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Bharti Pant


selectively transmit light having certain properties (often, a particular range of wavelengths, that is, range of colours of light), while blocking the remainder. commonly used in photography, in many optical instruments, and to colour stage lighting In astronomy optical filters can be used to eliminate light from the Sun or from a star much brighter than the target object.


Absorptive Dichroic filter Monochromatic Infrared Ultraviolet Neutral density Longpass Guided-mode resonance filters Shortpass Bandpass Metal Mesh Filters Polarizer

made from glass various inorganic or organic compounds have been added These compounds absorb some wavelengths of light while transmitting others compounds can also be added to plastic (often polycarbonate or acrylic) to produce gel filters, which are lighter and cheaper than glass-based filters


made by coating a glass substrate with a series of optical coatings reflect the unwanted portion of the light and transmit the remainder use the principle of interference Their layers form a sequential series of reflective cavities that resonate with the desired wave lengths their exact colour range can be controlled by the thickness and sequence of the coatings expensive and delicate than absorption filters. used in devices such as the dichroic prism of a camera to separate a beam of light into different coloured components eg.. FabryProt interferometer uses two mirrors to establish a resonating cavity It passes wavelengths that are a multiple of the cavity's resonance frequency

only allow a narrow range of wavelengths (single colour) to pass A device that can produce monochromatic light has many uses in science and in optics use optical dispersion in a prism, and diffraction using a diffraction grating to spatially separate the colors of light the grating or the prism is used in a reflective mode A reflective prism is made by making a right triangle prism with one side mirrored light enters through the hypotenuse face and is reflected back through it, being refracted twice at the same surface total refraction, and the total dispersion, is the same as would occur if an equilateral prism were used in transmission mode dispersion or diffraction is only controllable if the light is collimated, if all the rays of light are parallel


used in applications where tunable monochromatic light is wanted Two monochromators are used in many fluorometers one monochromator is used to select the excitation wavelength and a second monochromator is used to analyze the emitted light An automatic scanning spectrometer includes a mechanism to change the wavelength selected by the monochromator and to record the resulting changes in the measured quantity as a function of the wavelength

Infrared (IR) or heat-absorbing filters block or reflect mid-infrared wavelengths but pass visible light They are often used in devices with bright incandescent light bulbs(such as slide and overhead projectors) to prevent unwanted heating

Ultraviolet (UV) filters block ultraviolet radiation, but let visible light through Because photographic film and digital sensors are sensitive to ultraviolet (which is abundant in skylight) but the human eye is not By attaching a filter to remove ultraviolet, photographers can produce pictures that more closely resemble the scene as seen by a human eye

Neutral density (ND) filters have a constant attenuation across the range of visible wavelengths used to reduce the intensity of light by reflecting or absorbing a portion of it useful for making photographic exposures longer Filter provide greater flexibility by changing the aperture, exposure time or motion in different atmospheric conditions practical example is making a waterfall look blurry when it is photographed in bright light,adding an ND filter permits this ND filters can be reflective (in which case they look like partially-reflective mirrors) or absorptive (appearing grey or black).

For a ND filter with optical density( d) the amount of optical power transmitted through the filter, which can be calculated from the logarithm of the ratio of the measurable intensity (I) after the filter to the incident intensity (I0) Fractional Transmittance d= -log (I/I0) Comparison of two pictures showing the result of using a ND-filter at a landscape. The first one uses only a polarizer and the second one a pol and a 1000x ND-Filter (ND3.0).

Blurring water motion (e.g. waterfalls, rivers, oceans). Reducing depth of field in very bright light (e.g. daylight) Using a wider aperture to stay below the diffraction limit Reduce the visibility of moving objects Add motion blur to subjects

Other filters are also used such as longpass, shortpass, or bandpass, polarizers