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RAW MILK PROCESSING AT NESTLE INDIA

Introduction
Nestl was founded in the year 1867 in

Geneva, Switzerland by Henri Nestl. Nestls first product was Farine Lactee Nestl, an infant cereal. In 1905, Nestl acquired the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company. Nestls relationship with India started in 1912, when it began trading as The Nestl Anglo- Swiss Condensed Milk Company (Export) Limited, importing and selling of finished products in the Indian market.

NESTLE INDIA LTD.


Nestl set up its operations in India, as a trading company, in 1912 and began manufacturing at the Moga factory on 15th of November 1961. The production started with the manufacture of Milkmaid and other products were gradually brought onto the fold. Nestl India Limited was formally incorporated in 1978, prior to which the manufacturing license was issued in the name Food Specialities Limited. The corporate office is located at the DLF Centre, Gurgaon, and the Registered office at M-5A, Connaught Circus, New Delhi.

PRODUCT CATEGORIES TO BE SERVED


Contribution of Product Group
17%
18%

6%

35% 24%

Cullinary

Milks

IMF

Beverages

C&C

SYNOPSIS
The Company started milk collection in Moga area from farmers on 15th November 1961 and on the first day 511 kilograms of fresh milk was collected from 4 villages. All production plants and laboratories are equipped with the latest equipment. There is continuos improvement in technology and work processes to meet International Standards. A series of sophisticated lab tests / analysis are conducted in the Quality Assurance Department at various stages of production to ensure Quality Products of International Standards

Nestl adds value at each step of the milk supply chain

DAIRY FARMERS

FRESH MILK PROCUREMENT

MILK PROCESSING

MARKETING

DISTRIBUTION

CONSUMERS

MILK PROCUREMENT
The fact that dairying is emerging as a mainline agricultural activity is borne out by the changing profile of the 85,000-odd farmers who supply milk to Nestls plant in Moga, Punjab. Nearly 32 per cent of Nestls suppliers today comprise farmers who pour more than 10 kg of milk per day and these `average-to-very large' farmers account for more than 70 per cent of the total milk collected by the Moga plant.

Quality measures
Plan systematic preventive measures & precautions to ensure that predefined

quality of products is reached & maintained. Ensure appropriate manufacturing process & facilities points, cleaning schedule & instrument calibration. Provide adequate tools & methods for effective quality control on lines. Responsible for practical implementation for effective Quality control on lines. Ensure QA staff are adequately trained & empowered. Promote quality awareness and improve existing quality systems. Ensure that all RM/PM used meet specified quality norms through an effective supplier development. Appropriate consumer complaint handling & necessary activities. Maintaining QA department safety & health. All safety risk & health concerns are analyzed and addressed appropriately. Maintain good rating in audits and laboratory proficiency test. To ensure work place safety and effective communication of Safety, Health and Environment to all team members.

NESTL HAS INTRODUCED NESTL NESVITA PRO-HEART, INDIAS FIRST MILK WITH OMEGA 3
OMEGA 3 IS SCIENTIFICALLY PROVEN TO MANAGE CHOLESTEROL.Cholesterol is of two types: LDL and HDL. LDL tends to deposit cholesterol in the body, and is the bad side of it, while the good HDL helps clean up and carry the cholesterol out of the body. Probiotics are: "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host". Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics Some commonly used bacteria in products, but without probiotic effect (yoghurt bacteria): Lactobacillus bulgaricus Streptococcus thermophilus

Why process milk?


Many dairy products can be kept longer than fresh milk, therefore

the milk does not have to be consumed immediately. The demand for fresh milk may be limited, and there may be more interest in dairy products. If the daily amount of fresh milk for sale is limited, it may be more economical to process the milk into less perishable products, store them, and sell them later in greater quantities. There may be no market for fresh milk close by, and only preserved products can be sold at markets at a greater distance. Greater financial gain may be obtained. Lactose intolerance implies that the body is almost or entirely unable to digest the milk sugar, lactose, which is found in milk. Only small amounts of milk (up to 200 ml) consumed several times a day can be digested. Dairy products in which a proportion of the milk sugar is converted during production, such as cheese, curd, yoghurt and sour milk or buttermilk, do not cause many problems in this respect.

USE OF MICROORGANISMS IN DAIRY PRODUCTS:


Animal rennet (bovine chymosin)

Rennin acts on the milk protein in two stages, by enzymatic and by nonenzymatic action, resulting in coagulation of milk. In the enzymatic phase, the resultant milk becomes a gel due to the influence of calcium ions and the temperature used in the process. Microorganisms like Rhizomucor pusillus, R. miehei, Endothia parasitica, Aspergillus oryzae, and Irpex lactis are used extensively for rennet production in cheese manufacture
Lactase in dairy industry

Due to intestinal enzyme insufficiency, some individuals, and even a population, show lactose intolerance and difficulty in consuming milk and dairy products. the main problem associated with discharging large quantities of cheese whey is that it pollutes the environment. But, the discharged whey could be exploited as an alternate cheap source of lactose for the production of lactic acid by fermentation. Lactase preparations from A. niger, A. oryzae, and Kluyveromyces lactis are considered safe.

