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Generally there are four method of washing which as given as follows: (a) By friction (b) By light pressure (c) By application of suction (d) By washing machines (a) By friction: Cotton cloth, curtain, line etc. are washed by rubbing with hands or brush, or on scrubbing board. Small clothes are rubbed with hands whereas excessively dirty clothes are cleaned by rubbing with] brush or on a scrubbing board. (b) By light pressure: Silken and woolen clothes should be washed by light press Clothes with delicate laces are washed with light hands after applying soap. In this way, clothes are cleaned without being damaged.

(c) By application of suction: This is done by suction washer. It is available in two sizes-small and big. It is made up of a non- rusting metal. In this method, the clothes are dipped into a tub containing soap solution and the suction. The suction machine is moved on it and the dirt is removed Towel is washed by this method. (d) By washing machine: These machines are commonly used these days. These are of three types1. Manual washing machine, 2. Semi-automatic machine, and 3. fully automatic machines

Manual washing machine: Soapy water and clothes are put in the machine. On switching on the machine, the clothes get agitated. Dust particles are separated and clothes get cleaned. Clothes are taken out of the machine, rinsed, squeezed and dried. Semi-automatic machine: In this type of machine, there are two tubs. Soapy water and clothes are put in the first tub. When the machine is switched on, the clothes get agitated at a speed. The dust particles are separated. Now the clothes are transferred to the second tub, where they are rinsed, squeezed, and dried automatically

Automatic machine: In this type of machine there is only one tub along with clock and alarm. There is a provision for auto- rinsing, squeezing and drying. On completion of the cycle, the machine stops automatically. This saves both time and labour. For washing of clothes we need various equipments and similarly so many chemicals and aids are needed to remove dirt and clean the clothes properly. There are many steps in washing the clothes like soaking, washing, starching, applying blue, etc.

Washing of cotton garments

1. i. ii. iii. 2. Preparation for washing Mending and stain removal- Mend the worn out parts and ripped seams. Stains should also be removed. Sorting- Cotton garments should be separated according to the sturdiness from other garments. Steeping- It means soaking the garments in detergent solution. Washing-Method of washing depends upon the type of garment, its texture, colour and the type of dirt present. Rinsing- Clothes should be rinsed several times in fresh water to remove the traces of dirt and detergent.





Bleaching- White cotton garments are bleached to remove any stains that have not been removed during washing. Sunlight is an effective bleach for cottons other wise sodium hypo chloride solution can also be used. Stiffening and blueing- Starch solution is made up to the required strength and blue is squeezed carefully. Drying- Sun drying not only dries the garments quickly but also disinfects and bleaches them. Ironing- Finishing of cotton clothes is done based on the type of fabric (woven fabric, knitted garment or starched garment)

8. Folding and Storing- Garments should be completely dried before folding. Washing of special cotton fabrics

Organdie, velveteen and flannelette are other fabrics which differ from ordinary cotton fabrics in yarn type, weave and finish applied. So they require different type of care during laundering.

Laundering of woollen garments

Woollens need particular attention during laundering due to its peculiar properties of elasticity, resiliency and tendency to felt. Properties of wool should be considered before laundering. Preparation for washingi. ii. iii. Shaking and brushing- Shake the garment thoroughly and brush it to remove loose dirt. Mending and stain removal- Woollen knitwear are more prone to holes which should be mended. Weak acids should be used for stain removal. Outlining the garment on paper- Woollen knitwear are liable to felt or stretch out of shape during winter .So, it is better to mark the outline of to garment before wetting it.


Steeping- Steeping is not essential for woollens. But for dirty clothes 10-15 minutes of steeping is sufficient. WashingPreparation of wash solution- A neutral or reethanut powder should be dissolved in luke warm water to prepare the wash solution. Washing- Woollen garments should be washed by kneading and squeezing method. Very heavy garments can be washed by suction washing.

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Rinsing- After washing clothes are squeezed out several times in luke warm water. To neutralize any alkali left in the garment use vinegar in the last rinse for coloured woollens and citric acid for white woollens.


Removing excess water- Garments should be squeezed well by hands and then wrapped in a towel and pressed to remove excess moisture.

5. Drying- The garment should be placed on the outline drawn on the paper and pulled to the original shape. It should be dried in shade on a flat surface. 6. Finishing- Woollens are finished by ironing. These should be ironed when fully dry, placing damp cloth over the surface of the garment.

Laundering of Silk garments

1. i. ii. iii. Silk is a delicate fabric and needs careful washing to maintain its elegance and sheen. Avoid heat, friction and strong alkali on silk. Keeping in view the properties of silk, the process of washing silk is as followsPre-preparation for washingMending and stain removal- Ripped seams and other types of repair should be done before washing. Acidic reagents in diluted form are more safe on silk. Sorting- White, colour-fast and non-colour fast cloths should be separated. Steeping- Steeping is not very essential for silk as they leave the dirt easily. Very dirty cloths can be steeped in warm water with little borax.

2. Washing Preparation of wash solution- Silk should be washed in luke warm water. Wash solution should be prepared by dissolving neutral detergents such as soap flakes or reethanut solution. Washing-Kneading and squeezing method should be followed with sufficient wash solution. Suction washing should be used to wash heavy garments.

3. Rinsing- Rinsing should be done two to three times in warm water to remove dirt and detergent from the garments. Final rinse should be done in cold water with little vinegar or lime juice added to it. 4. Stiffing the silk- Some soft silk require stiffness for which little gum water is added in the final rinse. 5. Drying- Silk should be dried evenly in shade on the wrong side. 6. Finishing- Ironing is done on silk gently with moderately hot iron when it is evenly damp as uneven dampness will result in water marks.