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School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science

Design and Assembly of an Optically Activated Phase Shifter for


Antenna Beam Steering

Muhammad Ali Malik


Submitted: August 28th, 2012
Presented: September 12th, 2012
MSc Mobile and Wireless Networks (Physical Pathway)

The Physics behind Phase Shifting


Permittivity and complex permittivity

=
= 0 +
= +

Dielectric constant as a function of frequency

= + = +

The real effect, phase velocity change


=

P3HT, = 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1


Band gap: 1.9-2.0 eV
=
Corresponding to 650nm to 620nm;

Semiconductor Physics Involved


=

, = , ,

Mechanism of conduction in Intrinsic


semiconductors at room temperature
3

How does the phase shifts


Permittivity of a di-electric material is complex, its imaginary part of much
consequence at microwave frequencies
The phase velocity of an EM wave is a function of permittivity of the dielectric
material
The dielectric semiconductor, can be optically activated to induce a change in its
permittivity in light of the formula

= 2 + 2

+
0

is the plasma complex dielectric constant


is the dielectric constant of semiconductor
, , , are rest masses of electrons and holes, and their mobility respectively.
is the photo-induced carrier density

s11 - the reflection coefficient and Impedance matching


11 =

1
1

=
2 =0

1
1

0
= += =

+ 0

= 2

= +
a two port network

Patch antenna design


+ 1
=
2
2
=

1
2

20

120
0 =

+ 1 1
=
+

2
2

1 + 10
5

The parameter effects; thickness

The thickness ratio of 50% both for group 1, and group 2; group 2 clearly has
increased height dimensions

Simulation groups 1 and 2 are taken under following conditions:


Dark with = 3; represented later as 3|3
Illumination (condition 1) on one side changing to 3.2; represented as 3|3.2
Illumination (condition 2) on one side changing to 3.5; represented as 3|3.5

Simulation Group 1, Thickness 0.4mm/1.2mm,


Illumination Red 3|3
Illumination Green 3|3.2
Illumination Blue 3|3.5

Simulation Group 1, Thickness 0.4mm/1.2mm


Top, Left->Right: Far fields along when = 90o, Illumination 3|3, 3|3.2, 3|3.5
Bottom, Left->Right: Far fields along when = 90o, Illumination 3|3, 3|3.2, 3|3.58

Add s11 parameters graph


The second resonant band

The resonant frequencies of simulation sets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6


till P3HT/FR4 thickness ration is 25%, at illumination 3|3.5 each

10

Omitted is the far field for set 1, shown are far fields along Theta, when phi=90 of
3|3.5 illumination condition from each set in group 1

11

3D far field patterns at, Thickness 0.4mm/1.2mm,


and Illumination conditions: Left 3|3, Middle 3|3.2, Right 3|3.5

Current density: phase shift visible in 3D

12

Simulations group 1: Varying Height of P3HT, illumination conditions 3|3, 3|3.2, 3|3.5

T1d1
T1d2
T1d3
T1d4
T1d5
T1d6
T1d7
T1d8
T1d9
T110
T1d11
T1d12
T1d13
T1d14
T1d15
Td16
Td17
Td18
T1d19
T1d20
T1d21
T1d22
T1d23
T1d24
T1d25
T1d26
T1d27

Height:
org/subst
mm

Height:
Ratio

S11 dB

Resonant
frequency
@GHz

0.01/1.59
0.01/1.59
0.01/1.59
0.1/1.5
0.1/1.5
0.1/1.5
0.15/1.45
0.15/1.45
0.15/1.45
0.20/1.40
0.20/1.40
0.20/1.40
0.27/1.33
0.27/1.33
0.27/1.33
0.34/1.26
0.34/1.26
0.34/1.26
0.40/1.20
0.40/1.20
0.40/1.20
0.46/1.14
0.46/1.14
0.46/1.14
0.53/1.07
0.53/1.07
0.53/1.07

0.512%
0.512%
0.512%
6.66%
6.66%
6.66%
10.34%
10.34%
10.34%
14.28%
14.28%
14.28%
20%
20%
20%
25.18%
25.18%
25.18%
33.33%
33.33%
33.33%
40.35%
40.35%
40.35%
49.53%
49.53%
49.53%

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5

-24.305
-24.285
-24.254
-27.415
-27.174
-26.707
-29.834
-28.804
-25.583
-33.751
-31.753
-30.78
-41.226
-39.531
-34.218
-37.314
-47.172
-46.553
-24.448
-33.798, -12.194
-21.514, -17.217
-24.546
-34.571, -12.189
-21.559, -17.161
-24.615
-34.024, -12.149
-21.635, -17.078

2.762
2.762
2.762
2.766
2.766
2.766
2.77
2.77
2.768
2.772
2.77
2.77
2.776
2.774
2.772
2.78
2.778
2.776
3.054
3.014, 3.076
3.076, 2.942
3.054
3.014, 3.016
3.078, 2.294
3.054
3.014, 3.076
3.078, 2.944

