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Performance Analysis of Pumps

P M V Subbarao
Associate Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
IIT Delhi
A Machine Solely responsible for Introduction of Life in
Working fluid.
Classification of Pumps
Pumps in Steam Power Plants
Turbogenerator & Auxiliaries 3 sets.
Steam generatore equipment 6 sets.
Chemical feed system 13 sets.
Fuel Oil systems 14 sets.
Lubricating oil systems 5 sets.
Fire Protection systems 6 sets.
Service water system 7 sets.
Miscellaneous around 4 sets.
Boiler Feed Pumps
General. Boiler feed pumps are used to pressurize water from the
deaerating feedwater heater or deaerating hot process softener and feed it
through any high pressure closed feedwater heaters to the boiler inlet.
Discharge from the boiler superheated steam in order to maintain proper
main steam ternperature to the steam turbine generator.
Types. There are two types of centrifugal
multi-stage boiler feed pumps commonly used in steam power plants
horizontally split case and
barrel type with horizontal or vertical (segmented) split inner case.
The horizontal split case type will be used on boilers with rated outlet
pressures up to 6Mpa.
Barrel type pumps will be used on boilers with rated outlet pressure in
excess of 6MPa.
Expectations from A Pump
BF Pump
R
hyd,1

R
hyd,SG

R
hyd,n

p
live water

Generate Required Live Steam Conditions !
water
m

Hydraulic Power Source


p
live steam

steam
m

S
t
e
a
m

T
u
r
b
i
n
e

Design criteria
Pump head will be maximum at zero flow with continuously decreasing
head as flow increases to insure stable operation of one pump, or multiple
pumps in parallel, at all loads.
Pumps will operate quietly at all loads without internal flashing and operate
continuously with- out overheating or objectionable noises at minimum
recirculation flow.
Provision will be made in pump design for expansion of
(a) Casing and rotor relative to one another.
(b) Casing relative to the base.
(c) Pump rotor relative to the shaft of the driver.
(d) Inner and outer casing for double casing pumps.
All rotating parts will be balanced statically - and dynamically for all
speeds.
Pump design will provide axial as well as radial balance of the rotor at all
outputs.
One end of the pump shaft will be accessible for portable tachometer
measurements.
Each pump will be provided with a pump warmup system so that when it is
used as a standby it can be hot, ready for quick startup.
This is done by connecting a small bleed line and orifice from the common
discharge header to the pump discharge inside of the stop and check valve.
Hot water can then flow back through the pump and open suction valve to
the common suction header, thus keeping the pump at operating
temperature.
Pump will be designed so that it will start safely from a cold start to full
load in 60 seconds in an emergency, although it will normally be warmed
before starting as described above.
A General Pump






Geometrical Features of Pump Impeller
Micro Fluid Dynamics of Pump
Suction
Discharge
Variation of Absolute Pressure inside A Pump
Flow Path
p
a
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

Cavitation
As the liquid flows onto the impeller of the pump it is accelerated
and initially its pressure falls (Bernoulli).
The pressure subsequently increases as the fluid leaves the
impeller and as the kinetic energy is recovered in the volute
chamber.
If the pressure of the liquid falls below the vapour pressure, P
v
, the
liquid boils, generating vapour bubbles or cavities-cavitation.
The bubbles are swept into higher pressure regions by the liquid
flow, where they collapse creating pressure waves and cause
mechanical damage to solid surfaces.
Moreover, pump discharge head is reduced at flow rates above the
cavitation point.
Operation under these conditions is not desirable and damages the
equipment.
NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head).
Net Positive Suction Head Required, NPSHr
NPSH is one of the most widely used and least understood terms
associated with pumps.
Understanding the significance of NPSH is very much essential
during installation as well as operation of the pumps.
Pumps can pump only liquids, not vapors
Rise in temperature and fall in pressure induces vaporization
NPSH as a measure to prevent liquid vaporization
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is the total head at the suction
flange of the pump less the vapor pressure converted to fluid column
height of the liquid.
NPSH
NPSH
Loss of NPSH
NPSHr is a function of pump design
NPSH required is a function of the pump design and is determined
based on actual pump test by the vendor.
As the liquid passes from the pump suction to the eye of the
impeller, the velocity increases and the pressure decreases.
There are also pressure losses due to shock and turbulence as the
liquid strikes the impeller.
The centrifugal force of the impeller vanes further increases the
velocity and decreases the pressure of the liquid.
The NPSH required is the positive head in feet absolute required at
the pump suction to overcome these pressure drops in the pump
and maintain the majority of the liquid above its vapor pressure.
The NPSH is always positive since it is expressed in terms of
absolute fluid column height.
The term "Net" refers to the actual pressure head at the pump
suction flange and not the static suction head.


