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SCULPTURE

SCULPTURE

DEFINITION

DEFINITION  Sculpture is a three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials, typically stone
  • Sculpture is a three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials, typically stone such as marble, metal, glass, or wood, or plastic materials such as clay, textiles, polymers and softer and softer metals. The term has been extended to works including sound, text and light.

  • 4 basic modeling methods:

1. modeling additive process

  • 2. casting indirect process

  • 3. carving subtractive process

  • 4. assembling additive process

MODELING

MODELING  Additive process – the sculptor begins with a simple framework or core or nothing
  • Additive process the sculptor begins with a simple framework or core or nothing at all and adds material until the sculpture is finished

  • Modeling : clay or dough

  • Wet clay most common modeling material;

    • Pliable; can be worked and reworked

    • ―sketch‖

    • Dried and fired it becomes hard and durable

―terra cotta

Modeling is the most direct sculpture method. The workable material responses to every touch, light or heavy pinch of the scultpor’s hand

CARVING

CARVING  A subtractive process in which one starts with a mass of material larger than
  • A subtractive process in which one starts with a mass of material larger than the planned sculpture and subtracts, or taken away, material until only the desired form

remains

CARVING

CARVING  The sculptor begins with a block of material and cuts, chips, and gouges away
  • The sculptor begins with a block of material and cuts, chips, and gouges away until the form of the sculpture emerges

  • Wood and stone principal materials used; tend resist the sculptor’s tools

  • Sculptor must study the grain of the material; to violate the grain could result in a failed sculpture

  • Types of wood and stone

CARVED WOODEN CRANES

CARVED WOODEN <a href=CRANES " id="pdf-obj-7-5" src="pdf-obj-7-5.jpg">

A selection of woodcarving hand tools: 3 fishtail gouges, a v-parting tool, 4 straight gouges, 3 spoon

gouges, and a carvers mallet

SCULPTOR AT WORK

SCULPTOR AT WORK

CASTING

CASTING  Involves a mold of some kind into which liquuid or semi-liquid material is poured
  • Involves a mold of some kind into which liquuid or semi-liquid material is poured and

allowed to harden

  • Indirect method

  • Bronze commonly used;

Can be superheated until it flows, will pour freely into the tiniest crevices and forms, and then hardens to extreme durability

  • Lost-wax process common method for casting; also known in French name ―cire perdue

  • Each casting is considered original

  • Earlier sculptors often cast their own work

1. A MODEL OF AN APPLE IN WAX

1. A MODEL OF AN APPLE IN WAX
1. A MODEL OF AN APPLE IN WAX

2. A RUBBER MOLD AND A CAST, IN THIS CASE PLASTER

2. A RUBBER MOLD AND A CAST, IN THIS CASE <a href=PLASTER " id="pdf-obj-13-5" src="pdf-obj-13-5.jpg">

3. A HOLLOW CAST IN PARAFFIN

3. A HOLLOW CAST IN PARAFFIN

4.The fire-proof mold, in this case clay-based, with the paraffin apple, an open view. The core is also filled with fire- proof material

5. LIQUID BRONZE AT 1200°C IS POURED INTO THE

5. LIQUID BRONZE AT 1200°C IS POURED INTO THE DRIED AND EMPTY CASTING MOLD

DRIED AND EMPTY CASTING MOLD

5. LIQUID BRONZE AT 1200°C IS POURED INTO THE DRIED AND EMPTY CASTING MOLD

6. A BRONZE CAST, STILL WITH SPRUING

6. A BRONZE CAST, STILL WITH SPRUING

Illustration of stepwise Bronze casting by the Lost Wax Method

ASSEMBLING

ASSEMBLING  Is a process by which individual pieces or segments or objects are brought together

Is a process by which individual pieces or segments or objects are brought together to

form a sculpture

  • Assembling vs. Constructing

    • Assembling , parts of the sculpture are simply

placed on or near each other

  • Constructing, parts are actually joined together through a welding, nailing or a similar procedure

  • Both types work= assemblage

TYPES OF SCULPTURE

TYPES OF SCULPTURE  Freestanding or sculpture in the round  Complex interaction with space; exists
  • Freestanding or sculpture in the round