Proteolytic enzymes of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk

products

The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria is essential for their growth in milk, and contributes significantly to flavor development in fermented milk products. The proteolytic system is composed of proteinases which initially cleaves the milk protein to peptides; peptidases which cleave the peptides to small peptides and amino acids Lactic acid bacteria have a complex proteolytic system capable of converting milk casein to the free amino acids and peptides necessary for their growth. These proteinases include extracellular proteinases, endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, tripeptidases, and proline-specific peptidases, which are all serine proteases. Apart from lactic streptococcal proteinases, several other proteinases from nonlactostreptococcal origin have been reported. There are also serine type of proteinases, e.g. proteinases from Lactobacillus acidophillus, L. plantarum, L. delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus, L. lactis, and L. helveticus. Aminopeptidases are important for the development of flavor in fermented milk products

The following scheme summarizes the methods of manufacture:


STAGE Storage tank MILK

Filteration or clarification

Cooling Preheating Adding vitamins Homogenisation Pasteurization Standardization Packing of milk

TO 4C 80C IN HOT WATER Pasteurization

2.500 Ib at 140F

Storing milk

MILK PROCESSING
Homogenization
Milk must then be homogenized. Without homogenization, the milk fat would separate from the milk and rise to the top. Milk fat is what gives milk its rich and creamy taste. Homogenization makes sure that the fat is spread out evenly in the milk so that every sip of milk has the same delicious flavour and creamy texture. Milk is transferred to a piece of equipment called a homogenizer. In this machine the milk fat is forced, under high pressure, through tiny holes that break the fat cells up in to tiny particles, 1/8 their original size. Protein, contained in the milk, quickly forms around each particle and this prevents the fat from rejoining. The milk fat cells then stay suspended evenly throughout the milk.

Pasteurization

Pasteurization is the process that purifies milk and helps it stay fresher, longer. Milk is pasteurized by heating it to 72C for 16 seconds then quickly cooling it to 4C. Pasteurization is named after Louis Pasteur, the famous scientist who discovered that the process destroyed bacteria that naturally develops in raw milk. By destroying the bacteria, milk becomes safe to drink and holds its delicious flavour for much longer.

Ultra High Temperature (UHT) sterilization raises the temperature of milk to at least 280 F for two seconds, followed by rapid cooling. UHTpasteurized milk that is packaged aseptically results in a "shelf stable" product that does not require refrigeration until opened.

Timetemperature combinations for pasteurizing milk:


Time low pasteurizing 30 minutes 3 minutes 20 seconds high pasteurizing 2 minutes 20 seconds Temperature 63C 68C 72C*) 82C 85C *) Remarks quantities >5 litres small quantities industrial equipment

*) continuous flow system; not for small-scale processing

Adding Vitamins

Before homogenization, vitamin D is added to all milk. Vitamin D combined with the calcium that naturally exists in milk, help give us strong bones and teeth. Interestingly, vitamin D and milks natural calcium work together to magnify the effects of each other. They provide more nutritional value than taking the same amount of Vitamin D and calcium separately. Dairies also add Vitamin A to skim, 1% and 2% milk. Vitamin A is good for our eyesight.

Packaging Milk

Milk is now ready to be packaged. Milk is pumped through automatic filling machines direct into bags, cartons and jugs. The machines are carefully sanitized and packages are filled and sealed without human hands. This keeps outside bacteria out of the milk which helps keep the milk stay fresh.

During the entire time that milk is at the dairy, it is kept at 1 2C. This prevents the development of extra bacteria and keeps the milk its freshest.

Storing

Milk is delivered to grocery stores, convenience stores and restaurants in refrigerated trucks that keep milk cooled to 1 4C. The stores take their milk and immediately place it in their refrigerated storage area.

Milks Sweetened Condensed Milk (Milkmaid) Everyday Dairy Whitener Everyday Dairy Mate Tea Creamer Everyday Pure Ghee Lactogen 1 & Lactogen 2 Nestogen 1 & Nestogen 2 NAN 1 & NAN 2 Standardized milk

To analayze the drawn milk sample:


Test for detection of formalin

ormalin (40%) is poisonous though it can preserve milk for a long time.

How to detect? Take 10 ml of milk in test tube and 5 ml of conc. sulphuric acid is added on the sides of the test tube with out shaking. If a violet or blue ring appears at the intersection of the two layers, then it shows the presence of formalin.
Test for detection of sugar in milk

Generally sugar is mixed in the milk to increase the solids not fat content of milk i.e. to increase the lactometer reading of milk, which was already diluted with water. How to detect? In 10 In 10 ml of milk sample in the test tube add 1 ml of conc. HCl and then a pinch of resorciresorcinol powder. Keep in the boiling water for 5 min. The change in colour from pink to red colto r colour indicates adulteration with sugar.

Test for detection of Urea

Urea is generally added in the preparation of synthetic milk to raise the SNF value. How to detect? Equal volume of mild 4 reagents after mixing gives yellow colour.This indicates that urea is present. This test is possible of detecting urea upto 100 ppm.

To investigate a method of measuring the bacterial quality of milk. Requirements resazurin solution 1 cubic cm and 10 cubic cm graduated syringe or pipette and safety fille 4 x sterile test tubes and bungs test tube rack 4 x milk samples water bath at 36C Universal indicator strips Eye protection

Procedure: Use Universal indicator strips to find the pH of each milk sample. Record the results in a table. Place the test tubes in the test tube rack. Label them A to D. Measure 1 cubic cm of resazurin solution into each test tube, using a syringe or pipette. Measure 10 cubic cm of each milk sample (A-D) into the correct test tube (A-D). Use a clean syringe or pipette for each. Immediately place bungs in the test tubes. Turn the tubes upside down and then back again, three times to mix the contents.
Put the test tubes in the water bath and leave for half an hour. After half an hour, check the color of the resazurin in each tube.

Place the milk samples in order, from highest to lowest quality

KEY
colour of solution blue (no colour change) light blue quality of milk excellent very good

purple
purple-pink light pink pink white

good
fair poor bad very bad

Thank You
Submitted By:

Gunjan goel UE 7121 BE BIOTECH 3RD YR 5TH SEMESTER