NPSHr increases as capacity increases
The NPSH required varies with speed and capacity within any
particular pump.
The NPSH required increase as the capacity is increasing because
the velocity of the liquid is increasing, and as anytime the velocity of
a liquid goes up, the pressure or head comes down.
Pump manufacturer's curves normally provide this information.
The NPSH is independent of the fluid density as are all head terms.

Note: It is to be noted that the net positive suction head required
(NPSHr) number shown on the pump curves is for fresh water at
20C and not for the fluid or combinations of fluids being pumped.

Available NPSH At Site
Kinetic power mv
s
2
/2
Frictional loss in suction piping
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
g
V
h H g p p
s
fs t static inlet suction
2
2
, min ,

vapour suction available
p p NSPH =
min ,
Net Positive Suction Head available, NPSHa
Net Positive Suction Head Available is a function of the
system in which the pump operates.
It is the excess pressure of the liquid absolute over its vapor
pressure as it arrives at the pump suction, to be sure that the
pump selected does not cavitate.
It is calculated based on system or process conditions
A limit on Low Pressure feed water heat generation.
Performance of Deaerator influences NPSHa.
Deaerator Outlet Conditions
NPSHa in a nutshell

NPSHa = Pressure head + Static head - Vapor pressure head of
your product Friction head loss in the piping, valves and fittings.
All terms in feet absolute
In an existing system, the NPSHa can also be approximated by a
gauge on the pump suction using the formula:
NPSHa = hp
S
- hvp
S
hg
S
+ hv
S

hp
S
= Barometric pressure in feet absolute.
hvp
S
= Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping
temperature, in feet absolute.
hg
S
= Gauge reading at the pump suction expressed in feet (plus if
above atmospheric, minus if below atmospheric) corrected to the
pump centerline.
hv
S
= Velocity head in the suction pipe at the gauge connection,
expressed in feet.
NPSHa should always be greater than NPSHr

In-situ Expectations from A Pump
BF Pump
R
hyd,1

R
hyd,SG

R
hyd,n

p
live water

water
m

Hydraulic Power Source


p
live steam

steam
m

S
t
e
a
m

T
u
r
b
i
n
e

In-Situ Demand
Matching of A Pump with Site
Head Vs Flow Rate & Selection of Operating Point
2
2 1
Q K K H
f
+ =
Performance of A Damaged Impeller
Performance with Reduced Throat Area
Pump with Minor Wears
Pump with Excessive Wear
Pump with rough impeller & casing
Pump with lower NPSH
Boiler Feed Pump/Turbine
PERFORMANCE TEST PROTOCOL
Boiler feed pump/turbine sets should be tested on a routine basis to
determine their current performance level.
The important boiler feed pump/turbine performance indices are pump
capacity, total dynamic head (TDH) at rated speed, and relative
pump/turbine set efficiency.
This test protocol provides a method for measuring pump performance
on a repeatable basis.
These measurements allow you to reliably detect changes in
equipment condition and operating efficiencies.
Adequate information should be developed to determine if a problem
exists in the turbine, the pump, or both.
In addition, pump performance, relative to one another, should be
determined to provide guidance for maintenance efforts.
Where applicable, test results need to be compared to design and
previous test results.
Pump Performance Parameters
Pump tests may be classified as shop tests, field tests, index tests
or model tests.
This protocol describes the index field testing method to
determining the general condition of the boiler feed pump/turbine.
An index test helps guide overhaul efforts by detecting changes in
pump performance.
In general, pump performance is described in terms of efficiency
and TDH.
Pump Efficiency, q
pump
The ratio of useful power output to
shaft power

100 =
brake
water
pump
P
P
q
100
Power) (Brake Input Power Pump
Power Water
=
pump
q
total dynamic feedwater water
p m P
,
A =

( )
exit thr turbine coupling brake
h h m P =

q
h
thr
, Turbine throttle steam enthalpy
h
exit
, Turbine exit steam enthalpy
Enthalpy Drop in BFP Turbine
Enthalpy Drop, h
thr
& h
exh
(for non-condensing turbines) can be
determined from pressure and temperature measurements.
Condensing turbines provide an additional challenge because the exhaust
enthalpy cannot be accurately determined with commercially available
instrumentation.
A reduction in turbine efficiency requires that additional steam be extracted
to provide the same power output.
In this case, the performance of the pump is unchanged, and the capacity
and the TDH at rated conditions should be normal.
In addition, a reduction in pump efficiency requires that additional steam be
extracted to raise pump speed to match the system head requirement.
In this case, pump capacity and TDH at rated conditions will be lower than
normal.
When considering pump performance, test results must be corrected to a
standard condition for comparison.
The Affinity Laws state that test flow, head, and water horsepower can be
extrapolated from test speed values to design speed values by multiplying
each parameter by a correction factor.
For flow, the correction factor is the ratio of design speed
(5,600 rpm) to test speed.
For total head, the corrections factor is the ratio squared.
For water horsepower, it is the ratio cubed.
To use these relationships, an accurate measurement of pump
speed must be made during the test.