Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

CHAPTER 4

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL

4.1 The Chemical Composition of The Cell 1. Elements form the basic building block of all matter 2. There are about 92 elements occurring naturally in nature 3. 25 elements are needed to build living organisms

4. There are main elements (CHON) that most frequently found elements in cells forming about 96% of the human body. 5. Trace elements are elements found in small quantities in cells, but are important for many biological processes. [Calcium(P), Potassium(P), Phosphorus(P), Sulphur(S), Sodium(Na), Chlorine(Cl), Magnesium(Mg) and Iron(Fe)]

Common elements found in cells


CHEMICAL SYMBOL

Hydrogen Carbon

H C

Oxygen
Nitrogen

O
N

6. Organic compounds : Chemical compounds that contain the element carbon.


(Except carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbides and carbonates which typically considered as inorganic) 7. Inorganic compounds : Chemical compounds

that do not contain carbon

8. There are 4 main groups of organic compounds in cells;


a) b) c) d) e) Carbohydrates (15%) Lipids (10%) Proteins (50%) Nucleic acids (18%) Other organic and inorganic molecules (7%)

9. Water is an inorganic compound which is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE CELL


1. THE IMPORTANCE OF CARBOHYDRATES 1) Glucose is the carbohydrates used to produced energy during respiration. (major source of energy) 2) Carbohydrates used to stored energy glycogen in animals/human starch - plants

3. Polysaccharides used to construct supporting structures in living organisms


a) Cellulose cell walls in plants which support and give shape to plants b) Chitin (modified form of glucose) exoskeletons of crabs and insects, cell wall of fungi 4. The five-carbon sugar(ribose), form parts of the nucleotide of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ribonucleic acid (RNA)

2. THE IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEIC ACIDS 1. Nucleic acid are compounds of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and nitrogen. 2. Two types of nucleic acids :
Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

3. Nucleotides are the basic building units of nucleic acids. 4. Each nucleotide has a nitrogen base, a sugar and a phosphate group

5. In DNA, 4 different nitrogenous bases are adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. 6. Two DNA strands lie alongside but upside down to each other, joining the bases. 7. Twisting the two DNA stands will give us the typical spiral staircase-like double helix DNA molecules. 8.

Nucleic acids are importance because a) Store genetic information b) Stable storage c) Transmission of genetic information d) Easy to duplicate for transmission

3. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROTEINS


Importance in living organism a) Provide structure and shape such as collagen and keratin b) Movement muscles cells contract c) Body defence system antibodies are special proteins d) Enzymes e) hormones

f) Haemoglobin g) Coagulative proteins thrombin and fibrinogen so that we will not bleed h) Membrane proteins /carrier proteins i) Energy storage

4. THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Solvent dissolves most substances Transport transport dissolved substances Coolant high specific heat capacity Reagent reactant for chemical reaction Insulator able to absorb/release heat Structure and support hydrostatic skeleton jelly fish, earth-worm, mechanical support for plant cell