Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

TRANSFORMER PHASORS

Click to edit Master subtitle style

8/28/12

Ideal Transformer Phasor: to develop the phasor of a Here we are going

practical transformer first at no load and then under load. But before that we will have a look on the phasor of an ideal transformer.

(a) Ideal transformer at no load

8/28/12

(b) Ideal

Transformer at No Loadthe no load , the magnetic flux Now for


being common to both primary and secondary is drawn first. The induced Emf E1 and E2 lags by 90 and are shown accordingly in the fig.

The

emf -E1 is being replaced by V1 just for convenience. Alternatively V1 may be treated as a voltage drop in the primary, in the direction of flow of primary current. The various imperfections in a real transformer are now considered one by one. various
8/28/12

The

imperfections

are

now

a)

Effect of Transformer core loss:- The core loss consist of Hysteresis loss and eddy current loss. The hysteresis loss in the core is minimized by using Cold-rolledgrain oriented (CRGO) steel and eddy current loss is minimized by using thin laminations for the core.

The above two figs shows the variation the exciting current Ie with respect to flux. It also 8/28/12 that that the current Ie shows leads the flux by an angle of . This

The

No Load primary current Ie is called the exciting current of the transformer and can be resolved into two components. component Im along is called the reactive or magnetizing current, since its function is to produce the required magnetic flux . second component is along V1 which is Ic and this component is called as the core-loss component or the power component of Ie; since Ic when multiplied by V1 gives total core loss Pc.
8/28/12

The

The

8/28/12

b) Effect of Transformer resistance:- The effect of transformer resistance R1 can be accounted for, by adding to V1, a voltage drop equal to IeR1. Note that IeR1 is in phase with Ie and is drawn parallel to Ie in the phasor diagram

8/28/12

c) Effect of Leakage flux:- For the direction of current Ie in the primary the point A is at higher magnetic potential than point B.

This magnetic establishes:

potential

difference

I. II.

The mutual flux linking both the windings. The primary leakage flux L1, which links only the primary winding.

8/28/12

The

mutual flux exist entirely in the ferromagnetic core and therefore involves hysteresis loop. the other hand, primary leakage flux L1 exist largely in the air . Although L1 does passes through some part of iron core, the reluctance offered to L1 is mainly due to air. Therefore it can be taken is phase with the exciting current Ie that produce it. the primary winding, induces an EMF E1 lagging it by 90, similarly L1 induces an emf Ex18/28/12 in the primary winding and

On

In

Since

Ie leads Ex by 90, it is possible to write Ex1=-JIeX1. total voltage equation

The

in the primary at no load can be written asV1=V1+Ie(R1+jx1)

8/28/12

Transformer Phasor Under Load


In

this the secondary circuit of the transformer is considered first and then primary for developing the phasor diagram under Load.

When

switch8/28/12 closed, secondary S is

Assuming

the load to have a lagging power factor so that I2 lags secondary load voltage V2 by an angle 2. secondary resistance drop

The

Is accounted by drawing I2R2 Parallel to I2.


The

secondary mmf I2N2 give which

Rise to leakage flux Primary.


The

Link only secondary & not secondary no load

Voltage E2 must have a 8/28/12

Thus

the phasor sum of V2, I2R2 and JI2X2 gives secondary induced emf E2 as shown in fig. voltage equation for the secondary circuit can now be written as:-----(a) E2= V2 + I2(R2+jX2)= V2 + I2Z2

The

Where

Z2 is the secondary leakage impedance of the transformer. we can also draw the transformer phasor for the leading load as well.
8/28/12

Similarly