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Chapter 4

Nationalism: The Traditional Orientation

Nations
A nation is a people who 1. Share demographic and cultural similarities 2. Possess a feeling of community (mutually identify as a group distinct from other groups 3. Want to control themselves politically and be politically separate Exists because its members want it to exist.

Nations: Demographic/Cultural Similarities


Demographics: language, race, religion, SES Common culture Shared historical experience

Nations: Community
Perception is critical Most members of a nation will never know others but feel a sense of community anyway We-Group defined by similarity of members but also in terms of how the members differ from other groups or TheyGroups

Nations: Desire to be Politically Separate


The difference between an ethnic group and a nation is that a nation, unlike an ethnic group, desires to be self-governing, or at least autonomous. Line between ethnic groups and nations not always well-defined Ethnonational group: once the prevailing opinion of the ethnic group perceives it to be distinct politically as well as culturally

Nationalism
Second aspect of the traditional political orientation 1. Establishes values about what is good vs. bad 2. Directs adherents on how to act (patriotism) 3. Links together those who adhere to the ideology 4. Distinguishes group from those who are not in group

Nationalism
Connects people through 1. Sentimentality towards homeland 2. Sense of identity and self-esteem through national identification 3. Motivation to help country

Nation is primary political identifier

Nation-States
Third element in traditional way of defining and organizing world state politically Nation-state combines idea of a nation with that of a state Where a nation exists within the borders of a currently existing state

Rise of Nationalism
Modern Idea Early Nationalism 1. Holy Roman Empire (religion/Latin) 2. Fragmentation after HRE 3. Growth of nationalism intertwined with growth of state and then nation-state 4. Conversion of Anglicanism in England helped spread nationalism to the masses

Modern Nationalism
Emerged around 1700s Growth of emotional attachment to location Growth of Sovereigntyex. American Revolution Ideas of nation implied equality (liberalism) Destroyer of empires

Patterns of Nation-State Formation


Unification Nationalism: easiest form of state building when a strong sense of cultural and political identity exists among a people, and the formation of a nation precedes that of the state. Europeexamples where nations came first and later became states

Nation-State Formation
Scenario Two: State is created first and then has to try to forge a sense of common national identity among the people and then with the people to the state. Example: African colonization

Evolution
Nation building and state building not locked in a strict sequential interaction Example: United States

Nationalism in Practice
Myth vs. Reality: Do Nation States really exist? Most states are not ethnically unified Many nations are split by more than one boundary

Patterns of Tension
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ideal model of One Nation, One State One state, Multiple Nations One nation, multiple States One Nation, No Sate Multiple Nations, Multiples States

One State, One Nation


About 10% of all countries Example: The United States (about 99% live in actual US, no ethno-national groups fighting for autonomy) Proud to be an American

One State, Multiple Nations


30% of all states have no nation that constitute a majority Example: Canada (French-Canadian, EnglishCanadian, etc)

One Nation, Multiple States


Departure from the nation-state ideal Occurs when a nation overlaps border of two or more states Many occurred during cold war (example: Korea, Viet Nam, Germany) Other examples exist: Serbia and Montenegro

One Nation, No State


Stateless nation another patter of misfit between state and nation When a nation is a minority in one or more states (aka, peripheral nationalism) Example: The Palestinians

Multiple Nations, Multiple States


Misfit pattern When several states and nations overlap Failed state: a country so fragmented that it cannot be said to exist as a unified political or national entity (example: Afghanistan)

Positive Nationalism
In philosophical and historical beginning, positive (idealism) Nationalism promotes democracy. Nationalism discourages imperialism. Nationalism allows for economic development. Nationalism allow for diversity and experimentation.

Negative Nationalism
Growth of militant nationalism Reluctance to help others Exclusionism Xenophobia: fear of others; they-groups Internal oppression External aggression

Self-Determination=Goal
May end many of the abuses of ethnic oppression More problematic in practice Tribalism tendency

Negatives of Self-Determination
Untangling groups Microstates: countries with tiny populations International instability Recognition of new countries?

The Future of Nationalism


Can be traced back to ancient times but many political scientists see it as particularly relevant in past 500 years. WWII showed examples of fascism and imperialism as a result of aggressive nationalism. Continued strength of nationalism unquestionable

Future of Nationalism
Demise of nationalism possible but not imminent Will nationalism continue as source of main political identification? Answers Unclear