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Points under discussion

Scales Tools of Research 1. Questionnaires i. Criteria ii. Closed form questionnaires ii. Open ended questionnaires iii. Pictorial questionnaires iv. Likert scale questionnaires Steps of questionnaire development Process of questionnaires Steps for better response Limitations of questionnaires 2 Interview i. Purposes ii. Structured Interview iii. Unstructured Interview iv. Non directive focus interview v. Focus Interview 3. Observation i. Methods Tests i. Achievements test ii. Aptitutde tests

Stanley Smith Stevens (1946)

Nominal scale

Simply placing of data into categories, without any order or structure. In research activities a YES/NO scale is nominal or Male, Female, Boys and Girls(Mode, cross tabulation - with chi-square)


Ordinal Scale

logical or ordered relationship to each other. The simplest ordinal scale is a ranking, 1,2,3,4 or Ist, 2nd , 3rd and 4th (Median and mode, rank order correlation, analysis of variance)

Interval Scales

Ratio Scale

Interval scales tell about the order of data points, and the size of the intervals in between data points. The standard survey rating scale is an interval scale. Use parametric statistical techniques: Mean and standard deviation, Correlation - r Regression, Analysis of variance, The highest level of measurement is a ratio scale , weights, lengths and times

The various methods of data gathering involve the use of appropriate recording forms. These are called tools or instruments of data collection. Purpose The tools translate research objectives into specific questions/ items Each question/item convey respondents the idea or group of ideas required by the research objectives Information gathered through the tools provides descriptions of characteristics of individuals, institutions or other phenomena under study.

Tools of Research

It is useful for measuring the various variables pertaining to the study.

TOOLS OF RESEARCH Research process 1. 2. 3. 4. Problem identification, formulation of hypothesis, working out evidences, use of tool of research

A set of questions designed to generate the statistical information from a specific group needed to accomplish the research objectives Questionnaires measure peoples attitudes, behavior and feelings toward about everything/anything.

Criteria to be considered

Relevant, Right and appropriate, Clarity, Appropriate use of

words/languages, Good start, Information available,

Understanding level of the respondents, Willingness of the respondents

Closed form
Restricted questionnaire, List of concrete questions and Choice of possible answer, To

indicate yes no or do not know

(do you want to get admission in AIOU) _______________________ 2 1

Advantages of closed form of questionnaires

Easy to understand and fill, less efforts on part of R and R Focus on the subject, Easy to tabulate & analyze, Less time consuming Answers comparable from respondent to respondent Disadvantages: No opportunity to correct misunderstanding, fail to reveal respondent motive depth,


Unrestricted questionnaires, opportunity for free response

No clues are given, respondents are free to respond, require greater efforts on the part of respondent, difficult to get filled in large proportion, difficult to interpret tabulate and summarize

Flexible, possibilities of depth, respondent true intention beliefs and attitudes

(Why do you choose AIOU..?)

Advantages of O.E.Q
Allow respondents to include more information, including feelings, attitudes and understanding of the subject. This allows researchers to better access the respondents' true feelings on an issue, problem etc.. allow the respondent to answer in his own words

PICTORIAL FORM Presentation of drawing for respondent Photographs instead of written statement Oral direction instead of written one Suitable for getting information from children Adult and little reading ability It is designed to caption the attention of the respondent

SCALE ITEMS expressions of respondents agreement or disagreement of various levels Respondent indicates where he stands _____________________________________ 5 4 3 2 1 (AIOU is the best institution for teachers Education in Pakistan)

1. Information required. 2. Target respondents. 3. Method of reaching your target respondents. 4. Question content. 5. Question wording. 6. A meaningful order and format. 7. Length of the questionnaire. 8. Pre-test the questionnaire. 9. Develop the final Questionnaire.

Nine steps in questionnaire development .

PROCESS OF QUESTIONNAIRES 1. PREPARTION,2. PRETESTING 3. DISTRIBUTION 4.DIRECT AND INDIRECT PROCESS? STEPS FOR BETTER RESPONSE Choose respondent carefully Courteous careful covering letter Stamped envelops Follow up visits, phones, Request to head of department Workshop coordinators LIMITATIONS Responses may not be accurate May have errors, careless, purposeful, unintentional Mail question low rate of response

The name of the organization collecting the data should appear at the top of front page. The name of the sponsor, of the study, if any should also be shown. The title of the study should appear in large print next to the name of the organization on the first page. Below this title, the title of the tool may be noted. The confidentialness of the data may be made clear. A place for writing the date of filling in the form should be provided. A serial number to each copy of the tool may be assigned. The pages of the instrument should be numbered. There should be a separate section for each topical area. For each open-ended question, an adequate space should be provided for answer One inch margin on the left side of the sheet and one-half inch margin on other sides may be provided


Pilot testing : (1) to test whether the instrument would elicit responses required to achieve the research objectives, (2) whether the content of the instrument is relevant and adequate, (3) whether wording of questions is clear and suited to the understanding of the respondents, (4) to test the other qualitative aspects of the instrument like question structure and question sequence, and (5) to develop appropriate procedure for administering the instrument with reference to field conditions. (6) Clarity of language (7) Singleness of purpose (8) Relevant to the objective of the study

Advantages Facilitates data gathering Is less time-consuming than interview and observation Preserves the confidentiality of the respondents reactions and answers Less costly

Response rate may be low Respondents may provide only socially acceptable answers There is less chance to clarify ambiguous answer

1. It is in a sense of an oral questionnaire. 2. Instead of writing the response, the 3. interviewee gives the needed information orally and face-to-face. 1. With a skillful interviewer, the interview is


INTER AND VIEW Oldest and most often device for Obtaining data Face to face interpersonal situation Facial, bodily expressions, tone of voice is only possible through interview

PURPOSE May be conducted for research Can be used as supplement of other tool May be conducted for recruitment May be conducted for guiding and Counseling


Structured or standardized interview Questions prepared before hand Sequence and wording are fixed Pre determined items Scheduled carefully More scientific in nature Introductory and concluding items includes

Are not used for testing hypothesis Flexible in nature Valuable in exploratory stage of research Method of obtaining insight into hidden motivation, unacknowledged attitude, personal hops, fears and conflicts The interviewee is allowed to talk freely instead of questions Gets natural and representative Picture of subject Focused on the concrete experience that the interview has the experience about movie, reading book Interviewee is permitted to express freely but interview directs the line of thought

Unstructured interviews

Non-Directive Depth Interview

Focus interview

Interview steps
Preparation: produce an interview schedule and interview guides. Execution: conduct the interviews Review: write up the interview notes

OBSERVATIONS Data collection method in which the researcher watches a phenomenon and records notes describing the phenomenon (e.g. a behavior) Measurement without instrument Direct Indirect Important in descriptive research Training of the observer METHODS 1.checklist simplest device, consist of prepared list of items (Yes No) or appropriate number or word 2. Rating scale Quantification of Ltd number of aspect of things or traits of persons These are rated on 3 5 7 rating scale Excellent, good, average, below average,Poor

TESTS Achievement test What the individual know with respect to his proficiency in given area/knowledge
Aptitude Tests Measurement of potential, Performance of some one of a future given activity