    • Complex interaction with space; exists wholly in our world;

    • We can walk around it and see it from every angle = viewpoints

    • Work looks different from every angle

  • Relief sculpture

    • Low-relief sculpture

    • High relief sculpture (or haut-relief)

  • FREE STANDING/ SCULPTURE IN THE ROUND

    FREE STANDING/ SCULPTURE IN THE ROUND The Thinker is a bronze and marble sculpture by AugusteMusée Rodin in Paris. It depicts a man in sober meditation battling with a powerful internal struggle. It is often used to represent philosophy. " id="pdf-obj-21-4" src="pdf-obj-21-4.jpg">

    The Thinker is a bronze and marble sculpture by

    Auguste Rodin held in the Musée Rodin in Paris.

    It depicts a man in sober meditation battling with a powerful internal struggle. It

    is often used to represent

    philosophy.

    THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS (1884C. 1889) IN VICTORIA TOWER GARDENS, LONDON, ENGLAND

    <a href=THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS (1884 – C. 1889) IN VICTORIA TOWER GARDENS , LONDON, ENGLAND " id="pdf-obj-22-9" src="pdf-obj-22-9.jpg">
    <a href=THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS (1884 – C. 1889) IN VICTORIA TOWER GARDENS , LONDON, ENGLAND " id="pdf-obj-22-11" src="pdf-obj-22-11.jpg">

    commemorated the six townspeople of Calais

    who offered their lives to save their fellow

    citizens. During the Hundred Years’ War, the

    army of King Edward III besieged Calais, and Edward ordered that the town's population be killed en masse. He agreed to spare them if six of the principal citizens would come to him

    prepared to die, bareheaded and barefooted and

    with ropes around their necks. When they came, he ordered that they be executed, but pardoned

    them when his queen, Philippa of Hainault,

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    RELIEF SCULPTURE

    RELIEF SCULPTURE  Meant to be viewed from one side only  Used to decorate architecture
    • Meant to be viewed from one side only

    • Used to decorate architecture or functional objects

    • Low relief known as bas-relief

    Subjects project very slightly from their background

    • High relief when a sculpture projects more boldly from the background

    BAS-RELIEF

    BAS-RELIEF The background is very compressed or completely flat, as on most coins, on which all

    The

    background is

    very compressed or completely flat, as on most coins, on which all images are

    in low-relief.

    HIGH RELIEF

    HIGH RELIEF  Sculptured elements should project by at least half their depth, and parts of
    • Sculptured elements should project by at least half their depth, and parts of the figures may be in the round, unattached to the background

    Lorenzo Ghiberti's gilded bronze "Doors of Paradise", Baptistery, Florence combine high relief main figures with backgrounds mostly in low relief.

    SUNKEN RELIEF

    SUNKEN RELIEF  Sunken-relief, also known as intaglio or hollow-relief, is where the image is made
    • Sunken-relief, also known as intaglio or hollow-relief, is where the image is made by carving into a flat surface - usually the images are mostly linear in nature.

    Sunken-relief depiction of

    Pharaoh Akhenaten with his wife Nefertiti and daughters. Note

    how strong shadows are needed to define

    the image.

    HUMAN FIGURE IN SCULPTURE

    HUMAN FIGURE IN SCULPTURE  Human figure as subject matter in sculpture  Reasons:  Life
    • Human figure as subject matter in sculpture

    • Reasons:

      • Life is short, and the desire to leave some traces of ourselves for future generations

      • ―presence‖, to portray a being in sculpture is to bring it into the world, to give it a presence that is close to life itself

  • Materials: metal, terra cotta, stone, wood

  • Among the human images that artists are

    often asked to make present in the world

    through sculpture are those connected with religion and the spirit realm

    Portrayals of rulers, heroes and heroines, and religious or spirit figures unite the many sculptural traditions of the world.

    • Western culture is marked by a tradition of sculpting the human figure for its own sake and finding the body to be a worthy subject for art owed to ancient Greeks. They believed that the

    body itself is beautiful.

