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CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER

LUIS MENENDEZ GARCIA


Elblag, 4 of February of 2011

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. General definition Categories of Surface Water Bodies Surface Water Quality Classifications Parameters used in surface water monitoring 4.1. Related effects 4.2. Categories of Parameters 4.3. Physical Parameters 4.4. Chemical Parameters 4.5. Biological Parameters

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


1. General definition
Environmental water quality, also called ambient water quality, relates to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and oceans. Water quality standards vary significantly due to different environmental conditions, ecosystems, and intended human uses. Toxic substances and high populations of certain microorganisms can present a health hazard for non-drinking purposes such as irrigation, swimming, fishing, rafting, boating, and industrial uses. These conditions may also affect wildlife which use the water for drinking or as a habitat. Modern water quality laws general specify protection of fisheries and recreational use and require as a minimum,retention of current quality standards.

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


2. Categories of Surface Water Bodies
Natural surface water bodies
Rivers (> 10 km catchment area) Lakes (> 0,5 km surface area) Transitional waters (partly saline) Coastal waters (distance: 1 nautical mile)

Heavily modified surface water bodies (substantially changed in


character as a result of physical alterations by human activity)

Artificial surface water bodies

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


3. Surface Water Quality Classifications
The Clean Water Act requires that the surface waters of each state be classified according to designated uses. Florida has five classes with associated designated uses, which are arranged in order of degree of protection required:
Class I - Potable Water Supplies Fourteen general areas throughout the state including: impoundments and associated tributaries, certain lakes, rivers, or portions of rivers, used as a drinking water supply. Class II - Shellfish Propagation or Harvesting Generally coastal waters where shellfish harvesting occurs. Class III - Recreation, Propagation and Maintenance of a Healthy, Well-Balanced Population of Fish and Wildlife The surface waters of the state are Class III unless described in rule 62-302.400 F.A.C. Class IV - Agricultural Water Supplies Generally located in agriculture areas around Lake Okeechobee. Class V - Navigation, Utility and Industrial Use. Currently, there are not any designated Class V bodies of water. The Fenholloway River was reclassified as Class III in 1998

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4. Parameters used in surface water monitoring 4.1. Related Effects
Selection or Parameters effects: Sampling frequency Sample type: Storm vs. Grab Equipment Sample preservation Cost

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.2. Categories of Parameters
Physical/Aggregate Organics DO, pH, temperature, odor, smell, colour, turbidity, conductivity, TSS, BOD, etc. Chemical TKN, NO3, TP, metals, pesticides, PAHs, etc. Biological FC, FS, macroinvertebrates, fish, etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.3. Physical Parameters
When to use? Aquatic animals: DO, turbidity, temperature, TSS, etc. Recreation: turbidity, color, etc. Storage Capacity: TSS BMP effectiveness: turbidity, DO, Q, etc. Base on pollutant source & treatment Covariate: pH, turbidity, Q, etc. Assessment of current conditions

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.3. Physical Parameters
How to measure?
In situ & instant: most (pH, temperature, etc.) Method
DO, pH, temperature, conditions: probes, meters BOD, COD, TSS: lab test Discharge: record stage and compute rating

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.3. Physical Parameters
Advantages
In situ: taken instream at a point in time Timeliness: quick results ( except TSS, BOD) Cost: generally inexpensive Regulatory standards: DO Easy to perform: temperature, conditions, color, etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.3. Physical Parameters
Disadvantages
In situ: taken instream at a point in time Instantaneous: only a snapshot Stability: some change quickly ( temperature, DO) Limited usefulness Q: only a covariate pH, condition: need other parameters Temperature, DO; sometimes valuable

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.3. Physical Parameters
Examples of Use
Stream (trout): temperature, DO, turbidity Lake/stream (bass): DO, turbidity Lake/stream (recreation): turbidity, color BMP effectiveness Erosion: turbidity, TSS, Q, etc. Animal waste: BOD, Q, etc. Riparian buffer: temperature

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.4. Chemical Parameters
When to use?
Aquatic animals Lethal: NH3, pesticides, etc. Eutrophic lake: OP, TP, NO3, NH3 Recreation: N&P (algae) Eutrophic lake: OP, TP, NO3, NH3 BMP effectiveness: N&P series, pesticides, etc. Assessment of current conditions

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.4. Chemical Parameters
How to measure?
In situ: some (NO3, NH3, etc.) Immunoassay: pesticides Collect sample and analyze: Standard methods: APHA, AWWA, WEF

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.4. Chemical Parameters
Advantages
In situ: quick Recognized: make comparisons Use volume of water: better average Measure the problem: pollutant of concern Standards/recommended levels: many

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.4. Chemical Parameters
Disadvantages
Timeliness: wait for results Cost: sometimes expensive (pesticides) Use volume of water: must collect enough Degradation: must preserve (NH3, pesticides) Hazardous: many

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.4. Chemical Parameters
Examples of Use
Eutrophic lake: OP, TP, NO3, NH3, etc. Animal waste BMP: TKN, TP, NH3, etc. Urban BMP: NH3 (pets), metals, organics, etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.5. Biological Parameters
When to use?
Aquatic animals Freshwater: fish & food for fish (macros) Toxicity: indicator animal (daphnia) Saltwater: consumption (shellfish) Recreation: N&P (algae) Eutrophic lake: plants, algae Human health: bacteria (FC), enterococci, pathogens, etc. BMP effectiveness: FC

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.5. Biological Parameters
Advantages
Measures standards: contact, consumption Uses a volume of sample: average Integrates over time Measures an endpoint: fish, etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.5. Biological Parameters
Disadvantages
Timeliness: wait for results (macros) Cost: sometimes expensive In situ measurement: macros, fish, etc. Variability: unknown factors Few measurements: trend analysis difficult

CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER


4.5. Biological Parameters
Examples of Use
Shellfish closures: FC, etc. Beach closure: FC, enterococci, etc. Animal waste BMP: FC Stream/habitat restoration: fish, macros. Sedimentation: macros, fish (trout)

Thanks for your attention


Work done by

LUIS MENENDEZ GARCA

Email: texupomuxo@hotmail.com