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Synchronous Generator

By
Leelananda Pilanawithana

Synchronous Generator
Basically it consists of two main parts rotor and Stator . Stator houses armature winding(s). Rotor carries field winding which is connected to a source. DC These two produce two magnetic fields which are working in unison. One from rotor (primary field). Other one from stator (Secondary field ). Generator behavior mainly depends on the interaction between these two fields. For simplicity, two-pole generator is considered. Same arguments are valid for generators with morepoles.

Rotor Magnetic Field


Two pole Rotor

Rotor Magnetic Field


First magnetic field is set-up by the rotor with the flow of excitation current in the rotor (field ) winding. This is a dc current.

Field rotation

Rotor Field - R

N
Rotor

magnetic flux

excitation current S S
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Rotor Magnetic Field


This is very similar to a two pole bar magnet.

Excited rotor could be considered as a two pole permanent bar magnet.


Field produce by it rotates with rotor.

Rotor excitation voltage is applied near or at rated speed.


To prevent magnetic circuit saturation (over fluxing) in stator and rotor iron cores at low speed due to high current in rotor winding. Over fluxing generates heat in the irons as well as in the windings.

Stator (Armature) Magnetic Field


Rotor field induces an emf E in the stator windings (armature) where it frequency depends on rotor speed and perfectly sinusoidal (AC) in shape. As per diagram
VT Terminal voltage I = 0, E =VT .
E I VT

Equivalent cct

Gen BKR

Closing generator breaker after synchronized connects a load that generates a balance load current (I) which flows in the stator windings.
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LOAD

Stator (Armature) Magnetic Field


Its frequency is same as the grid and induced emf frequency due to rotor field. This current creates another field (fa armature field ). This field rotates synchronously with rotor the field once synchronized. Direction of rotation is depend on the connection that has been done at the stator terminals. Connection is done at construction time in such way that both fields rotate in the same direction.
Field due to stator current IS
Armature (Stator) field - fa

SN

An imaginary magnet

Stator three windings


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Stator (Armature) Magnetic Field


Armature field fa induces another voltage due to self induction in the armature (stator) winding which opposes the original E. This emf is called back emf (Eb) Due to this back emf Eb , initial current due to rotor magnetic field I is reduced, eventually producing a stable current Is in the stator. Strength of the resultant armature field is directly proportional toIs current on the stator winding. The resultant field also very similar to two pole bar magnet. Original rotor field is now heavily distorted and taken an awkward shape. Effect on the rotor field due to the resultant stator field is called Armature Reaction .
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Interaction Between Fields


Original rotor field is now heavily distorted and taken an awkward shape. Effect on the rotor field due to the resultant stator field is called Armature Reaction .

Energy transfer from mechanical to electrical is due to the interaction between rotor and stator fields.
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Interaction Between Fields


If the breaker is not closed, only the Rotor field exists in the generator air gap. It produces an emf in the stator winding. Before closing breaker, rotor field must condition for its strength (magnitude) , direction (angle) and speed (frequency) utilizing the emf parameters to suit to the grid system parameters. emf parameters could be control by using the instruments connected to the Generator winding before closing the breaker. Closing the breaker, stator windings will receive the magnetizing current from the grid system which will establishes second rotating field which immediately interacts with rotor field to produce a resultant field which is responsible for the 11 generator watt and var loads.

Interaction Between Fields


Synchronizing Synchronizing is the buzz word for this process. After synchronized, with no load, fields are perfectly align, equal in strength but opposite in direction. Opposite polarities lock fields ( magnetic pull) together. (Rotor position with respect to rotating field of the stator is locked.) This is called Synchronized. Because of the rotating fields, both produces currents in the stator winding(s) equal in magnitude but opposite in direction (one current fromMutual-Induction other one from Self-Induction Back emf ). Excitation current in the rotor is set by AVR (by settings), in such a way that once synchronized without load, the strength of the two fields are equal in magnitude.
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Interaction Between Fields


Energy input by the prime-mover is just sufficient to over come the frictional and windage losses plus any presynchronized load on rotor (compressor load on GT) .

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Equivalent Circuit and Phasor Diagram


Per Phase Equivalent Circuit IS Output current of I of a generator is depend on type of XL R load connected to it. Type of Load Inductive E VT IS lags VT Loads phase angle, lags. R Stator winding Resistance XL Stator winding reactance Phasor diagram for Inductive load IS Load current. E E Induce emf VXL VT Terminal voltage Load angle Note:- R << XL ,R could be VT neglected. Phase angle ISR emf equation IS ~ ~ ~ ~ E = I.R + I.XL + VT Load angle 14 E > VT
LOAD

Interaction Between Fields


Fields just after synch with very little load
Stator field - R Stator field axis Rotor field axis Rotor field - S Stator Field rotation

Fields after synch with increased rotor torque.


