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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

AUTHORS: Amit Dovtya IIMET (Jaipur)

Origin
Human wanted to see themselves. They started constructing their statues. The desire to make model intelligent originated. Babbages analytical engine . Thermo ionic valves ,transistors ,ICs and VLSI engines gave way to first to fourth generations computes. Fifth generation intelligence.

Introduction
No formal definition to date. Compared with human intelligence. Intelligence Immeasurable. Intelligence helps to identify right knowledge at right time. The system capable of doing this is called rational.

Problem solving approaches AI


State is solution at a given step . State space approach. To solve :one state next state Example: four puzzle problem 3 blocks digits 1 block blank AIM : To reach from given state to goal state.

States of the number puzzle game

Solutions

Thus AI problem no straightforward mathematical or logical algorithm available . Solved by intuitive approach. Some of these well known algorithm to solve AI are I. Generate and test II. Hill climbing III. Heuristic search IV. Means and ends analysis

Subject of AI
Started with game playing and theorem proving Topics significant to under currently : I. Learning system II. Knowledge representation and reasoning III. Planning IV. Knowledge acquisition V. Fuzzy logic VI. ANN

LEARNING SYSTEM
Learning of pronunciation by a child from his mother.
Child tries to imitate Inductive learning is about generalizations .e.g. all birds fly

Analogy based learning e.g. the motion of electron from planetary motion.

Knowledge representation and reasoning


To reach a pre defined goal state from given initial state. Lesser the number of states higher is the efficiency. Knowledge base techniques

Knowledge acquisition
Generation of knowledge from given knowledge base. Automated acquisition is active field . Soft computing remarkable ability of human mind to reason and learn in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. Collection of fuzzy logic ,artificial neural nets ,genetic algorithms ,belief calculus etc.

Fuzzy logic & ANN


fuzzy sets and logical connectives. Members have value 1 and other elements of universal set 0. Common operators AND ,OR and negation. ANN are electrical analogues of biological neural nets. ANN is collection of artificial neurons . The unsupervised learning algorithm have been applied in AI techniques.

Queries