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EXPLAINING SECOND LANGUAGE

LEARNING
Krashens monitor model

SECOND LANGUAGE APPLICATION: KRASHENS MONITOR MODEL

Krashens model was influenced by Chomskys theory of first language acquisition.

Krashen (1970s) created this model for second language acquisition and called it Monitor Model.

KRASHEN DESCRIBED HIS MODEL IN TERMS OF FIVE HYPOTHESES.

Acquisition-learning hypothesis.

Krashen claimed that adult second language learners have


two mean for internalizing the target language, which are acquisition and learning.

Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process of constructing the system of the language. He

suggested that we acquire the language just like we


pick up our first language.

On the other hand, learning is a process in which

learners attend to form, figure out the rules, and aware


of their own process.

According to Krashen, fluency in second language


performance is due to what we have acquired, not what we have learned.

As a result, Krashen suggested that second language

learners should do more acquisition as much as


possible in order to achieve the communicative fluency. Otherwise they will be stock with rules learning and too

much conscious attention to the form of the language.

Krashen claimed that our conscious learning process


and our subconscious acquisition process are mutually exclusive. ???

Krashen stated that learning can not be acquisition and

there is no interference between acquisition and


learning.

The Monitor Hypothesis.


It is a device to monitor or edit the learners output. It is supposed to be responsible for editing, making

correction consciously.

This is why it is found in the learning process not the acquisition.

According to Krashen, such explicit and intentional


learning should be avoided because it may hinder the acquisition process.

Only once fluency established, monitoring and editing should be activated.

The Natural Order Hypothesis.


Krashen claimed that we acquire the language rules in a predictable or natural order.

he noticed that language features that are the easiest to state are not always the first be acquired.

e.g. Adding -s to the third person singular verbs is easy to state but many of second language learners fail to apply it in spontaneous conversation.

The Input Hypothesis.


According to Krashen, comprehensible input is the only true cause of second language acquisition.

An important condition for language acquisition to occur

is that the learners understand input language that


contain structure a bit beyond his current level of competence.

based on this hypothesis, Krashen suggested that that speech should not be taught directly in classrooms. Speech will emerge once the learner has built up enough comprehensible input.

Affective Filter Hypothesis.

Affective filter is a metaphorical barrier that prevents learners


from acquiring language even when the appropriate input is available.

Affect refers to the feelings, motives, needs, attitudes and emotional states.

Krashen claimed that the best acquisition will occur in environment where anxiety is low and defensiveness absent. A learner who is tense anxious may filter out the input, making it unavailable for acquisition.

EVALUATING THE FIVE HYPOTHESES

Some of Krashens hypotheses appeal to many teacher.

However, both linguists and psychologists


challenged Krashens model.

TAKE A MINUTE AND DISCUSS WITH YOUR


GROUP THE POTENTIAL DOWNSIDE FOR THE FIRST HYPOTHESIS.

Many researcher such as McLaughlin ((1978) criticized Krashens fuzzy definition of conscious and subconscious. He stated that it is difficult to define both notions empirically.

TAKE A MINUTE AND DISCUSS WITH YOUR GROUP


THE POTENTIAL DOWNSIDE FOR THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTION. SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS SHOULD DO MORE ACQUISITION AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THE COMMUNICATIVE FLUENCY.

Many researchers emphasized the importance of conscious explicit rule instruction. They suggested that this will help improve successful communicative competence in a second language.

TAKE A MINUTE AND DISCUSS WITH YOUR GROUP


THE POTENTIAL DOWNSIDE FOR THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTION. CONSCIOUS LEARNING PROCESS AND SUBCONSCIOUS ACQUISITION PROCESS ARE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE

Human behavior can not be exclusive, it can be defined as the endpoint of a continuum (i.e. dichotomy).

TAKE A MINUTE AND DISCUSS WITH YOUR GROUP


THE POTENTIAL DOWNSIDE FOR THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTION.

COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT IS THE ONLY TRUE CAUSE OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

1) It ignores the active role of the learners in the learning process. 2) Not every aspect of the language the learners are exposed to can be beneficial. Hence, a distinction between input and intake is needed. - Intake is all the input that actually gets assigned to long-term memory.

For example, Reading a book <<< input What you remember from the book after a while <<< intake

3) learners learn at different rates. Some can learn faster


than others. 4) Other researchers such as Swain (2005) claimed that the output is as important as the input. How?

- When learners speak, they will notice their errors.


- It is a way to try out the language. - Learners are given the opportunity to reflect on the language itself in interaction with others.

THE EFFECT OF KRASHENS HYPOTHESES ON SL CLASSROOMS

Communicative Language Teaching.

(emphasis is on communicating in authentic situations)

Content-based approach.

(using L2 in teaching content courses leads to better acquisition)