Stator field axis Rotor field axis

Imag Stator Mag

N S
Rotor as Mag

Load angel

N
Rotor Field rotation

N S
Stator

Fig 1

S
Fig 2

Perfectly aligned , equal in strength , but opposite in direction. Both fields locked together (magnetic pull ). That is how rotor lock with stator field (synchronized)

Fields shown are individual fields. Rotor fields takes awkward shape due to armature reaction . 15 But fields never cut each other.

Interaction Between Fields


Energy input by the prime-mover is just sufficient to over come the frictional and windage losses plus any pre-synchronized load on rotor (compressor load on GT) . Increasing Energy to Prime-Mover Increase energy, rotor tries to accelerate due to increasing torque on the rotor. Rotor takes new axial position with respect to previous axial position, ahead of the axis of the stator field in the rotating direction (increase torque which balances the magnetic pull ).

There is an angle between the two axes. This angle is referred to as Load Angle.

Interaction Between Fields


Increasing Energy to Prime-Mover . Rotor field is distorted due to thestator magnetic field. (Effect of armature reaction) With Increasing torque results an increase in resultant-magnetic field strength
Fields representation by phasor diagram

Just synchronized

Increase in energy Before stabilization Consider no change in stator field Stator Field increased

Increase in energy After stabilization


Load angle (0 < < 900) Rotor Field strength same Increased Resultant Magnet field

Rotor Field Equal in magnitude Opposite in direction No Resultant field Stator Field

Energy input for synch with no-load

With higher energy input than the synch

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Interaction Between Fields


Increasing Energy to Prime-Mover . Increase resultant magnetic field . It creates stator higher current in the stator winding. With increasing energy to the prime-mover/generator increases its output/Watts as well. Increase energy increases load angel. Load angel Generator load (Kilowatt output).
Phasor diagram with neglecting stator winding resistance
I XL LOAD VXL

After Energy Increased


E V1XL

VT

Before energy increase

VXL I1

VT

1
VT

Parameters behavior Induce emf E; Doesn't change . Load current I; I1 > I VXL; V1XL > VXL Load angle ; 1 > Phase angle; lags ; 1. leads Terminal volt VT; 18 Fixed by AVR .

Interaction Between Fields


Increasing Rotor Excita
Fields representation by phasor diagram
With higher energy input than the synch
Increase Rotor Excitation Voltage Increased Rotor field

Load angle Decreased 0 < < 700 Stable region

Resultant Magnet field Increased

Resultant Magnet field Stator field

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Interaction Between Fields


Increasing Rotor Excita
Phasor diagram with neglecting stator winding resistance

Equ CCT
After Energy Increase Phasor diagram
E V 1 XL

XL
VXL

After Increase Excitation phasor diagram


E1

VT

LOAD

V2XL

I1 1

VT

Parameters behavior VT fixed by AVR E1 > E I2 > I1 2 < 1 1 leads , 2 lags V2XL > V1XL

2 2 I2

VT

Interaction Between Fields


Increasing Rotor Excitation Increase excitationvoltage decreases load angle. Load current changes with phase angle. Voltage drop across XL increases. V2XL Phasor changes the angle as shown in the Phasor diagram. Load current starts to lag . Conclusions Increasing energy to prime-mover, increasesload angle , angle of power factor moves into leading direction. Increasing rotor excitation load angle decreases, angle of power factor moves into lagging direction.
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Interaction Between Fields


This undesirable effect is avoided by increasing the excitation voltage proportionately also at the same time. Whenever there is change in energy to prime-mover,excitation voltage also need to be change accordingly Normally, generator maximum load angel at full load want exceed more 700 and stays always in stable region. Load angel limits 00 < < 700. If load angle, > 900, fault Generator Pole Slipping. If this happens, that will be the end of a story. Major repairs for prime mover and Generator. Before this occurs. poll slipping relay will take care of that effect.

