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WEEK 8

ENGLISH SYLLABLE

1. ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE


2. STRONG & WEAK SYLLABLE

ITEMS TO BE EXPLORED

DEFINITION OF SYLLABLE
A CENTRE WHICH HAS LITTLE/NO OBSTRUCTION TO AIRFLOW AND WHICH SOUNDS COMPARATIVELY LOUD; BEFORE AND AFTER THE CENTRE (AT THE BEGINNING AND END OF THE SYLLABLE) (Roach, 2000)

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

DEFINITION OF SYLLABLE
Syllable: is a unit of pronunciation typically
larger than a single sound and smaller than

a word.

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE


Technically, a syllable: must have a centre (called peak or nucleus) which is a vowel could have an onset (which is the initial part of the syllable) that consists of either one or more consonants. could have a coda (which is the final part of the syllable) that consists of either one or more consonants. the nucleus and the coda form the rhyme/ rime.

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE Other important terms; 1. Zero onset: If the syllable begins with a vowel, it has a

zero onset as in ease /i:z/.


2. Initial Consonant cluster: If a syllable begins with two or three consonants, such a sequence of consonants is called a consonant cluster. Examples: play, stay, street, split, etc.

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

3. Final consonant clusters; When a syllable have two or more consonants together at the final position of the syllable such as belt , bump and bank. 4. Zero Coda: When there is no final consonant in a

syllable as in bee

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE Initial Consonant Cluster (refer pg. 72)

1. Pre-initial consonants s smog 2. Initial consonants t, w, m store ,swim, smog 3. Post initial l, r, w, j splash, spray, squeak,, stew

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE


Final Consonant Cluster (refer pg. 73)

1. Final all consonants except h, r, w, j texts /k/ 2. Pre-final m, n, ,l, s - bump, bent, bank belt, ask 3. Post final - s, z, t, d, bets, beds, backed, bagged ,eighth

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE


In summary, the syllable can have the maximum phonological structure;
Pre Initial Initial Postinitial VOWEL Prefinal Final PostFinal 1 Coda PostFinal 2 Post Final 3

Onset

ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE

English words include strong and weak syllables. Strong syllables are stressed and weak syllables are unstressed.

STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLE

Lets consider the word father /f:/; happy/hepi/.


Strong syllables can be distinguished from weak syllables in terms of three aspects: 1. Phonetic characteristics 2. Stress 3. The peak of the syllable

STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLE

1. Phonetic characteristics
The vowel in a weak syllable is short.

E.g. in the word father / f:/: the second syllable,


which is weak, includes the vowel / / which is

shorter and less loud than /:/ in the first (and


strong) syllable

STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLE

2. Stress Strong syllables are stressed and weak syllables are unstressed. E.g. in the word father / f: /: the first syllable /f:/ is stressed while the second syllable is unstressed //

STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLE

3. The peak of the syllable The peak of the syllable determines if the syllable is weak or strong. Weak syllables include: i. // without or with a coda as in father / f: / & sharpen /rpn/ ii. /i/ and /u/ with no coda as in happy /hpi:/ & carry /kri/ iii. syllabic consonants like /l, n/ as in bottle /btl/ & button / btn/ * Syllabic consonant is a consonant which either forms a syllable on its own, or is the nucleus of a syllable

STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLE

1. 2.

Happen Panel

5. 6.

Potato Collector

3.
4.

Molar
Carrot

7.
8.

Indicator
Sample

Underline the weak syllables in the following words:

Conduct activities to practice on;

1. Identification of the strong and weak syllables


in words 2. Reproduce transcribed excerpts of connnected speech into orthography to indicate the strong and weak forms.

TUTORIAL TASK

Strong and weak forms in Connected Speech.

1. Tell him to go
= Strong forms /tel hm tu: g / = Weak form: /tel m t g/

2. I would like some fish and chips = Strong forms /a wd lak sm f nd tps/ This version sounds unnatural and, believe it or not, more difficult to understand for a native speaker. = Weak forms / wd lak sm f n tps/ and we can use weaker forms sometimes: /d lak sm f n tps/ so we can see that the auxiliary verb "would" has two weak forms /wd/ and /d/