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If teachers need to better understand the curriculum ,

they need to retrace some of the thinking which has attempted to answer questions of WHY?. Why do we have kinder garden? Why has the method of teaching and reading has changed considerably during the past fifty years? Why has some schools substituted parent-teachers conferences for written reports?

Rizals main preoccupation was the

formation of a new national community, The Filipino Nation. For Rizal, education is indispensible to the task of nationbuilding and must occupy top priority . It is even higher than the political options of revolution and separation. The weakness of the national moral character must first be remedied by the leaders of the new emerging nation through moral education


For Rizal, it is anxiomatic that a sick society will select

a sick leader and a healthy society will get a healthy leader. People get the type of government they deserve : Like people, like government. Hence, a literate society will opt for a literate leader. If the government is abusive it is because people allow it to be so. Rizal saw the necessity of setting up schools for his countrymen. He envisioned the task of nation building as dependent upon education which must aim for moral regeneration.

The Katipunan, a secret society in

the early days of Philippine Revolution placed a high premium on ethical behavior as a requirement for achieving its goal of union of vision and purpose and national emancipation through education. Candidates were carefully screened , their private lives scrutinized , and those found to be not morally upright were excluded

Members were supposed to abandoned a

disorderly life. They had to abide to a code of ethics. Two codes were proposed; one by Andres Bonifacio and the other by Emilio Jacinto. Bonifacios Decalogue or KATUNGKULAN GAGAWIN NG MGA ANAK NG BAYAN was more religious in tone. Faith in God was the first commandment, this was similar with the code of ethics of Quezon. It was to find expression in love of country and neighbor. Noteworthy is the high dignity given to labor or blue collar jobs. The Katipuneros who were most farmers and laborers . Were exhorted to practice certain values such as calmness, firmness, patience, and confidence in the daily work.

Jacintos Kartilya on the other hand,

was more literary and emphasized the dignity of Filipino as a human being. Work is something one has to be proud of. He condemn the excesses of the wealthy for their love of the easy-go-lucky lifestyle and their badhabits. Through the Kartilya, Jacinto enshrined traditional Christian moral principles as well as the proper use of time, keeping secrets, chastity and respect for women, and the Confucian golden rule.

The theoretical jsutificaiton of the Philippine

Revolution and the articulation of the program fell upon Apolinario Mabini. Considered as the Filipino great intellectual thinker, Mabini saw the futility of peaceful means and joined the Revolution to become its sublime thinker and ideologue. Mabini taught that there is a need to change the Filipinos way of behaving and thinking . A revolution which is external and internal must be grounded upon sound moral education, and sound moral education must stand on solid principles. He also emphasized that filipinos must renounced those bad habits inherited from the spaniards

According to Mabini, lofe of country was second only

to love of God. The individual must develop his faculties of the intellect and the will. He has to muster his talents so that he may contribute to the cause of justice, the common good and the human progress.. This is Altruism in action. The prosperity of the country must take precedence over ones own welfare. This is similar to the DECS Bayan muna bago ang sarili. Transendings Bonifacio and Jacintos love of neighbor, he exhorted his countrymen to love one another not as neighbors only but as friends, brothers and companions.

It is also possible to trace the long tradition

of moral education among the Filipinos beyond the Fillipino Urbana at Feliza, Balagtas Florante at Laura and the various versions of Pasyon and numerous others. The distinctive contribution of early Filipino Thinkers was that they ushered in the moral consciousness of the early Filipino beyond the borders of the family and its intricate extension and the wider limits of linguistic groups as for instance, Kapampangan, Katagalugan, Kabikolan, to arrive an awareness of a an even larger community. These concepts were inextricably connected to education with social and political consequences.

Quezons philosophy of education is

certainly local or Philippine in orientation. It is a reflection of the need of colonial people to upgrade themselves intellectually, morally and economically. Hence, it cannot be universalized. Nonetheless, it is one of the most Filipino educational philosophies during the American Colonial period.