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.4
117.0/8.4
117.0/8.4
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
119.0/9.1
116.0/6.7
118.0/6.2
119.0/9.1
116.0/6.7
118.0/6.1
119.0/9.1
116.0/6.7
118.0/6.1

:
Angular
width
(3dB)
62.9
62.9
62.9
62.8
62.8
62.8
62.7
62.7
62.7
62.7
62.7
62.7
62.9
62.9
62.9
62.5
62.5
62.5
59.2
59.5
60.5
59.2
59.5
60.5
59.2
59.5
60.5

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi
90.0/6.1
90.0/6.1
90.0/6.1
90.0/6.0
90.0/6.0
91.0/6.1
90.0/6.0
90.0/6.0
91.0/6.1
90.0/6.0
90.0/6.0
91.0/6.1
90.0/5.9
90.0/5.9
91.0/5.9
90.0/6.0
91.0/6.0
92.0/6.1
90.0/6.0
112.0/6.4
113.0/4.5
90.0/6.0
112.0/6.4
113.0/4.5
90.0/6.0
112.0/6.4
114.0/4.5

:
Angular width
(3dB)
52.7
52.7
52.7
52.5
52.5
52.6
52.5
52.6
52.6
52.3
52.4
52.6
51.6
51.6
51.8
52.9
52.3
52.6
48.2
53.7
106.8
48.1
53.8
107.3
48.0
53.8
107.8

13

Simulations Group 2: Varying Height of P3HT, illumination conditions 3|3, 3|3.2, 3|3.5

T2d1
T2d2
T2d3
T2d4
T2d5
T2d6
T2d7
T2d8
T2d9
T2d10
T2d11
T2d12
T2d13
T2d14
T2d15
T2d16
Td17
T2d18
T2d19
T2d20
T2d21
T2d22
T2d23
T2d24
Td25
T2d26
T2d27

Height:
org/subst
mm

Height:
Ratio

S11 dB

Resonant
frequency
@GHz

0.01/1.6
0.01/1.6
0.01/1.6
0.1/1.6
0.1/1.6
0.1/1.6
0.16/1.6
0.16/1.6
0.16/1.6
0.24/1.6
0.24/1.6
0.24/1.6
0.32/1.6
0.32/1.6
0.32/1.6
0.4/1.6
0.4/1.6
0.4/1.6
0.53/1.6
0.53/1.6
0.53/1.6
0.64/1.6
0.64/1.6
0.64/1.6
0.8/1.6
0.8/1.6
0.8/1.6

0.0625
0.0625
0.0625
6.25%
6.25%
6.25%
10%
10%
10%
15%
15%
15%
20%
20%
20%
25%
25%
25%
33.33%
33.33%
33.33%
40%
40%
40%
50%
50%
50%

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
3
3.2
3.5

-24.626
-24.605
-24.573
-32.845
-32.509
-31.722
-47.909
-40.608
-47.963
-30.187
-30.692
-33.212
-24.815
-25.454
-26.47
-28.65
-21.492
-14.88, -13.88
-24.204
-19.81
-14.347, -12.634
-21.692
-18.55
-13.844, -11.750
-19.201
-17.07
-13.147, -10.821

2.762
2.762
2.762
2.766
2.766
2.766
2.770
2.770
2.768
2.774
2.772
2.772
2.778
2.778
2.774
3.006
2.972
2.912, 3.028
2.994
2.962
2.906, 3.018
2.986
2.954
2.90, 3.01
2.982
2.952
2.898, 3.00

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.4
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.5
117.0/8.4
117.0/8.4
117.0/8.4
117.0/8.4
117.0/8.4
117.0/8.4
118.0/8.3
118.0/8.3
117.0/8.3
119.0/8.8
117.0/7.2
118.0/5.6
119.0/8.7
117.0/7.3
117.0/5.4
119.0/8.6
117.0/7.4
117.0/5.3
120.0/8.5
117.0/7.3
117.0/5.1

:
Angular
width
(3dB)
62.8
62.8
62.8
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.3
62.3
62.3
62.0
62.0
62.0
61.7
61.7
61.7
58.6
58.8
60.0
58.5
58.6
59.8
58.3
58.5
59.5
58.0
58.0
58.8

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi
90.0/6.1
90.0/6.1
90.0/6.1
90.0/5.9
90.0/5.9
91.0/5.9
90.0/5.9
90.0/5.9
91.0/5.9
90.0/5.7
91.0/5.8
91.0/5.8
90.0/5.6
91.0/5.6
92.0/5.7
90.0/5.5
109.0/5.8
116.0/4.6
90.0/5.3
107.0/5.6
117.0/4.7
90.0/5.2
107.0/5.5
117.0/4.7
90.0/4.9
106.2/5.2
118.0/45

