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WTO Members

Members (148) applying countries (28)

Growing membership
150 125 100

Members

75 50 25 0 1950

1960

1970

1980 Year

1990

2000

WTO
World Trade Organization

General Council

GATT
(goods)

GATS
(services)

TRIPS
(intellectual property rights)

Number of Employees in various international organizations


WTO: 550 OECD: 3000 The World Bank Group: 17 000 The United Nations: 50 000 (10 000 at the Secretariat in New York)

GATT agreements
Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Textiles and Clothing Technical Barriers to Trade Investment Measures Antidumping Measures Subsidies and Countervailing Measures Safeguards Customs Valuation Methods Preshipment Inspection Rules of Origin Import Licensing

WTO principles
Non discrimination - Most-favoured nation (MFN) - National treatment Predictability/tariff bindings
Ban on quantitative restrictions

Binding dispute settlement

Disputes in WTO: total 194


As complainant 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 USA EU Japan As defendant

1)

Developing countries

1) As of 2003

Which agreements are subject to disputes?


Antal

1)

30

25

20

15

10

0 SPS/TBT Agriculture Textiles TRIMs TRIPS GATS

1) As of 2003

Reducing trade protection at the border (Percent tariffs)


60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0
1947 1962 GATTs PreEstablishment Kennedy Round 1972 Post_ Kennedy Round 1987 PostTokyo Round 1994 PostUruguay Round

Agricultural Support in certain OECD-countries 1986-2003


1986-88 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
an d of d Sw itz er la nd or wa y ia o EU SA n da ic st ra l la n pa M ex Po ub O EC an a lic Ja el U D

2001-2003

Ze ew

Au

,R ep

Source: OECD

Ko

re a

Anti-Dumping Measures in force 30 june 2002


USA EU India South Africa Canada Mexico Argentina Australia Brazil Turkey Venezuela Korea, Republic of Peru China Others World Total

No. Of measures 264 219 150 98 90 61 58 56 53 24 19 19 18 17 73 1 219

Source: WTO preliminary figures

Initiated anti-dumping investigations 19952003 (June)


400
356 366 309

350 300 250 200


157 243 224 256 239 294

150 100 50 0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/2003*

* July/June

Source: WTO

Most frequent initiators of anti-dumping investigations July 2002 June 2003


No. of initiatives
India USA China EU Australia Thailand Turkey Korea, Republic of Brazil World total
Source: WTO

67 29 17 15 14 14 12 11 9 239

Initiated Safeguard Investigations


60 53 50 40 30 20 10 10 2 0 5 3 26

15

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Source: Global TradeProtection Report 2002, WTO

New factors
Multilateralism not the only dimension in US trade policy Criticism by the civil society Sharp increase of bilateral/regional trade agreements EU- the new superpower in trade

EEC
1961-62 (Dillon Round) 1964-67 (Kennedy Round)

EC
1961-62 (Dillon Round) 1964-67 (Kennedy Round) 1973-79 (Tokyo Round)

EC
1961-62 (Dillon Round) 1964-67 (Kennedy Round) 1973-79 (Tokyo Round)

1986-94 (Uruguay Round)

EU
1961-62 (Dillon Round) 1964-67 (Kennedy Round) 1973-79 (Tokyo Round)

1986-94 (Uruguay Round)

2001- ? (Doha Round)

Multilateral trade negotiations Success factors


Strong engagement from key actors Clearly defined goals Support from and relevance for the business community Balanced result for the key actors Realistic time-table

Duration of trade rounds


Dillon Round Kennedy Round Tokyo Round Uruguay Round Doha Round 1961-62 1964-67 1973-79 1986-94 20012 years 3 years 6 years 8 years ? (officially 3 years!)

Initiated Safeguard Investigations


140 120 100 80 53 60 40 20 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2 5 3 10 15 26 15 132

Source: Global Trade Protection Report 2002