According to Quezon, there are two objectives of Phlippine

Education: (1) Education for Better citizenship and (2) Education as means of livelihood. He emphasized that the primary objective of the government in educating filipinos is not only for the purpose of having means of livelihood but also for the purpose of enabling them to serve the nation better. Quezon stressed that the good of the state is paramount to the good of the individual. The state, therefore, has the duty to mold the spirit of the youth in patriotism and sacrifice which can be done through education

Quezon has envisioned a complete adequate system of public

education. He stressed compulsory education in a free public primary education and in citizenship training for adults. He also believed in government scholarships in all branches or learning and vocational and agricultural training in intermediate and high schools. Hence, poor but gifted young men and women should be encouraged to develop their talents since the government could create for them a large number of scholarships . For higher education however, Quezon believed that only those intellectually capable must go through a college or university education. The average student should be encourage to pursue vocational education. He should not be ashamed of it because the true worth of man is not on his diploma but in his proficiency in his chosen line of work.

Teodoro M. Kalaw wrote

the Cinco Reglas de Nuestra Moral Antigua published in 1935 . It prescribed five traits of traditional filipino character such as: courage, chastity, courtesy, self control and family unity. It is the duty of schools to develop these virtues.

An Ilocos born educator, one of the early products of the philippine educational system, statesman and Protestant lay leader, attempted to articulate Filipino philosophy of education. His education is centered on what is called tayo concept. Noteworthy among them are hard work and thrift, values ingrained in the ilocano character and reinforced by Protestant work ethic. Dr. Osias believes that education must secure for every Filipino the fullest measure of efficiency, freedom and happiness.

For the purpose of preserving the fundamentals enunciated in the constitution, Dr. Osias suggested that, among others, all schools in the country must preserve solidarity of the Filipinos; work out for proper equilibrium in the economic order; develop social justice; observe the merit system in the government service, promote peace and national defense; uphold the inalienable rights of life, property, liberty and happiness of each citizen; preserve and respect all the fundamental freedoms guaranteed in the constiturion; conserve the principle of equality; keep over aloft the torch of education; and make democracy a living reality.

There is a tendency which is beginning to gain some

voice authority in the Philippines. This trend is that of the need for liberal education in order to produce truly educated Filipinos.
The need is evident and there seem to be a few who

directly deny its desirability, but despite all the talk, its realization offers so many difficulties that until now little has been done about it.
Apart from accidental difficulties such as money, time

and so on, the major reason which keeps the plan from being realized lies in the deficiency of education preparatory to college and university studies. Thus Sinco, Dalupan and Aquino realized the need for liberal education in order to offset this general unpreparedness of college students. For this op[tion to be meaningful there is a need for the youth to be adequately educated of the elementary and high school levels.

In similar vein, Aquino stressed that, while there is a

need to teach prospective teachers methods, techniques, psychology, pedagogy, content- the science of teaching- those responsible for the education of the citizens must also educate them in the fullness of their rational nature so that he may see life steadily and as a whole. That, in turn, can lead to fullness of self-fulfillment.

The direct aim of education, according to Orata is the

direct development, all around character and welladjusted personality. Fresnoza, in the parallel vein, had stressed that the Deweyan philosophy is basic in the thought and practice of most of the educational leaders today.
Orata recommends that schools heavily stress on

vocational education as well as language proficiency in the vernacular in the early years. The reason is that majority of those who enter the elementary school never finish high school and a very small number finish college education. Therefore, it is imperative, declared Orata to train them for the life they will be leading after they leave school.
This stress in vocational education is given expression in

the Education Act of 1982 which mandates manpower training and also in the EDCOM Report of 1991 which recommends school training and the strengthening of the Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education.

The primary purpose of education

according to Palma, is to develop the individual to his highest efficiency so that he can be of use to himself and to the community. Such a concept is based on the philosophy if altruism and is closely allied to citizenshop.

Gregorio crusaded for a learner-centered

educative process. He also envisioned an educational environment wherein the theory of self-activity is the basis off all learning and where the development of the whole child is the primary objective of education. One of the important elements in classroom management is the assignment which is carried on outside the classroom. Assignments are the pupils sailing direction toward the accomplishment of the desired goal. That is why, teachers should always give assignments to the pupils in order for them to be stimulated always to achieve certain goals.

