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EBOLUSYON NG SINAUNANG TAO CENOZOIC ERA

CHARLES DARWIN
MAYAMANG PAMILYA 5 TAON NAIKOT ANG DAIGDIG SPECIMEN,FOSSILS,DATOS ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEAM\NS OF NATURAL SELECTION(1859) Mga ibat-ibang uri ng organismo ay mga species Na dumaan sa proseso ng pagbabago upang umakma sa nagbabagong kapaligiran at klimaproseso ng NATURAL SELECTION

MGA EKSPERTO NA NAG-AARAL NG EBOLUSYON NG TAO


PALEOANTHROPOLOGIST- NAG-ARAL SA MGA SINAUNANG KULTURA NG TAO SA NAGBABAGONG KAPALIGIRAN . PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGIST PINAGAARALAN ANG MGA NAIWANG LABI NG MGA MALAYONG NINUNO. ARKEOLOGO-PAGHUHUKAY NG MGA ARTIFACT O NAIWANG EBIDENSYA

What do paleoanthropologists do?


They seek to test hypotheses like the ones we just considered. Human geneticists look at modern genes in primates. Paleoanthropologists study the fossil record.

PARAAN NG PAGPAPANAHON RADIO CARBON DATING-TANDA NG ISANG BAGAY HANGGANG 40,000 TAON POTASSIUM ARGON DATING SUMUSUKAT NG TANDA MULA 50,000 TAON HANGGANG4-5 BILYONG TAON

Great Rift Valley


as originally described extends from Lebanon in the north to Mozambique in the south, and constitutes one of two distinct physiographic provinces of the East African mountains.

Why Africa?
The African Rift Valley is splitting along most of East Africa.
Results in long canyons & valleys where strata are exposed. The African Rift Valley exposes sediments of the correct time period.

The Rift Valley

exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu

images.encarta.msn.com

www.geology.iupui.edu

Humans are primates

www.ipoaa.com/images

images.encarta.msn.com

Humans are primates


We share behaviors with other primates.
Live in family groups Use tools Commit acts of violence Intelligent problem solvers

images.encarta.msn.com

f.screensavers.com

Sahelanthropus tchadensis
The earliest know Hominin. Date 6 to 7 mya in Chad. Foramen magnum points down.
www.talkorigins.org

www.bradshawfoundation.com

Proconsul- Ancestor to Hominoids?

Proconsul

A skull of Proconsul africanus from the Kenya National Museum.

Proconsul is an extinct genus of primates that existed from 23 to 5 million years ago during the Early Miocene epoch. Fossil remains are present in Eastern Africa including Kenya and Uganda

Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct hominid species that is dated to about 7 million years ago.
it is older than the humanchimpanzee divergence (estimated to 6.3 to 5.4 million years ago) seen in genetic datA

Sahelanthropus

Orrorin tugenesis
The next oldest, dates between 5 & 6 mya in Kenya (Tugen Hills). Most of the early hominin fossils have been found in East Africa.

www.cnrs.fr/cw

www.ipoaa.com/images

The Australopithecines
Members of the genus Australopithecus
The only fossils known between Orrorin & Australopithecus are:
Ardipithecus ramidus (5.6 4.3 mya)
Poorly known from Ethiopia. Only fragments, but some are mandibles w/ teeth. Estimated brain size is 400 450 cc.

Map of Australopithecine Finds

Map of Australopithecus sites in Africa, with a focus on the East African rift valley and limestone caves of South Africa.

A. boisei

A. afarensis

A. africanus

A. robustus

AUSTRALOPITHECUS -AFARENSIS(LUCY)

-AFRICANUS-HERBIVORE -BOISEI-PAGKAKAROON NG SAGITTAL CREST -ROBUSTUS MATIPUNO ANG KATAWAN AT MAKAPAL ANG BUNGO

Lucy Australopithecus afarensis

An Example of Mosaic Evolution

Laetoli footprints, Tanzania: A. afarensis

Lucy
Lucy is the most complete skeleton of an early hominid. Found in Hadar, Ethiopia (1974). Australopithecus afarensis Found in many areas of East Africa. 4.0 3.0 mya. Lucy was a small-brained biped. Small brain 380 500 cc Lucy was 36 tall 50 lb Dates to 3.2 mya

A. afarensis 4 3 mya East Africa

A. robustus/boisei/ aethiiopicus 3 1.5 mya East & South Africa Modern

Cousins?
The robust australopithecines 3 1.5 mya Australopithecus aethiopicus Australopithecus boisei Australopithecus robustus Brain size around 500 cc Sometimes Australopithecus is replaced with Paranthropus.

1.5 mya Robust Australopithicus extinct

Homo habilis

Australopithecus africanus

2 mya

Australopithecus afarensis

4 mya

www.portalciencia.net/

www.skullsunlimited.com

Australopithecus

Modern human

Robust Australopithecus Chimpanzee

www.peteducation.com www.carolina.com anthro.palomar.edu

www.talkorigins.org

Human Ancestors

Skull Comparisons:

with the apes all having 24

pairs, and humans having 23 pairs.


46 is the number of chromosomes in Human DNA

Primate Hands

Homo habilis
Brain~600cc
Handy Man Artists representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago. Olduwan tools

Speech?

Whats different about Homo habilis?


Homo habilis has a bigger brain
600 800 cc

Is missing a sagittal crest Has a face that is less prognathic Is missing a diastema A smaller zygomatic arch Used stone tools?

Has a face that is less prognathic where an individual's top teeth do not align with the lower teeth.

Diastema (plural diastemata) is a space between two teeth.

There are fossils dating back to roughly 7mya that are hominin. They are bipedal They are intermediate between apes & humans in shape & size

By 2 mya brains in hominins are larger and stone tools appear. Archaeology really begins with stone tools.

PAGBABAGO NG MGA HOMINID O SINAUNANG TAO

BIPEDALISM PAGLAKI NG SUKAT NG UTAK PAGBABAGO SA KAMAY AT PAGGAWA NG KAGAMITANG BATO NGIPIN

Neanderthal Culture

Neanderthal Culture

-ARCHAEOLOGIC SITE SA ISRAEL


NAKITA ANG UNANG EBIDENSYA NG PAGLILIBING TAONG TABON PALAWAN ,PILIPINAS(1962) KAUNAUNAHANG TUWIRANG KATIBAYAN NG PANINIRAHAN NG TAO SA PILIPINAS

What happened to Neanderthal ?


Coexisted w/H. sapiens for up to 60,000 years.

Interbred?
Killed off? Outcompeted?

Cro-Magnon Man

Cro-Magnon humans 1,600 cc cranial capacity Not a different species, just old Homo sapiens from Europe
Artists reconstruction of a Cro-Magnon man

Archaic H. sapiens Culture

PAGBABAGO NG MGA HOMINID O SINAUNANG TAO

BIPEDALISM PAGLAKI NG SUKAT NG UTAK PAGBABAGO SA KAMAY AT PAGGAWA NG KAGAMITANG BATO NGIPIN