaller monomer molecules are linked to form giant polymer molecules.
This process is known as

How does polymerization take place?

Polymerization takes place either by addition or condensation mechanism.


The addition polymerization is a physical linking process. In this, an initiator is added to open the double bond between the carbon atoms.

The linking process continues by adding identical monomers to the growing chain. The resultant long molecules form simultaneously at a high rate.

In condensation polymerization, the different reacting mers are brought together and they form bonds by chemical reactions.

One characteristic of this mechanism is that the reaction by products such as water is condensed out and hence the term condensation. The mechanism is also known as step reaction polymerization because the polymer molecules grow step by step until all the reactant is consumed.

New polymers with improved properties are synthesized by other techniques such as copolymerization and blending or alloying.

Copolymerization is a special type addition polymerization in which the two different type of monomers are combined in the same chain.

The polymer thus formed is called a copolymer.

Random Copolymer
two different mers are randomly dispersed along the chain.

Alternate Copolymer
the two-mer units alternate the chain positions

Block Copolymer
one in which the identical units are clustered in blocks along the chain

Graft Copolymer
the side branches of one type of mer are grafted to the long chain of another

Blending or alloying is an important means of improving the serviceability and applicability of polymers. Blending is physically mixing two or more distinct polymers to form a new product with different characteristics.

If two polymers are immiscible, a multiphase alloy or blend results. The addition polymers form spheres or cylinders or lamellae in the host matrix.

Characteristics of Polymer Molecules

Molecular Weight
is an important factor in determining the properties of polymers. depends on the polymers chain length. But during the polymerization process, all polymer chains do not grow to the same length.

degree of polymerization is defined as the molecular weight of the polymer divided by the molecular weight of the mer.

in most polymer systems, mechanical molecular properties such as tensile strength increases with increasing molecular weight

melting temperature is raised with increasing molecular weight processability decreases as the molecular weight decreases

Chain Shape
Consider chain atom in the figure. In this, the third carbon atom could lie at any point on the circle and still preserve the directionality of the covalent bond.

Depending on how the atoms are placed, a chain may grow either straight

or highly twisted

Polymers consist of a large number of molecular chains. Each of which twists or turns when repeated units are added to the chain.
This leads to extensive intertwinning and Entanglement of the polymer chains. The appearance of polymer chains resembles a bucket of earthworms. The entanglement of the polymer chains provides strength to the polymer.

Type of Mers
The mechanical properties of polymers are a function of the ability of chain segments to rotate or slide past one another when a stress is applied. The rotational flexibility of the chain is dependent on the mer structure.

New polymers can be made by adding large atoms such as chlorine or a group of atoms such as methyl and benzene groups to the carbon backbone in place of the hydrogen atoms.
These atoms or atom groups added in the chain restricts the rotational movement and this leads to high strength, stiffness and melting temperature. This is because polyvinyl chloride is stronger than polyethylene.

Chain Structure
Linear polymers are those in which mer units are joined together end to end in a songle chain. The bonds between these polymer chains are predominantly secondary bonding.

In branched polymer, side chains are predominantly secondary bonding. Branching causes strengthening by restricting the chain movement.

Cross-linked polymers have adjacent linear chains linked by covalent bonds. Cross-linking enhances the rigidity and lowers the response for remelting.

Networked polymers consist of a spatial three-dimensional network of mers having three active covalent bonds.

Crystallinity of Polymers
The degree of crystallinity depends on the chain configuration and the rate of cooling. In simple linear polymers, there is no restriction to prevent chain alignment and hence crystallinity is poor.

In crossed-linked polymers, various degree of crystallinity is possible. Networked polymers are almost amorphous.

In the case of copolymers, there is some crystalline nature in alternating and block polymers. But random and graft copolymers are usually amorphous.

Crystallization is also favored by slow cooling. The reason is during slow cooling, sufficient time is given for the chains to move and align themselves.

The degree of crystallinity ranges from completely amorphous to about 95% crystalline. But as in metals, 100% crystallinity is not possible.

The exact way in which the polymer molecules arrange in a crystalline structure is still under research and many models are proposed.

An early model is the fringed micaella model.

According to this model, the polymer molecules are arranged side by side in some crystalline regions.

A model named chain folded was proposed more recently.

This model pictures the crystals as regular shaped thin platelets and they form a multilayered structure. The polymer chains fold back and forth in a regular fashion to build up the crystal.

Most bulk polymers crystallize in the form of spherulites.

The spherulites consist of chain folded crystalline lamellae that grow from the center outward. The regions between the spherulitic stryctures are amorphous.

1. It is a special type addition polymerization in which the two different type of monomers are combined in the same chain.
A. B. C. D. Polymer addition Copolymerization Polymer combination Chain addition

Answer:

A. Copolymerization

2. What decreases as the molecular weight decreases?

A. B. C. D.

Molecular mass Melting temperature Processability Degree of Polymerization

Answer:

C. Processability

3. It is a physical linking process. In this, an initiator is added to open the double bond between the carbon atoms.
A. B. C. D. Addition Polymerization Polymer Bonding Carbonization Polymer Linkages

Answer:

A. Addition Polymerization

4. Polymer come from the greek word __________.

A. B. C. D.

Polymeria Polimus Meros Polymeros

Answer:

C. Meros

5. Which is not a general characteristic of polymers?

A. Low density, strength and stiffness B. Low thermal and electrical conductivity C. Poor resistance to corrosion D. Low cost

Answer:

C. Poor resistance to corrosion

6. In most polymer systems, it increases with increasing molecular weight. (e.g. tensile strength)

A. B. C. D.

Mechanical molecular properties Physical molecular properties General molecular properties None of the above

Answer:

A. Mechanical molecular Properties

7. What is the chain shape of the given figure?

A. B. C. D.

Highly twisted Straight Slightly twisted Zig zag shape

Answer:

B. Straight

8. Entanglement of polymer chains _________.

A. B. C. D.

causes damage to the polymer provides strength alters the polymers shape A and C

Answer:

B. provides strength

9. It is a type of chain structure wherein mer units are joined together end to end in a single chain.

A. B. C. D.

Linear Polymers Crossed-linked polymers Branched Polymers Networked Polymers

Answer:

A. Linear Polymers

10. How does branching cause strengthening of the polymer?

A. B. C. D.

It forms several layers of polymer materials. It restricts chain movement. It provides good polymer framework. It does not cause strengthening. (It causes flexibility)

Answer:

B. It restricts chain movement.

11. How many active covalent bonds are present in networked polymers?

A. B. C. D.

One Two Three Four

Answer:

C. Three

12. According to this model, the polymer molecules are arranged side by side in some crystalline regions.

A. B. C. D.

Fringed micaella model Chain folded model Sperulites None of the above

Answer:

A. Fringed Micaella Model

13. This model pictures the crystals as regular shaped thin platelets and they form a multilayered structure.

A. B. C. D.

Fringed micaella model Chain folded model Sperulites None of the above

Answer:

A. Chain Folded Model

14. Often, the term polymer is used interchangeably with the term ________.

A. Plastic B. Monomer C. Copolymer D. Synthetics

Answer:

A. Plastic

15. The degree of crystallinity ranges from completely amorphous to about 95% crystalline. But as in metals, _____ crystallinity is not possible.
A. B. C. D. 95 % 100 % 75 % None of the above

Answer:

B. 100 %