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Brands and Packaging

American Marketing Association defined brand as a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition.

What is a Brand?
A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.

What is a Brand?
A slogan? A typeface? A sound? An image? A logo? A personality? A jingle?

What is a Brand?
A brand is a promise.
It is both functional and emotional. It is the art and science of creating mind space and shelf space.

What is a product?
A product is any offering by a company to a market that serves to satisfy customer needs and wants. It can be an object, service, idea,etc.

A brand is therefore more than a product, as it can have dimensions that differentiate it in some way from other products designed to satisfy the same need.

Brand name: part of a brand consisting of words or letters that form a name that identifies and distinguishes a firms offering from those of its competitors Brand mark: symbol or pictorial design that identifies a product eg.swoosh mark of
Nike, or Golden Arches of McDonalds.

Product Identification

Generic name: branded name that has become a generically descriptive term for a class of products

Trademark: legal protection which confers the exclusive right to user brand name, trade mark, and any slogan or product name abbreviation A trade name is the full and legal name of a firm, such as Maruti Udyog Ltd., and not the specific name of a product. Trade Dress: visual cues used in branding to create an overall look
The distinctive shape of Philips light bulbs provide an example of trade dress

Can anything be branded?

Physical goods --- Marlboro Services Banking tangibles- uniform , color Retailers-------------- leaflets, pavements, umbrella brand, association On-line product ---- soc networking websites, comparison charts, detail analysis , feasibility, easy ordering On-line service-- People---- srk, ab, priyanka chopra , Organization Sports, Arts, Entertainment Geographic location Ideas


Can everything be branded?

Ultimately a brand is something that resides in the minds of consumers. The key to branding is that consumers perceive differences among brands in a product category. Even commodities can be branded:
Coffee (Nescafe), bath soap (Lux), flour (Ashirwad), salt (Tata),pickles and even water (Bisleri)

Why do brand matter? To consumers

Identification of sources of product Assignment of responsibility to product maker. Risk reducer Search cost reducer Symbolic device Signal of quality Promise or bond with product or maker


Why do brand matter? To Manufacturer

Means of identification to simplifying handling and tracing. Means of legally protecting unique feature. Signal of quality Means of endowing products with unique associations. Sources of competitive advantage Sources of financial returns.


Branding Challenges & Opportunities Knowledgeable consumers. Brand Proliferation Increased competition Increased costs of introducing new product or supporting existing product. Greater accountability


Brand Elements
A variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherently enhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand associations: Brand Name Logo Symbol Character Packaging Slogan


Brand name
The brand name is central to all brand elements. It should be easily remembered, highly suggestive, interesting, compact. Has the least response time of all informational elements. Contain all the factors of a proper brand element

Naming Guidelines of a Brand Name

Ease of pronunciation and spelling
Short names are easier to recall
Chevrolet has become Chevy

Easy to pronounce

Familiarity helps to tap existing knowledge structure having a concrete or abstract meaning

Naming Guidelines of a Brand Name Contd.

Differentiated and Unique
Makes the brand unique, usually atypical words for product category
Apple Computers, Shell Oil

Use of made-up words or mashed-up words

Exxon, Xerox, Microsoft

Use of foreign or uncommon words


Brand Name Selection

Companies have four strategic options in choosing a brand name: Company Name Individual Names Separate Brand Family Names Combination of Company Name and Product Name Desirable Qualities of Brand Names


They have: A name A personality / human characteristics A reputation People can have feelings towards them

Types of Brand
There are several brand options that include manufacturer brand (also called national brand), private brand (also called distributor, reseller, store, or house brand), or a licensed brand.
Manufacturer brands are initiated by manufacturers and identify the

Private brands is that they are resellers initiated brands. Licensed brand is a relatively new trend and involves licensing of trademarks.

Brand equity: added value that a respected, well-known brand name gives to a product in the marketplace.
Brand equity increases the likelihood that consumers will recognize the firms product when they make purchase decisions A strong brand equity can contribute to buyers perceptions of product quality Branding can also reinforce customer loyalty and repeat purchases

Brand name awareness

Brand loyalty

Brand Equity

Perceived quality

Brand associations

Components of Brand Equity

Brand Awareness
The level of familiarity consumers have with a brand name. The ability to link a brand name with a particular product.

Can provide a competitive advantage: Product parity Low-involvement

Brand Loyalty
The tendency of customers to continue to use the same product over time Resistance to switching Based on:
Simple habit Preference Switching costs

Brand Associations
Brand name used to reinforce perceptions about the product
Metaphors and imagery used to enhance brand association with product
Addiction Perfume, CloseUp Toothpaste

Alphabets used to denote characteristics

X denotes extreme, youthful, risk-taking
ESPNs X-Games

Z denotes a sense of speed

Hero Hondas CBZ and Karizma

Brand Extension
A Brand Extension occurs when a firm uses an established brand name to introduce a new product Tommy hillfiger perfume , watch , home accessories.

An existing brand that gives birth to a brand extension is the parent brand If the parent brand is already associated with multiple products through brand extensions, then it may also be called a family brand.