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Power Flow Naming convention


Lagging Current Inductive Load
Vars Export

Reactive power

Generator Power
RP Vars Export

LOAD

AP RP APP PT
Clockwise

Active Power Reactive Power Apparent power Power Triangle

(+ve) 900
Ref Direct RP Power flow

Motoring
AP Watts Import

PT
Watts Import

Y IL

PT
Watts Export

Vars Export

Lagging Current Inductive Load

Generating
(+ve) 00
AP Watts Export

Source

(-ve) 1800
Vars Import

X
Watts Import

VL
Ref Direct AP Power flow

Active power

LOAD

360-

PT

Vars Import

PT

Watts Export

Leading Current Capacitive Load

Leading Current Capacitive Load

(-ve) 2700 RP Vars Source Import

Active Power = 3.VL. IL. Cos Watts Reactive Power = 3.VL. IL. Cos Vars
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Generator Power
Inductive load
Load Current I lags terminal voltage VT Active power, Watts flows away (exports) from generator. Reactive power, Vars flows away (exports) from generator.
Load current I in phase with terminal voltage VT. Active power Watts flows away (exports) from generator. No Reactive Power Load current I leads terminal voltage VT. Active power, Watts flows away (exports) from generator. Reactive power, Vars flows toward (imports) generator.
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Resistive load

Capacitive Load

Generator Power
Phasor Diagrams
Inductive
I
Lagging current

Rotation

Resistive
In phase I current

Capacitive
VT

VT

VT
Leading current

Let, = 36 0, Then Cos = 0.8, Sin = 0.5


RP Vars

Power Triangle

Power Triangle

AP Watts

STG is as an example Vph = 10.5/3 KV, Iph= (Il) 3.969 KA, Cos = 0.79 lag. With inductive load (lagging, p.f = 0.8) Apparent power (max) 3ph APP = 3 VLIL = 3 x 10.5 x 3.969 = 72.02 MVA
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Generator Power
With inductive load Active power 3ph = 3 VLIL Cos = 3 x 10.5 x 3.969 x 0.8 = 57.75 MW (Export) Reactive power 3ph = 3 VLIL Sin = 3 x 10.5 x 3.969 x 0.6 = 36.31 MV (Export) With capacitive Load (leading p.f =0.9) Active power 3ph = 3 VLIL Cos = 3 x 10.5 x 3.969 x 0.95 = 57.75 MW (Export) Reactive power 3ph = 3 VLIL Sin = 3 x 10.5 x 3.969 x(-0.31) = 22.31 MV (Import). Notice minus sing **Refer generator capability curve.
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Generator Loading
Considering gen loading there are two type of electrical systems Large hence strong Infinite Grid which does not have any effect on its voltage or frequency. Small, weak Finite Grid which does have effect. Infinite and Finite bus (grid) Generator capacity is less than 5% of the grid capacity. WRT this generator grid is considered as infinite bus Other way around is finite bus. The two parameters that has direct impact on generator and the grid. Exciting voltage/current which automatically control byAVR to maintain the generator terminal voltage when not synchronized. When synchronized AVR controls the reactive power (VARS) . 27

Generator Loading
Steam or fuel which control by Speed Governor to control turbine speed when not synchronized. When synchronized Speed Governor controls the active power (Watts).

What is Reactive power?


Reactive power comes into existence in ac circuits when connected load contains inductive or capacitive or both with resistive components. Components need to magnetize if it is inductive or charge if it is capacitive to become active. One-fourth (quarter) of an ac cycle those components store energy drawn from the source. Next quarter cycle they dump all stored energy back to the source . This energy (called Reactive Power ) travels back and forth between source and load . 28

Reactive power
Net energy consume is zero. But contribute significant current into the circuit. With resistive componentsenergy travels only on onward direction (export). With reactive componentsreactive power travels back/forth (export/import) depend on excitation. Generators can generate or absorb reactive power depending on how it is excited. If overexcited they supply the reactive power to the load. When under-excited they absorb reactive power from the load. The automatic voltage regulators with the help of exciter of generators accomplishes this task. The exciter is the one who produce and the AVR is the one who control its direction of flow. 29

Excitation System
The exciter with AVR is the "backbone" of the generator control system. It is the power source that supplies the dc magnetizing current to the field windings.

Excitation System Schematic


Quadrature axis measuring coil. Slip Rings PMG Main Exciter (Armature) DC Rails Armature Three phase leads Conn- Discharge Gen Rotor Field ectors Resister Winding

Pilot exciter

Stator (Armature) AVR Main Exciter field winding

Gen Stator Slip Rings are to detect Main Silicon rectifiers Quadrature axisvoltage faults. Windings AVR Automatic ground to DC Exciter Armature measuring Convert AC coil to measure main exciter regulator connected tosource fault They are converts emf earth armature induceFuse ProvideProduce 3 AC field for phase 220V Pilot Exciter poles 3 Remove AC exciter 6 through to DCHz, detecting Diode voltage. relay Capacitor PE power 50 Hz ACexciter carbon Stator from pilot supply for main produces 400 V, 150 phase, DC Hz AC generator. rippleand providesfor AVR from 150 brushes.main rotor field 3 phase supply regulated DC Permanent Magnet Generator excitation current to exciter field provides field for pilot exciter Short Disconnect winding with reference to Rotor Diode Wheel circuited diode. CT and Generator terminal voltage VT. Main Exciter

Feedback for AVR to adjust the I terminal voltage with a reference and to calculate the power factor.

