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Career Development Theory

Career development theories help make

sense of experiences. A theory is, in effect, a rationalized set of assumptions or hypotheses that allows you to explain the past and predict the future. As such, theories may provide "direction"; and as theories are tested and prove "true", they may be said to expand knowledge.

Two types of theories

Structural Theories:
Developmental Theories:

Focus on

Focus on human

individual characteristics and occupational tasks.

development across life span.

Super's Theory
Donald Super (1957) and other theorists of

career development recognize the changes that people go through as they mature. Career patterns are determined by socioeconomic factors, mental and physical abilities, personal characteristics and opportunities to which persons are exposed.

Supers Vocational Development theory

People changed with time and experience,

and progress through the following vocational stages




Characteristics/Developmental Tasks tentative and vocational goal

.Crystallization Specification

14-18 18-21

Developing and planning a

Firming the vocational goal Training for and obtaining

Implementation 21-24 Stabilization 24-35


Working and confirming career




Advancement in career

stages and developmental tasks over the life span:

STAGE Growth

AGE Birth to 14 or 15

CHARACTERISTICS Form self-concept, develop capacity, attitudes, interest, and needs and form and general understanding of the world of work "Try out" through classes, work experience, hobbies. Collect relevant information. Tentative choice and related skill development. Entry skill building and stabilization through work experience. Continual adjustment process to improve position.



Establishment Maintenance

25-44 45-64



Reduced output, prepare for retirement

Although Super originally presented the

stages and tasks in a sequential manner, he later added that we cycle and recycle throughout our life span as we adapt to changes in ourselves as well as to the trends in the work place. Understanding these ages and related stages of career development helps the facilitator select appropriate responses and activities.

Super and Thompsons Six Factors in Vocational Maturity

Awareness of the need to plan ahead

Decision-making skills Knowledge and use of information resources General career information General world of work information Detailed information about occupation preference Super also looked at the different roles we play during our lifetimes and the relative importance we give to those roles at different times in our lives.

Ann Roes Theory of Occupational Choice (1956)

Ann Roe, a clinical psychologist, suggested that early childhood experiences are strongly related to occupational choices. Her theory is based on Maslows hierarchy of needs. Needs that are not fully satisfied can be important motivators in our occupational choices.

A person aware of a need for security,

is likely to search for work providing a safe environment. Roe theorized that a person is disposed to a certain occupations based upon the way he raised.


Emotional Concentration on the child ranges from overprotection to over demanding, both putting conditions on a parents love and approval. While physical needs are met psychological needs may be withheld.

a. Over protection- the over protected child learns that conformity brings reward, thereby developing a dependence on others for approval and selfesteem.

b. Over demanding- the over demanding parents set

a high expectations for the child and ties approval on the expectations being met or not. Children with this tend to be perfectionist. 2. Avoidance, according to Roe, ranges from neglect to rejection. Within limits both physical and psychological needs of the child are ignored. 3. Acceptance of the Child - whereby physical and psychological needs are met. Independence and self- reliance are encouraged in either an unconcerned, noninvolved way or an active, supportive one.

Hollands Personality Theory

According to John Hollands Theory, most

people are one of six personality types 1. Realistic- likes to work with animals, tools, or machines. Generally avoids social activities like teaching, healing and informing others. Has good skills in working with tools, mechanical or electrical drawings, machines

Likes to study and solve math or science

problems; generally avoids leading, selling, or persuading people; Is good at understanding and solving science and math problems; Values science; and Sees self as precise, scientific, and intellectual.

Likes to do creative activities like art, drama,


crafts, dance, music, or creative writing; generally avoids highly ordered or repetitive activities; Has good artistic abilities -- in creative writing, drama, crafts, music, or art; Values the creative arts -- like drama, music, art, or the works of creative writers; and Sees self as expressive, original, and independent.

Likes to do things to help people -- like,

teaching, nursing, or giving first aid, providing information; generally avoids using machines, tools, or animals to achieve a goal; Is good at teaching, counselling, nursing, or giving information; Values helping people and solving social problems; and Sees self as helpful, friendly, and trustworthy.

Likes to lead and persuade people, and to sell

things and ideas; generally avoids activities that require careful observation and scientific, analytical thinking; Is good at leading people and selling things or ideas; Values success in politics, leadership, or business; and Sees self as energetic, ambitious, and sociable.

Likes to work with numbers, records, or

machines in a set, orderly way; generally avoids ambiguous, unstructured activities Is good at working with written records and numbers in a systematic, orderly way; Values success in business; and Sees self as orderly, and good at following a set plan

Holland created a Hexagon view to show the

relationship of personality types . Personality types closer to each other are more alike. Personality types further away are least alike

Hollands Hexagon

Teachers Say: 10 Tips for brand New Teachers;

What Advice Will You Give to a Brand New Teacher

1. Come to school ready with your lesson plan and instructional materials,
2. Organize your classrooms well

3. know your pupils

4. Be friendly yet firm 5. Be punctual

6. Seek the advice of seasoned and experience teachers

7. Know your subject matter


Keep communication lines with parents open 9. Establish classroom rules and routines, 10. Be simple and pleasing

Brand new Teacher should visualize the real

scenario of being a teacher in the public school. They must be willing to sacrifice and devote extra rime and effort for the pupils in order to achieve the goal of the department. Be brave in facing the new challenges of our educational system. Try to use your time, talent, and treasure to inspire and educate the Filipino youth. Dont be afraid to reinvent the system in order to make a difference

Different theories are considered important

spice of life to achieve a more successful and meaningful chosen career, but for me to be successful in ones chosen career we should not forget to ask Our God for guidance. There is no greater thing to do than to get along with Him, sit beside Him in silence and be your best guide when it comes to career choosing.