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A Brief Discussion on Boilers

Abdul Hannan Waheed Ahmad Taha Khan Hassan Mahmood Fakhar Anwaar Nafees Ahmad

Introduction Types of Boilers

Assessments of Boilers
Energy efficiency opportunities

What is a Boiler?
It is a closed vessel in which the heat produced by the

combustion of fuel is transferred to water for its conversion into steam at the desired temperature & pressure. At atmospheric pressure the water volume increases to 1,600 times.

Boilers, were a major part of the Industrial Revolution

beginning about 1700 A.D. They are major consumers of industry & building energy consumption today Industry boilers are used for power generation process heat(e.g., refineries, petrochemical, paper mills, tire manufacturing etc) & heating In buildings, boilers are used for steam primary heat, terminal reheat systems. Water heating & absorption chillers

Horizontal and Vertical boiler

Fire tube and water tube Boiler Externally and Internally fired boiler

Forced and Natural Circulation boiler

High, Medium and Low pressure boiler Stationary and Portable boiler

Single and Multi tube boiler

If the axis of the boiler is vertical then its called

vertical boiler. E.g. Cochran boiler

If the axis of the boiler is horizontal then its called the

horizontal boiler. E.g. Locomotive boiler, Lancashire boiler.

The fire tube boiler, the oldest design, is made so the

products of combustion pass through tubes surrounded by water in a shell The furnace/flame volume can either be inside or external to the shell that contains the water. The upper steam capacity of fire tube boiler is about 20,000 lbm/hr, & the peak pressure obtainable is limited by their large shells to about 300 psi. Fire-tube boilers are used for heating systems

Horizontal, four pass, forced draft fire tube boiler

It can be seen here that the hot gases are in the tube &

water is surrounding them

A water-tube boiler is one in which the products of

combustion pass around the outside & heat tubes containing the water The water tube diameter is much smaller than the shell diameter of a fire-tube boiler, so much higher pressures can be obtained, well over 2000 psi The furnace & boiler tube area must be surrounded by a heavily insulated refractory wall to prevent heat transfer through the boiler walls

The boiler in which the

water is inside the tube & hot gases surround them is called water-tube boiler
E.g., Babcock & Wilcox


All the largest boilers used for heating & industrial

purpose are packaged boilers They are factory built & shipped whole or in modular components to the customer. Many are constructed in an elongated shape that will fit through large building doors with minimal fitting adjustment required

In the boiler if the fire is outside the shell, that boiler

is known as externally fired boiler. E.G., Babcock & Wilcox boiler

The boiler in which the furnace is located inside the

boiler shell it is known as internally fired boiler E.g. , Cochran Boiler, Lancashire Boiler

In the boiler if the circulation of water is done by a

pump ten they are known as forced circulation boiler.

E.g. , Benison Boiler, Lamont Boiler

In the boiler if the circulation of water takes place due

to difference in density resulting from different in temperature, it is known as natural circulation boiler
E.g. , Lancashire Boiler

It is one in which the working pressure of the boiler is

more than 25 bar.

E.g. , Babcock & Wilcox boiler

It is that boiler whose working pressure is between 10-

25 bars
E.g. , Lancashire Boiler & Locomotive Boiler

It is that boiler whose working pressure is between 3.5-

10 bar.
E.g. , Cochran boiler

The boilers having only one fired tube or water tube

are called single tube boilers. E.g. , Cornish Boiler

The boilers having two or more fire or water tube for

the circulation of hot gases or water are called multi tube boiler E.g. , Lancashire boiler, Babcock boiler & Wilcox boiler

Thermal efficiency of boiler is defined as the

percentage heat input that is effectively utilized to generate steam. There are two methods to calculate the boiler efficiency 1. The Direct Method 2. The Indirect Method

Boiler Efficiency = Q * (H-h)/(q * GCV) * 100 Where Q = quantity of steam generated per hour (kg/hr) H = Enthalpy of saturated steam (kcal/kg) h = Enthalpy of feed water (kcal/kg) q = Quantity of fuel used per hour (kg/hr) GCV = Gross Calorific Value of the fuel (kcal/kg)

Air preheater. Economizer. Super heater. De-super heater. Boiler feed pump. Forced draft and induced draft fans. Mechanical separator. Equipment tanks Feed water tanks De-aerator Continuous blow down expander Drainage expander Chemical dosing system. Soot blowers and wall blowers. Pressure reduction valve. Pulverizers and fuel firing system. Ash handling systems.

Thanks for your Attention