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International Labour Migration and development

By Ibrahim Awad Director International Migration Programme

Hafiz Habib-Ur-Rehman Talib Roll # 238 BH-Econ-08 Department Of Economics

G.C University,
Lahore.

Introduction
The ILOs concern with international migration stems from its mandate on labour issues. It is specifically concerned with international labour migration. Migrant workers are protected by rights, international labour standards, and other economic and social policies. Social dialogue in the formulation and implementation of international and national action and policies is promoted. This interest has essentially and rightly centered on promoting the linkages between migration and development.

ILOs Perspective
In 1919, the ILO expressed the need to protect migrant workers by including in the introduction to the Constitution as one of the objectives of the organization. The protection of the interests of workers when employed in countries other than their own. The ILOs mandate, articulated in the Decent Work agenda, includes respect of rights at work and international labour standards, employment promotion, social protection and social dialogue. The ILO approach to international labour migration combines interests in ensuring global economic growth and employment, including through international mobility of labour, and the protection of migrant workers.

Why Do People Migrate?


Migrants are motivated by the quest for higher wages and better opportunities, responding to the demand for their skills abroad. Many workers are forced to move because of unemployment, low wages, starvation, natural disasters and internal conflicts. Labour migration has increasingly become a livelihood strategy for women and men because of the lack of opportunities for full employment and decent work. The Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM) described the driving forces in international migration in terms of 3Ds: Development, Demography and Democracy.

Migrants Vs Development
When the migrants come back to their places, what will the changes occur in their economys growth and development? Migrants who return back, they also bring back human (skills and knowledge), financial and social capital (contacts and access to networks). Policies for their proper reintegration in labour markets and societies in countries of origin are needed. They contribute to home country development through transfer of skills, technology and knowledge, capital and investments, and influencing positive policy changes. 4 million Afghan Muhajreen migrated to Pakistan in last 8 years and a total of 5.1 million Afghan people.

Brain Drain Vs LDCs


According to the WHO, 57 countries, 36 of which are in sub Saharan

Africa, have severe shortages of health workers. Many countries, especially in Pakistan, can no longer maintain adequate public health service because of the migration of health workers attracted by much better prospects abroad. This seriously affects their capacity to meet the development goals. Same is the case with the other sides of the picture, like education, engineering and commerce sector. Due to brain drain from Pakistan and migration of unskilled labour from Afghanistan made a significant burden on economy.

Winding up W.R.T Pakistan

Since not all migrants return, transnational communities represent another potential development resource to countries of origin. Our source of concern is the growing migration of skilled persons from developing nations brain drain which can have dire consequences for sustainable development in the countries of origin, especially the least developed countries (LDCs) like Pakistan. It involves the loss of scarce national economic resources that have been invested in education and training. Increasingly developed countries have targeted admission of skilled workers from developing countries in their immigration policies. As a result even all the migrants not come back but still they are sending the currency to the home country and resultantly their countrys foreign exchange revenue increases.