Types of Brand Extension

Types of Brand Extension:

I. Extended to other items in the same product line. Sunrise coffee was extended to other offers. Brand names Sunrise premium, Sunrise extra coffee are catering to different segments. This is called line extension. In detergents HUL launched Surf Ultra, Surf Excel, Surf Excel matic and International Surf excel as line extension of Surf Excel.

Product extension

It is the different/new version of same parent product They serve a different segment of the target market and increase the variety of offering product. Examples: (i) coke extend itself to diet coke in the same product category of soft drinks:

Amul butter extend itself to amul reduced salt butter, amul cheese and cheese slices in its core area of milk product derivatives.

II. Extended to items in a related product line Maggi initially was a brand of noodles. Later the brand name was extended to other product lines in the related category food Maggi ketchup, Maggi soup etc., It is a case of related brand extension. Dettol Soap antiseptic soap Dettol Plaster - antiseptic bandage Dettol Handwash antiseptic wash

Brand extension
It could be across different product categories Examples: Harley davidson motorcycle extend itself into harley davidson accessories.

Land rover extend itself from tough off road vehicle too a line of stylish yet functional outdoor clothing, shoes etc.


The parent brand is used to enter a different product category from that currently served by the parent brand.

ITCs Category Extension


The product line is now far more representative of customers varying quantity needs. It suggests the presence of usage segmentation. Customers differs in terms of their usage quantities. The brand has to fill the whole spectrum with products as per the needs of various segments.


Bisleri is the pioneering brand in the mineral water category. Originally, Bisleri used to come in a one liter bottle. But recently, Bisleri has exhibited a spate of innovations. The brand launched bottles of different sizes and quantities. The Bisleri portfolio now includes one liter, 1.2 liter, 1.5 liter and 5 liter bottles.

Line Extension strategies

Product Sizes

Bisleri 1.1 ltr

Bisleri .5 ltr

Bisleri 1.2 ltr

Bisleri 1.5 ltr

Bisleri 5 ltr


Pantene White

Pantene Black

Pantene Pink



Rasna Orange

Rasna Mango

Rasa Rose , etc


Colgate gel

Colgate Herbal

Colgate Salt etc.,


Vim Bar Vim Liquid Vim Powder

Brand rejuvenation
Brand rejuvenation involves adding value to an existing brand by improving product attributes and enhancing its overall appeal. It is intended to re-focus the attention of consumers on an existing brand. Brand rejuvenation helps overcome the consumers boredom in seeing the same product on the shelves year after year

Objectives of Brand Rejuvenation

1. Rejuvenation aims at revival of brand. The intention is to breathe some new life into a brand that may be showing signs of decline. 2. Even healthy, successful brands may need occasional rejuvenation. Because of competition, some re-formulation and refinement become necessary from time to time. The brand has to be updated. It ensures the steady success of the going brand. 3. It helps keep the brand live and in focus.

New Burnol: Burnol became New and appeared in a new pack. New Horlicks : Horlicks to the New Horlicks claimed more nourishment through additional protein and calcium, eight essential vitamins and iron. New Nescafe: Nestle rejuvenated Nescafe and brought in the New Nescafe. New Nescafe was made using the new agglomeration coffee process, instead of the fine powder form and the coffee now came in small round goblets. New Bournvita: To give a push Bournvita, Cadburys came out with New Bournvita, with extra glucose in a new packing.

Relaunch Vs Rejuvenation
Relaunch: This could be through packaging changes, product upgrades, a new positioning, or any combination of several changes in the fundamentals of the brand. Brand Rejuvenation: When marketers identifies that the decline stage for a brand has come and the concern brand is going to die marketer injects new life in brand by adding new product features, packaging or by changing STP strategies. this activity in whole is called Brand Rejuvenation. example: To Brand Rejuvenation Herohonda Splendor company launched HeroHonda Splendor NXG

Brand Cannibalism: When two brand in the same product line, offered by same player target same market segment and compete with each other by eating away the market share without adding any value to the marketer. Example: Hero Honda Glamour and Herohonda Splendor
Brand proliferation: when one company introduce new brands in the same product lines and hence try to cover each and every market segment for that product line. example: HUL has different brands in shampoo product line offering a wide range of choice for customer of every segment.

Co-branding, also called brand partnership, is when two companies form an alliance to work together, creating marketing synergy. As described in Co-Branding: ingredient co-branding same-company co-branding Joint venture co-branding multiple sponsor co-branding

Another P?
Packaging, sometimes called the another P, is all the activities of designing and producing the container for a product.

Packaging is the activity of designing and producing containers or wrappers for a product It should be both aesthetic as well as functional
Aesthetic: It conveys the size, shape, colour and material of the package Functional: It conveys structural designs of the package, thus it becomes more convenient to use

Packaging & Labelling

Packaging includes all activities that focus on the development of a container and a graphic design for a product. A package may have three levels; 1. the primary package is the container of the product such as a bottle, jar, or tube, 2. the secondary package is the box of cardboard or some other material containing the primary package; and 3. the last is shipping package that contains more units of secondary package.