The Bases of education in the Philippines, declared Bocobo, are the Filipino socio-cultural values and traditions. In order to arrive at a truly educated Filipino, the spirit of nationalism and love of country must serve as the foundation of education. The educand must be prepared, also for a democratic way of life and thinking. Bocobo became president of the University of the Philippines in 1934. He was known to be a moralist and a disciplinarian, urging the students to strive for basic virtues. He implemented improvement of the teaching method, student guidance, a reading period before the final examinations, and the formation of the alumni institute. He was also devoutly religious, urging students to always go to church. He was very strict and as a result, he expelled a student for printing a poem that was deemed to be immoral and even suspended a whole batch of students for violating the dance regulations. He wanted teaching to be not only about doling out knowledge or moral principles but to inspire the students to live up to those principles. Bocobo was also a firm believer in the importance of education for women.

Historical accounts showed that Jose P. Laurel was a

man of integrity and probity and of strong convictions.

Cognizant of the urgency in establishing correct

moral and educational orientation for Filipinos, he declared that a free and sovereign country should provide for an educational system that is responsive to the needs of the people and adapted to their idiosyncrasies, customs, traditions, and basic principles. He is proponent of a truism that a progressive people must keep pace with the progress of the times.
Consequently, Dr. Laurels thoughts heavily

influenced the establishment of the Board of national Education, of which he was an ex-officio member as chairman, Committee on Education of the Senate.

A distinguish woman thinker, Dr. Emerita Quito of De

la Salle University recommends certain moves to motivate philosophy professors to improve themselves , on using the Filipino language in teaching of philosophy and philosophy education, and on tapping international funding agencies for philosophical researches and international philosophy conventions in the Philippines. She also hopes that the repeal of Spanish law may give way to more courses of humanities, thus advancing the cause of liberal education. Finally, Quito observed that (1) Philosophy should sub serve theology; (2) Philosophy reduces all arguments into mathematical language; and (3) Philosophy is an open market of ideas

When American forces occupied the Philippines, they carried with

them the same views with the hope that such views can be made to work elsewhere almost as easily as it had been in the United States. On the first steps towards the extension of democracy was the ordinance requiring the putting up of the Philippine public school system for universal education. To hasten this educational system, many American soldiers from the occupation forces stayed on to teach. Other professional teachers known as the Thomasites, were brought in from the United States and this group gave the system, so to say the stamp which it bears today. This group remarkably did well in forming the new generation of Filipino teachers, a generation which was to be viewed differently from their Spanish trained predecessors. They were quite radically distinct in their philosophical orientation

The Philosophy of American school system

was to a great degree, inculcated in the young teachers. The roots of that philosophy can be traced back to the minds of Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson who laid down the basic tenets which later became part and parcel of American Education. Jefferson who fought hard for the universal free education, and Franklin whose pragmatism and curiosity influenced American schools towards functionalism . He prescribed early training for the special field in which they were to work later on. He made his own system which was deviation from the usual classical schooling given in other colonial colleges of America.

Another influential American-Educator

philosopher was HORACE MANN. He was a well known figure who got the honor of being the Father of American Public school system. He was the author or a Move to finance schools by means of public taxes to which the religious sector vehemently opposed. Because of such opposition, Mann has resigned from his post as Secretary of Education of the state of Massachusetts even before the saw his ideas in realization. The most influential American Educator philosopher was JOHN DEWEY. He introduced to the world the word PROGRESSIVISM in education.

Darwins theories pertaining to the evolutionary

process did its toll. Darwins theories had already been accepted by anthropologists. What is lacking only was that someone should draw their conclusions and apply them to the field of knowledge affecting man. This job Dewey did. The general theory is that, there is no such thing as a stable nature. Man can be said to belong to the human species, not as an intrinsically unified group, but as conglomeration of more or less similar beings. Commencing with the principle that all reality is change. Dewey state that man in his own environment are always in the state of change. Therefore, he believed that education is synonymous with continuous growth. Growth is the alpha and the Omega of education. Therefore, the curriculum must be adapted to meet every new evolution and development in the society.


Today, more than ever, Philippine education is at the

crossroads. We are confronted with the problem of education which appears to be very unique. Aside from the basic problem, we now meet with criticism that education is not what it used to be. There is apparently some truth to this accusation since it is perceived that the general caliber of students today is lower than the average student of prewar days.