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BENT 3163
TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 6 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION FAUZI HJ ABDUL WAHAB 2_2011/2012

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OBJECTIVE
Students able to:
analyse wireless communication system.

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Chapter Outline
1. Introduction

2.

Cellular Mobile Telephone systems


o Network o Personal Communications Systems

3.
4.

Analogue vs Digital Access


3G Network & Access

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Introduction
Growing at exponential rate.

o Demand for information at your fingertip.


Communications, monitoring or control system o Electromagnetic waves carry signals through atmospheric space (rather than

along wires).
Characteristics of radio (or EM wave) propagations over geographical area influence design and performance.

Earths atmospheric (troposphere & ionosphere) affect.

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Introduction
Troposphere effects, (15 km range) include atmospheric precipitation:

o fog, raindrops, snow & hail


Wireless system use RF or IR IR more appealing due to no licensing requirement

o FCC, ITU, etc.


Competing standards for communication protocols, interfaces and networks.

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Early development, mainly applied to military and public safety services until end

of WW II.
Mobile Telephone System first introduced to public in 1946. Started with simplex system and manual operations.

Full duplex automatic switching system (IMTS Improved Mobile Telephone


System in 1964) using 450 MHz band. Rapid and high demand causes AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) being

introduced in 1983.

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First digital cellular services made available

More efficient utilisation of bandwidth (voice compression)


o FM modulation, FDMA, TDMA, CDMA General concept evolution:

o Global System for Mobile communication(GSM)


o Personal Communication System (or GSM II) o Satellite based, Personal Communication Satellite System (PCSS)

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To build GSM system, certain specification must be followed. o Several network operators in each country (why?) o Open system (well defined interfaces) o GSM network built must not cause major changes to PSTN. Other demands o Pan European System o Good speech quality o Use radio frequencies efficiently o High/adequate capacity. o Compatible with ISDN & other data comm. Specifications o Good security.
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Advantages (summarised):

o GSM uses RF efficiently, due to digital radio path, intercell disturbance


tolerance. o Average speech quality achieved better than analogue cellular systems.

o Data transmission supported.


o Speech is encrypted and subscriber information guaranteed security. o New services (or more) than analogue system.

o International roaming possible.


o Market increases (investment and usage)
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GSM World Evolution
Phase Year 1982 1985 I 1986 1987 1988 1989 Event

CEPT initiated new cellular system. Reserve 900 MHz band GSM allowing roaming.
CEPT made decision on time schedule and action plan. CEPT tested 8 experimental systems in Paris. MoU of frequency allocations (890 915 uplink), (935 960 downlink) ETSI formed Final recommendations and specifications for GSM Phase I

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GSM World Evolution
Phase Year 1990 II 1991 1992 1993 III 1994 1995 Event

Validation systems implemented (1st GSM world congress in Rome 650 participants)
First official worlds GSM call (1st July). Worlds First GSM Network launched (Finland). 13 network operating in 7 areas. New frequency allocations for GSM 1800 (DCS 1800), (1710 1785 uplink), (1805 1880 downlink)

First roaming (include 32 GSM networks operating in 18 areas)


GSM II launched (data/fax bearer) include 69 GSM networks. MoU change to Association with 156 members from 86 areas. GSM World Congress held in Madrid with 1400 participants. 117 GSM network operating around the world. Fax, data, SMS roaming implemented.
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Cellular Networks

Any mobile communication network with series of overlapping hexagonal cells in


a honeycomb pattern. Cellular technology

o shortwave analogue or digital transmission where users have wireless


connection from MS to relative nearby base station. Mobile station

o transmitter, receiver, controller and antenna system and wireless link to MSC.
Base station coverage span called cell

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Honeycomb Cell Pattern

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Cells can be

o Small (individual building)


o Large (20 miles across) o Or any size in between

As cellular device, or MS moves from one cell coverage to another,


o MSC sense weakening signals and automatically handsoff (or handover) calls to next BSC or.

o BSC handsoff calls to next cells.


Cellular systems allocate a set number of frequencies for each cell.
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Cellular Mobile Telephone System


2 cells can use same frequency as long as cell are not adjacent to each other.

New development is to have several sizes in the honeycomb cell patterns.


Macrocell, microcell, picocell. o Small cells works best with omnidirectional antennas.

How to optimise frequencies allocations: frequency reuse.


2 cells can use the same frequency for different conversations as long as the cells are not adjacent to each other.

Every 7th cell use the same set of channels or frequencies.

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o Mathematically, total number of cellular channels available in a cluster:

F GN
F G N number of cellular channels number of channels in a cell number of cells in a cluster

(6.1)

o When clusters are duplicated m times within given service area, total number of channels

C mGN

(6.2)

C mG N -

total channel capacity number of clusters number of channels in a cell number of cells in a cluster.
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This is useful for determining total number of channels can be used and reused.

To determine the channel allocations, frequency planning should be done.


Cellular concept: o System with many low power transmitter. (Why low power?)

Each base station assigned to different groups of channels


o Interference between base stations minimised (cochannel & adjacentchannel interference)

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So what is frequency reuse?

o Planned frequencies so that high capacity achieved with interference under


specific level. Subscribers may use same sets of channels in nonadjacent cells.

o Same frequency?
Frequency reuse factor (number of users) can be expressed as

N FRC C
N - number of channels in an area (full duplex)
C - number of channel in a cell (full duplex)

(6.3)

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Channel Assignment

GSM 900

45 MHz 45 MHz 880 890 915 925 935 960

GSM900 UPLINK E-GSM900 UPLINK

GSM900 DOWNLINK E-GSM900 DOWNLINK

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Channel Assignment

GSM 1800

Guard Band
95 MHz 1710 1785 1805 1880

DCS1800 UPLINK

DCS1800 DOWNLINK

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Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number

Guard band
o 20 MHz for GSM I and GSM II o 10 MHz for EGSM

Channel separation (UplinkDownlink)


o 45 MHz for GSM I and EGSM o 95 MHz for GSM II Each channel (or carrier) bandwidth o 200 kHz
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Proper channel allocations is very crucial as frequency spectrum very limited.