    • Greek sculptors derived an ideally beautiful body type governed by harmonious proportions demonstrated in the perfected bodies to images of gods and mythological heroes, and to images of male athletes

    CONTRAPPOSTO

    CONTRAPPOSTO  Developed by Greek artists  Meaning ―counterpoise‖ or ―counterbalance‖ sets the body in a
    • Developed by Greek artists

    • Meaning ―counterpoise‖ or ―counterbalance‖

    sets the body in a gentle S-shape curve through

    a play of opposites

    • Contrapposto implies the potential for motion inherent in a living being

    • An Italian term used in the visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot so that its shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and legs.

    David, by Michelangelo. The shoulders of the figure are seen to angle in one direction, the pelvis in another.

    Since the Renaissance, body has continued

    to serve as a subject through which sculptors

    express feelings and ideas about the human experience.

    20 TH CENTURY SCULPTOR

    20 CENTURY SCULPTOR  Henry Moore  was an English sculptor and artist. He was best
    • Henry Moore

    • was an English sculptor and artist. He was

    best known for his abstract monumental bronze sculptures which are located around

    the world as public works of art.

    • Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Moore

    Moore's signature form is a reclining figure. Moore's exploration of this form, under the

    influence of the Toltec-Mayan figure he had seen at the Louvre, was to lead him to

    increasing abstraction as he turned his

    thoughts towards experimentation with the elements of design.

    Reclining Figure: Hand

    "Reclining Figure: Hand," a bronze sculpture by Henry Moore,

    was given to the United Nations by the Henry Moore Foundation. The sculpture is located in the landscape area north of the United Nations Secretariat Building, and was

    unveiled in 17 September 1982.

    The Art Gallery of Ontario's Henry Moore collection is the largest public collection of his works in the world.

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCULPTURE

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCULPTURE  the term may be used several ways:  Refer to sculptures that are
    • the term may be used several ways:

      • Refer to sculptures that are large enough for

    viewers to enter and move about in, sculptures that create their own environments

    • It can mean large sculptures designed for display in the outdoor environment

    • It can be sculptures that are actually a part of the natural environment such as the presidents’ heads carved out of the natural rock of Mount Rushmore

    Red Grooms is an American multimedia artist best known for his colorful pop-art constructions depicting frenetic scenes of modern urban life.

    (left to right) Sculptures of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln represent the first 150 years of the history of the United States.

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore near Keystone, South Dakota, in the United States. Sculpted by Gutzon Borglum and later by his son Lincoln Borglum, Mount Rushmore features 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of the heads of former United States.

    The entire memorial covers 1,278.45 acres (5.17 km 2 ) and is 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level

    PUPPY

    PUPPY Jeff Koons is an American artist known for his reproductions of banal objects — such

    Jeff Koons is an American artist known for

    his reproductions of banal objectssuch as balloon animals produced in

    stainless steel with mirror

    finish surfaces.

    The was Puppy, a forty-three feet (12.4 m) tall topiary sculpture of a West Highland White Terrier puppy, executed in a variety of flowers on a steel substructure. In 1995, the sculpture was dismantled and re-erected at the Museum of Contemporary Art on Sydney Harbour on a new, more permanent, stainless steel armature with an internal irrigation system.

    GREAT SERPENT MOUND

    GREAT SERPENT MOUND

    The Great Serpent Mound is a 1,330-foot- long, three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound

    located on a plateau of the Serpent Mound

    crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams

    County, Ohio. Maintained within a park by the

    Ohio Historical Society, it has been designated a National Historic Landmark by the United

    States Department of Interior.

    • Environmental sculpture on a grand scale occurs when an artist sets out to sculpt the earth itself, e.g. Earthworks Serpent Mound near Locust Grove, Ohio

    • Impermanent sculpture:

    E.g. An outdoor figure modeled in snow on a cold winter afternoon is destined to melt before

    spring

    Castles and mermaids modeled in wet sand by the shore

    • We cannot evaluate sculptures according to how long they last. What is important is the sculptor’s expression and the experience of the viewer even if it lasts for a moment.

    • The end