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Introduction to Management and Organizations



What Is An Organization?

Organization: a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose

elements of definition
each organization has a distinct purpose each organization is composed of people

all organizations develop some deliberate structure

Characteristics of Organizations

What Is An Organization?
An Organization Defined
A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose (that individuals independently could not accomplish alone).

Common Characteristics of Organizations

Have a distinct purpose (goal) Composed of people Have a deliberate structure

Who Are Managers?

Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished.

Classifying Managers
First-line Managers
Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees.

Middle Managers
Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers.

Top Managers
Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.

Managerial Levels

Kinds of Managers by Level and Area

Levels of Management
Top managers

Middle managers

First-line managers

Areas of Management


Management is what managers do.

Is it enough ?

The conventional definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work (Stephen Covey) The best way to manage people to superior performance is to convince them by everything you do and by your every day attitude that you are wholeheartedly supporting them (Harold S. Green) Coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively.

Mangers are people who do things right Managing is about handling things, about maintaining order, about organization and control Management is about coping with complexity Managers are builders

What Is Management?
Managerial Concerns

Doing things right Getting the most output for the least inputs Doing the right things Attaining organizational goals


Effectiveness and Efficiency in Management

Basic Purpose of Management

Using resources wisely and in a cost-effective way

Making the right decisions and successfully implementing them

Efficiency versus Effectiveness

What Do Managers Do?

Functional Approach

Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
Arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals. Working with and through people to accomplish goals.




Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work.

Management Functions

Managerial Functions
Henri Fayol was the first to describe the four managerial functions when he was the CEO of a large mining company. Fayol noted managers at all levels, operating in a for profit or not for profit organization, must perform each of the functions of: Planning, organizing, leading, controlling.

Planning is the process used by managers to identify and select appropriate goals and courses of action for an organization. 3 steps to good planning : 1. Which goals should be pursued? 2. How should the goal be attained? 3. How should resources be allocated?

In organizing, managers create the structure of working relationships between organizational members that best allows them to work together and achieve goals. Managers will group people into departments according to the tasks performed.

In leading, managers determine direction, state a clear vision for employees to follow, and help employees understand the role they play in attaining goals. Leadership involves a manager using power, motivation, influence, vision, persuasion, and communication skills.

Management in Organizations


Planning and decision making


Goals attained Efficiently Effectively



The Management Process

Planning and Decision Making
Setting the organizations goals and deciding how best to achieve them

Determining how best to group activities and resources

Controlling Monitoring
and correcting ongoing activities to facilitate goal attainment

Motivating members of the organization to work in the best interests of the organization

What Do Managers Do? (contd)

Management Roles Approach (Mintzberg)
Interpersonal roles

Figurehead, leader, liaison Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson Disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator

Informational roles

Decisional roles

What Managers Actually Do (Mintzberg)

with others with the organization with the external context of the organization

thoughtful thinking

practical doing

What Do Managers Do? (contd)

Skills Approach
Technical skills

Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field

The ability to work well with other people The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization

Human skills

Conceptual skills

Skills Needed at Different Management Levels

Conceptual Skills

Using information to solve business problems Identifying of opportunities for innovation

Recognizing problem areas and implementing solutions

Selecting critical information from masses of data Understanding of business uses of technology Understanding of organizations business model

Communication Skills

Ability to transform ideas into words and actions Credibility among colleagues, peers, and subordinates Listening and asking questions Presentation skills; spoken format Presentation skills; written and/or graphic formats

Effectiveness Skills

Contributing to corporate mission/departmental objectives

Customer focus
Multitasking: working at multiple tasks in parallel Negotiating skills Project management Reviewing operations and implementing improvements

Effectiveness Skills (contd)

Setting and maintaining performance standards internally and externally

Setting priorities for attention and activity

Time management

Interpersonal Skills (contd)

Coaching and mentoring skills Diversity skills: working with diverse people and cultures Networking within the organization Networking outside the organization Working in teams; cooperation and commitment

Management Skills and Management Function Matrix

Why Study Management?

The Value of Studying Management
The universality of management

Good management is needed in all organizations.

The reality of work

Employees either manage or are managed.

Rewards and challenges of being a manager

Management offers challenging, exciting and creative opportunities for meaningful and fulfilling work. Successful managers receive significant monetary rewards for their efforts.

Universal Need for Management

Rewards and Challenges of Being A Manager

Terms to Know
manager first-line managers middle managers top managers management efficiency effectiveness planning organizing leading controlling management roles interpersonal roles informational roles decisional roles technical skills human skills conceptual skills organization universality of management