Mathematically, to determine corresponding frequency (GSM 900):

f t 890 (0.2) N f r f t 45
(1 N 124) ft - transmit frequency (downlink) MHz fr - receive frequency (uplink) MHz N - channel number

(6.4)

(6.5)

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For GSM II (GSM 1800)

f t 1710 (0.2)( N 512 ) f r f t 95


(512 N 885)
GSM I (900) 124 channels 374 channels

(6.6)

(6.7)

GSM II (1800) -

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Automatic Frequency Planning

o Feature offered to assist rapidly channel assignment work and reliable channel
assignment. o Complex algorithm solving based on interference, field strength and density.

o Solving cell boundaries disputes.


o Useful for big and complex network. Frequency Hopping

o Successive TDMA burst of connection transmitted via different frequencies


(belonging to respective cell). o Link quality may change
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Personal Communication System

o New bread of cellular


o Intelligent network + cellular o FCC defines as

family of mobile communication services for individuals and business integrating


variety of competing network o Better quality of service and smaller in size.

o Some declared it as 3rd generation cellular phone and also microcellular


system. o But drawback is expensive system (smaller cells) disadvantage setback
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Personal Communication System

Goals to provide:
o Voice, data & video o Close to universal access irrespective of time, location & mobility patterns

Three categories
o Broadband (cellular & cordless handset services) o Narrowband (enhancing paging functions) o Unlicensed (shortdistance operations)

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Cellular Mobile Telephone System


Personal Communication System

PCS networks & existing cellular networks complement each other (instead of
competing). Architecture resembles cellular network & enhanced:

o Speech quality
o Radio link architecture flexibility o Economics serving highuser density

o Handsets with lower power consumption

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Personal Communication System

PCS variable sizes and hierarchical cell structure:


o Picocell (lowpower indoor applications) o Microcell (lower power outdoor pedestrian applications)

o Macrocell (for high power vehicular applications)


o Supermacro cells (satellites)

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Cells Architecture

Illustration courtesy of Gokhale, Introduction to Telecommunications


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Analogue vs Digital Access


Three modes of wireless access:

o FrequencyDivision Multiple Access (FDMA)


o TimeDivision Multiple Access (TDMA) o CodeDivision Multiple Access (CDMA)

Analogue system
o Actual sound (callers voice pattern) transmitted over the airwaves. Digital system
o Better coverage o Broadband communications o Ability to add new features & functions
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o More calls per channel o Less noise interference

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Analogue vs Digital Access


Cellular system Generation 1st Generation (FDMA) Advantage Widest coverage including rural Disadvantage Power Security Not optimised for data Limited capacity

2nd Generation (TDMA)


3rd Generation (CDMA)

Better security Higher capacity


Very high security Improved capacity Greater interference immunity Soft handoff (no interruption)

May experience interruption during handoff


Limited coverage.

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3G Network & Access


New demand made future mobile cellular systems as individuals and business

way.
Access to internet become more important. New services required more than speech and data

o Video other multimedia applications.


o Highspeed data -> 3rd Generation Mobile. European 3rd Gen. System

o Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)


o ETSI o Radio air interface based on WCDMA.
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ITU named 3rd Gen. Mobile System as IMT2000 (frequency band in region of

2000 MHz).
o Seamless o Global communication service through small, lightweight terminals.

o Radio frequency range of 1885 ~ 2200 MHz.


o GSM system evolve towards UMTS progressively in steps. GSM HSCSD GPRS EDGE

3rd Gen. UMTS


High Speed Circuit Switched Data, General Packet Radio Services Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
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HSCSD

o Modified air interface timeslots of TDMA (9.6 kbits/s) to 14.4 kbits/s.


o Increase data calls speed by means of multi timeslot usage. o Combine 4 TDMA timeslots to provide 57.6 kbits/s transfer rate. (multiple

bursts).
o May cost more for subscribers/users but time required is shorter. o At that time, mostly no hardware change (for MSC) required.

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GPRS o Gives direct link for mobile communication to internet. o Gives subscribers/users same experience as if they are connected to LAN. o Charged by actual amount of data transfer. o Higher transmission speed. o Cost efficient for operators too. o Allowing faster download, increases average usage levels (radio resources).

o Require modification to network:


SGSN (serving GPRS Support Node) maintain location of mobile station GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) enables data packets passed to

switch.

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EDGE

o Bridge from GSM to 3rd Gen mobile network.


o Advanced GSM modulation technique to provide 384 kbits/s at 200 kHz GSM channel (6 X 64 kbits/s), and same structure of TDMA frame structure.

o Extra capacity achieved by increasing data capacity of single GSM timeslot 9.6
kbits/s to 48 kbits/s (or some may reach 70 kbits/s) o Flexible timeslots to allow several simultaneous services.

o Handles:
Internet/intranet, Video conferencing, Fast email o Require minor changes to network hardware/software
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GSM and 3G network interworking solution

Illustration courtesy of Nokia Telecommunication Oy.


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Actual 3rd Gen. Network (WCDMA)

Illustration courtesy of Nokia Telecommunication Oy.


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