PTS

Exciter Rotor and Diode Wheel


Three phase Rotating Armature
Slip Rings Permanent Magnet Field of Pilot Exciter

Capacitor

Connectors

Diode Wheel

Diode
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Generator Capability Curve


The amount of power that a generator can deliver is defined by the "generator capability curve". Heating constraints pose the largest limiting factors on the generator output.

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Generator Capability Curve


The factors that limit the Generator output
Rotor winding heating. (I2R, I rotor excitation current, R rotor
winding resistance)

Stator winding heating. (I2R, I load current, R stator winding


resistance)

Rotor/Stator iron core heating. (Flux related. Over fluxing produce eddy current in iron cores. Result is iron core heating.) Armature (Stator) core end Iron Heating. [Cause is under excitation (at leading power factor).] Stability (Load angle). Prime Mover capability limits.

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ST Generator Capability Curve


0.79
E A

F B

A-B E-F

- Field winding Heating Limitation


- Armature winding Heating Limitation
H C G

B-C F-G

G-C-H-D Armature core end Iron Heating Limitation. B-H Prime Mover Limitation

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Generator Reactive Power Controls

Methods.

Var control.

Var Control Power Factor control When Var control mode, Var value produce by the generator does not allow to change. Keep this value at a constant.

The effect is readily understandable with constructing a phasor diagram of the Power Triangle
Initial Values watt1, Var1, APP1 and 1 1 is lagging. Changing Active Power Increasing Active Power to Watt2. Decreasing Active Power to Watt3.
Rotation

Start to draw with initial values


Watt3 1 3 2 Watt1 Watt2

Watts

PF Leading PF Lagging

Var1

Var1

Var1

Var1

Vars

Constant Var line (Keeping Var constant)

Increasing active power (Watts), phase angle moves toward leading direction (Here it is decreased). 37 Decreasing active power (Watts), phase angle moves toward lagging direction (Here it is increased)..

Generator Reactive Power Controls


To understand, start with constructing the Power Triangle Phasor Diagram
Change Power Factor still keeping the Var value at a constant Initial Values watt1, Var1, APP1 and 1 1 is lagging. Move Power, factor leading direction. Reduce 1 to > 2 Move Power factor lagging direction. Increase 1 to < 3

Start to draw with initial values


Watt3 1 Watt1

Watt2

Watts

PF Lagging

Rotation

PF Leading

Var1

Var1

Var1

Var1

Vars

Constant Var line (Keeping Var constant)

Moving pf lagging direction (reducing) active power (Watts), increases var remains unchanged. Moving pf leading direction (increasing) active power (Watts), decreases, var remains unchanged.
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Generator Reactive Power Controls


Power Factor control
When power factor control mode, power factor value set by the operator does not allow to change. Keep this value at a constant. Use again Power triangle method Start to draw with initial values
Initial Values watt1, Var1, APP1 and is lagging. Changing Active Power Increasing active power to Watt2, without changing . With Constant
Rotation Var3 Watt3 Var3 Watt1 Watt2 Watts

PF Leading PF Lagging

Var1

Var1

Decreasing active power to Watt3, without changing .

Var2

Var2

Increasing one quantity, watts/vars also increases the other quantity vars/watts. Decreasing one quantity, watts/vars also decreases the other quantity vars/watts.

Vars

Power in Parallel Generators


Generator 1
Watt1 1 Var2 2

Generator 2
Watt2

Var1

Combine
Watt3

Watt1
1 3

Watt2

Var3 Var1

Gen 1
Watt2 2 Var2 Var2

Gen 2

Shaft Voltage and Currents


During operation of a generator, there are two possible causes of voltage induction on rotor shaft :
Electromagnetic imbalance of the generator winding in the generator magnetic paths may create an electric potential between opposite ends of the generator shaft. A capacitive voltage due to a ripple on the DC field voltage may result in a voltage from shaft to ground.

This shaft voltage if not properly manage would causes a destructive current to flow through bearings and other components like gear drives inflicting severe damages to them.

Shaft Voltage and Currents


This side of the shaft is at higher potential Brushes PrimeMover

Generator

Exciter Insulator pads Insulated bearing pedestals

PE

Building up of potential at generator exciter end is not preventable. Insulated pads prevent current circulation due to this potential.

Synchronous Generator

End. Question? Thank You.


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