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Objectives

1. Explain the effect of experimental variables on


fracture test results.
2. Understand and use the critical stress intensity
approach to predict linear elastic fracture.
3. Describe the Charpy transition temperature
approach to fracture testing.
4. Explain the role of state of stress, grain size,
and test rate in the DBTT of metals.
5. Calculate the plastic zone size ahead of a
crack.

Why Fracture Mechanics?
WWII Liberty Ship
Welded Construction
New workers
High rate of steel
production quality
problems
Cyclic wave action
Hatch Openings
Broke in Two
Fracture Mechanics
1. No load transfer across
crack/hole.
2. Stress higher than o
3. Water analogy


1. Crack is sharp discontinuity
1. Crack is sharp discontinuity
2. Crack grows under action of stress
3. Controlling Factor
Available energy > required work to create
new surface


Flaws are Stress Concentrators!
Griffith Crack



where

t
= radius of curvature
o
o
= applied stress
o
m
= stress at crack tip

o t
/
t
o m
K
a
o =
|
|
.
|

\
|

o = o
2 1
2

t

Adapted from Fig. 8.8(a), Callister 7e.
Concentration of Stress at Crack
Tip
Adapted from Fig. 8.8(b), Callister 7e.
Engineering Fracture Design
r/h
sharper fillet radius
increasing w/h
0 0.5 1.0
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Stress Conc. Factor, K
t
o
max
o
o
=
Avoid sharp corners!
o
Adapted from Fig.
8.2W(c), Callister 6e.
(Fig. 8.2W(c) is from G.H.
Neugebauer, Prod. Eng.
(NY), Vol. 14, pp. 82-87
1943.)
r ,
fillet
radius
w
h
o
o
max
Crack Propagation
Crack propagation depends on sharpness of crack tip
A plastic material deforms at the tip, blunting
the crack.
deformed
region
brittle


Blunting has two effects reduces stress
concentration, absorbs energy in plastic work.

plastic
Flow of Energy/Work in Fracture
WORK of
External
Force, P*d
Elastic
Energy
Crack Surface
Energy
Plastic
Work
As a crack grows, the stress behind the tip
falls to zero, releasing the stored elastic
energy in the material, this energy can be
used to do the plastic or surface work of
fracture
When Does a Crack Propagate?
Crack propagates if above critical stress



where
E = modulus of elasticity

s
= specific surface energy
a = one half length of internal crack

For ductile => replace
s
by
s
+
p

where
p
is plastic deformation energy
2 1
2
/
s
c
a
E
|
.
|

\
|
t

= o
i.e., o
m
> o
c

Mode I Westegaard Solution
Stress Intensity Factor
Let u = 0 and we get

o = K /\2tr

where K = Yo\ta

What is K?
-Stress Intensity Factor
-Represents Intensity of o Field At Tip
-Shape of o Distribution Given by 1/ \2tr
-Represents the energy available in the near field
to do the work of fracture!
Crack Growth Criteria
If K
APPLIED
> K
C


A Crack Will Grow


1. Mathematically, what happens to
o yy = k/ \ 2tr as r 0?
2. Actual stress distribution
Plastic Zone at Crack Tip
3. Rearranging the Westegard solution and
setting the stress equal to the yield strength:


In front of crack:

Question
If increasing the loading rate increases the yield
(flow) stress of most materials, what will
happen to the plastic zone at a crack tip as the
rate is increased?
a. Zone decreases in size
b. Zone increases in size
c. Zone doesnt change
Effect of Strength on Toughness
Sourcebook on Industrial Alloy and
Engineering Data, ASM International
Effect of Test Variables
A. Temperature
K
C
Temperature
FCC
BCC & HCP
Effect of Test Variables
A. Temperature
B. Crack Tip Radius ()



Effect of Test Variables
A. Temperature
B. Crack Tip Radius
C. Specimen Thickness
Effect of Test Variables
A. Temperature
B. Crack Tip Radius
C. Specimen Thickness
D. Strain Rate
= dc/dt
Loading Rate
Increased loading rate...
-- increases o
y
and UTS
-- decreases %EL
Why? An increased rate
gives less time for
dislocations to move past
obstacles.
o
c
o
y

o
y

TS
TS
larger
c
smaller
c
Critical Stress Intensity
Factor- KIC
This is the value of K at crack advance for
-Mode I (opening mode)
-Plain strain (thick specimens)
-Sharp crack

You will need to have KIC values for the particular
strain rate, temperature, and environment for which
you are engineering.

