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What is a Report? What is the purpose of a report? Kind of Reports Structure of Reports Objectives of Reports Format of report Why reports fail?

What is


Reports are documents which presents

specific, focused content-often the result of an experiment, investigation, or inquiry to specific audience.

a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d)

A business Report is an orderly arranged ,unbiased communication of factual information that serves some business purpose Types of report: Business Reports Academic Reports Business Reports: Routine Reports: Progress Report Inspection Report Performance Appraisal Periodical Report Special report: Investigating report Survey Report FIR Project Report
Informational report Analytical report

Objective of Report
It helps the management to identify the

reason underlying the situation that management already knows.

Five Ws & 1 H of Report: Why,What,Who,When,Where,& How

Why is it Important to study the Report Why the Problem should be analyzed What is its relevance/significance What are the benefits Who is involved in the situation Who is the reader When did the problem started When I am going to write the report Where would the reader be at the time of reading the report How would the report be written? What information is to be taken

Planning for Report

1. Define the Problem & the Purpose 2. Outline the Issues for investigation

3. Prepare a work plan

4. Conduct research,analyse & interpret 5. Draw conclusion

Process of Report writing:

Subject matter should be analyzed logically The final outcome is assessed

A rough draft for the outcome is prepared

Rewriting the rough draft Final Bibliography

Writing the final draft

Details of defining the problem Purpose of report writing Presentation of report before concerned Utility of the report

Ideal Project report should contain following items:


Preliminary Pages: cover Title Page Authorization Acknowledgments Executive Summary Abstract Table of contents List of Illustrations

2 Main Text: a) Summary Introduction Main Text/Findings Conclusion/Recommendations/submission b) Introduction Introducing the theme Review of related literature Methodology c) Results Statistical analysis Testing of hypothesis Conclusion & Recommendations

3 End Matter
Annexure Bibliography Questionnaire Indexing Mathematical derivations Appendices

Glossary(if necessary)

First page of the report Title of the Report Name/Names Of the Author/authors of the

Report Name of the organization to which it is submitted

1) Title Page
a) Title of the Report b) name of the author c) Name of the authority for whom the Report

was written d) Contract, project or Job Number e) Distribution list

Person or department authorized to carry

research and make report. Also carry authorized from.e.g. This report is submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirement of MBA Program of ICFAI Business School.

to acknowledge and thank who have helped

you. Order should be: Head of the organization Company Guide Faculty in-charge Others

4).Executive summary
In condense form the crux of the report. The

purpose of this is to enable the reader to grasp the main element of the report quickly. It should be self sufficient and intelligible, without reference to any other part of the report. It is not the substitute of the report, but it contain sufficient information to allow the reader to ascertain his/her interest

An Abstract is a technical summary

It is read by the people who are familiar with the report. Technical jargon can be used here. An Abstract can be part of the report.

6).Table of Content
Leave 1 margin on both sides, top & bottom

7).List of illustrations
if large no of tables and figures are used Introduction: Purpose of the Report,

limitation ,scope of study,mathod of collecting data,sourses,including literature survey to give reader a clear picture of the work. Main Text:

Arrange all references alphabetically by the

Author's last Name or by the title of the Reference. e.g. Crane, Ronald S.,Critics and Criticism: Ancient and Modern.Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1952 Time to Call in the Boss Business Week,27 July 2005,32-36 for periodicals).

A list of definitions A footnote at the bottom with asterisk or

some other form of notation to inform your readers that the term is defined in the glossary.


Why do Reports Fail Sometimes?

Over all message is not clear. Report is badly structured. Report is too long. Inappropriate language for intended

audience. Report is boring, does not engage the reader. Report is full of grammatical and spelling errors.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Allowing work to be copied by another student


Fabricating references or a bibliography


Copying another students work with their knowledge

Submitting work from an outside source

Copying another students work without their knowledge


Inventing/Altering data

8. 9. 10. 11.

Not contributing a fair share to group work


Paraphrasing material from a source without acknowledging the original author


Copying material for a report without acknowledging the source


Doing another students work for them


Lifting information form the Internet without sourcing it