:
Angular width
(3dB)
52.7
52.7
52.7
52.7
52.7
58.8
52.8
52.8
53.0
52.8
52.9
53.2
52.9
53.0
53.4
49.1
56.9
74.6
49.2
57.7
68.8
49.6
58.3
68.6
49.3
58.7
69.3

14

Group 3: Varying area underneath strip lines and the patch; from bottom of feed insertion
point to the top
Height:
Ratio

S11 dB

Resonant
frequency
@GHz

T3d1

Height:
org/subs
t
mm
5

0.40/1.20

T3d2

6.65

0.40/1.20

T3d3

13.6

0.40/1.20

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5

3
3

3
3.5

3
3

3
3.5

3
3

3
3.5

2.764
2.764
2.762
2.76
2.768
2.766
2.764
2.762
2.766
2.766
2.77
2.768
2.778
2.776, 3.638
2.836
2.814, 3.708
2.914
2.866, 2.95,
3.71
2.954
2.888, 2.986,
3.712
2.96
2.892, 2.99,
3.714
3.032
2.932, 3.056,
3.706

-31.726
-38.839
-29.201
-36.612
-32.599
-41.27
-23.612
-27.449
-15.558
-18.142
-14.777
-17.172
-11.682
-13.375, -8.589
-20.159
-42.99, -29.92
-23.170
-23.153, -14.321,
-30.11
-20.453
-22.179, -18.787,
-26.926
-20.898
-21.491, -19.004,
-25.517
-24.444
-17.563, -21.268,
-12.036

T3d4
T3d5
T3d6
T3d7
T3d8
T3d9

T3d10

T3d11

T3d12

20.55
27.55
29.3
34.22
43.76
50.465

57.17

63.876

70.58

0.40/1.20
0.40/1.20
0.40/1.20
0.40/1.20
0.40/1.20
0.40/1.20

0.40/1.20

0.40/1.20

0.40/1.20

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi

:
Angular
width
(3dB)

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi

:
Angular width
(3dB)

117.0/8.5

62.9

90.0/6.1

50.9

117.0/8.5

62.8

90.0/6.1

52.7

117.0/8.5

62.6

91.0/6.0

52.8

117.0/8.5

62.8

91.0/6.0

52.4

117.0/8.4

62.7

91.0/5.9

52.5

117.0/8.4

62.7

91.0/5.9

52.5

117.0/8.3

62.5

93.0/5.9

52.5

118.0/8.1

61.9

98.0/5.6

55.3

114.0/5.9

61.7

115.0/6.1

60.5

114.0/4.6

63.8

119.0/6.0

59.5

114.0/4.5

63.7

118.0/5.7

61.2

119.0/5.9

115.0/4.7

59.3

107.9

15

Diagram: Top: showing how area underneath is stepped increasing to see the
effect of P3HT covering. Bottom: Extending regions shown sideways, the printed
copper patch is too thin to be visible at this magnification.

16

Height:
Ratio

S11 dB

Resonant
frequency
@GHz

T4d1

Height:
org/subs
t
mm
70.58

0.40/1.20

T4d2

63.876

0.40/1.20

T4d3

57.17

0.40/1.20

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5

2.778
2.776
2.862
2.832
2.88
2.84
2.906
2.9, 2.856
3.006
3.004, 2.91

-23.517
-23.476
-29.293
-52.450
-42.283
-29.289
-39.072
-14.425, -26.320
-12.679
-8.851, -15.99

T4d4
T4d5

50.465
43.76

0.40/1.20
0.40/1.20

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi

:
Angular
width
(3dB)

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi

:
Angular width
(3dB)

116.0/8.6

62.6

91.0/6.2

53.0

115.0/8.0

60.9

105.0/6.5

58.9

115.0/7.8

59.9

106.0/6.4

59.8

115.0/7.8
115.0/9.2
115.0/8.0

59.7
59.8
59.1

105.0/6.2
90.0/6.8
101.0/5.9

63
54.4
73.9

Group 4: Varying P3HT area only under the


patch the pacth. Top of patch till the bottom
near stub lines

Varying P3HT from above, area sweep stepped


at each quarter of antennas length.
<<
17

An area efficient design that


signifies a different approach for
beam shifting

T5d1

Height:
org/subs
t
mm
5

Height:
Ratio

S11 dB

Resonant
frequency
@GHz

0.40/1.20

3
3

3
3.5

2.9282
2.859, 2.922

-32.943
-42.714, -15.764

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi
115.0/8.9
114.0/5.9

:
Angular
width
(3dB)
59.7
59.0

:
Main lobe:
directiono/
Magtd dBi
90.0/6.5
101.0/5.9

:
Angular width
(3dB)
57.4
75.8

The field energy in the system as a function of time


18

I respectfully thank you all.


This session concludes now, and
Its the end of presentation

and start of a new research!


... and my start of a new research!
19