*There is a similar KIIC for Mode II fracture.
Fracture Toughness
Based on data in Table B5,
Callister 7e.
Composite reinforcement geometry is: f
= fibers; sf = short fibers; w = whiskers;
p = particles. Addition data as noted
(vol. fraction of reinforcement):
1. (55vol%) ASM Handbook, Vol. 21, ASM Int.,
Materials Park, OH (2001) p. 606.
2. (55 vol%) Courtesy J. Cornie, MMC, Inc.,
Waltham, MA.
3. (30 vol%) P.F. Becher et al., Fracture
Mechanics of Ceramics, Vol. 7, Plenum Press
(1986). pp. 61-73.
4. Courtesy CoorsTek, Golden, CO.
5. (30 vol%) S.T. Buljan et al., "Development of
Ceramic Matrix Composites for Application in
Technology for Advanced Engines Program",
ORNL/Sub/85-22011/2, ORNL, 1992.
6. (20vol%) F.D. Gace et al., Ceram. Eng. Sci.
Proc., Vol. 7 (1986) pp. 978-82.
Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond
Metals/
Alloys
Composites/
fibers
Polymers
5
K

I
c

(
M
P
a


m
0
.
5

)

1
Mg alloys
Al alloys
Ti alloys
Steels
Si crystal
Glass - soda
Concrete
Si carbide
PC
Glass
6
0.5
0.7
2
4
3
10
2 0
3 0
<100>
<111>
Diamond
PVC
PP
Polyester
PS
PET
C-C (|| fibers)
1
0.6
6
7
4 0
5 0
6 0
7 0
100
Al oxide
Si nitride
C/C ( fibers)
1
Al/Al oxide(sf)
2
Al oxid/SiC(w)
3
Al oxid/ZrO
2
(p)
4
Si nitr/SiC(w)
5
Glass/SiC(w)
6
Y
2
O
3
/ZrO
2
(p)
4
I. Approaches To Fracture

A. Fracture Mechanics
1. Linear Elastic F.M.
2. Elastic Plastic F.M.

B. Transition Temperature (older)
1. Charpy
2. Drop weight tear
3. Dynamic tear
II. Methods of Testing

1. LEFM: ASTM E399
2. E-P: ASTM E-813
3. Charpy: ASTM E-23







III. Transition Temperature Approach
A. Standard Charpy V- Notch










Result: Total Energy of Fracture








Charpy Testing
final height initial height
Impact loading:
-- severe testing case
-- makes material more brittle
-- decreases toughness
Adapted from Fig. 8.12(b),
Callister 7e. (Fig. 8.12(b) is
adapted from H.W. Hayden,
W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The
Structure and Properties of
Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical
Behavior, John Wiley and Sons,
Inc. (1965) p. 13.)
(Charpy)
III. Transition Temperature Approach
Plot Impact E versus Temperature










Increasing temperature...
--increases %EL and K
c
Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT)...
Temperature


BCC metals (e.g., iron at T < 914C)
I
m
p
a
c
t

E
n
e
r
g
y




Temperature
High strength materials ( o
y
> E/150)
polymers
More Ductile Brittle
Ductile-to-brittle
transition temperature
FCC metals (e.g., Cu, Ni)
Adapted from Fig. 8.15,
Callister 7e.
III. Transition Temperature Approach
Define DBTT:
1. 50% Fracture Appearance
Temperature (FATT)
2. Midpoint in Energy
3. Lateral contraction method
III. Transition Temperature Approach

Problem: Service experience doesnt
necessarily match experiment.
1. Specimens are thin structures may not be
--- lack of constraint
2. Specimen tip is blunt --- real cracks are
usually sharp

Charpy may yield Non-Conservative estimates
of DBTT!!!
DBTT Design
Allowable Stress -Usually - Sy / F.S.
(F.S.= Factor of Safety)

DBTT +40C use Sallowable
DBTT +30C to +40C use .90 Sallowable
DBTT +20C to +30C use .75 Sallowable
DBTT +10C to +20C use .5 Sallowable
less than DBTT +10 Not Allowed