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Objective One
GAS FIRING SYSTEM

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Gas Supply Train

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Gas Supply Train

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Objective Two
GAS BURNER TYPES
Since natural gas is already in an atomized state, there is no need for further atomization at the burner. However, the burner must be able to control the amount of air admitted to burn the gas and also must be able to cause turbulent mixing of the gas and air. Most burners have the fuel entering the combustion air stream at or near a right angle to promote good mixing. There are several different designs of gas burners in use for steam generation and three common types are discussed briefly in this module.

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Multi-Spud Burner
This burner has eight spuds or jets connected to a circular manifold. Fig. 4 shows the multispud gas burner

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View of Multi-Spud Burner From Furnace


A view of the multi-spud burner showing the burner throat, the position of the spuds, and the impeller is shown in Fig. 5. The impeller is used to give the proper flame distribution around the burner throat. The impeller may also be called a swirl plate, depending upon the burner manufacturer.

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Fig. 6 illustrates the airflow and flame pattern of a typical multi spud burner. This burner also has a recirculating flame pattern for low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions.

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Ring Type Burner

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High Efficiency Low NOx Burners Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emissions, which are formed by combustion at high temperatures. The NOx is formed by two methods:
1. Thermal NOx - The nitrogen and oxygen in the combustion air react at high temperatures to form NOx. The thermal NOx reaction occurs rapidly above 1535C. 2. Fuel NOx The nitrogen in the fuel reacts with the oxygen in the combustion air to form NOx. Natural gas normally has a low nitrogen content. Therefore thermal NOx is the main source of NOx emissions in natural gas firing.

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Examples of Low NOx Burners

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The chart in Fig. 9 reveals the NOx reduction possible using Coens DAF Technology. The graph compares NOx levels of different DAF burners to a standard gas burner on a package boiler. The standard burners run in the 100-200 ppm range, while the low NOx designs run in the 25-80 ppm range.

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Objective Three
FUEL OIL HANDLING
The handling of heavy fuel oil involves the storage, heating, pumping, and burning of the oil while the handling of the lighter oils involves the same operations with the exception of heating.

Storage Tanks

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Oil Pumps

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Objective Four

OIL BURNER TYPES


The principal functions of an oil burner are to change the liquid oil into a fine mist or vapor-like state and then to thoroughly mix this vapor with air so that combustion can take place quickly and efficiently.

Mechanical Atomizing Burners

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Mechanical Atomizer With Air Diffuser

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Steam or Air Atomizing Burners

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Steam or Air Atomizing Burner, External Mixing

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Air Atomizing Burner

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Rotary Cup Oil Burner

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Objective Five
COAL HANDLING SYSTEMS
Present-day coal handling is highly mechanized or even remotely controlled in some cases; together with the ash removal plant it accounts for a considerable part of the investment cost and is very often the major maintenance item.

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Fig. 19 is a photograph of a coal pile, showing the crusher house and conveyor belts.

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Plan of Power Plant Coal Handling

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Rotary Car Dumper

Coal Tower with Clamshell

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Belt Scale

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Belt Weighing Machine

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Head Pulley Discharge

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Magnetic Pulley for Belt Conveyor

Rat-Holing and Arching In Coal Bunkers

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Coal Stocking

Drag Scraper Layouts

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Coal Handling With Mobile Equipment

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Layering of Coal Piles

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Objective Six PULVERIZED COAL BURNERS


After the coal has been pulverized, the coal-air mixture passes through suitable piping to the burners located at the furnace. The air carrying the coal is known as primary air and ranges from 0 to 20 % of the total air requirements. The other 80-90% is called secondary air and it combines with the primary air and coal at the burner. There are three general firing arrangements: horizontal firing, vertical firing, and tangential firing.

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Horizontal Firing
A horizontal arrangement is shown in Fig. 31. The burner or burners are located in the front wall and flame travels horizontally across the furnace.

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Pulverized Coal
Burner for Horizontal Firing

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Vertical Firing Vertical Firing Arrangement

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Burner for Vertical Firing

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Tangential Firing

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Tangential Burner

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Cyclone Furnaces

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The details of a cyclone furnace are shown in Fig. 38, while Fig. 39 illustrates three different arrangements of cyclones in relation to boiler furnaces.

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Cyclone Furnace Types

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Objective Seven
PULVERIZERS
A wide variety of devices have been designed to pulverize coals. Each design is particularly suitable for a type of coal and application. These pulverizers are commonly called mills, and the most common designs are described as follows.

Tube (or Ball) Mill


A tube (or ball) mill is a hollow, horizontal cylinder, which rotates on its axis at a speed of 18 to 35 r/min. The inside of the cylindrical shell is fitted with heavy cast liners and is filled, approximately half full, with forged steel or cast alloy balls, ranging in diameter from 25 mm to 51 mm. See Fig. 40.

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The coal is fed into the rotating cylinder and intermingles with the balls.

Pulverization, through continual cascading of the mixture, results from:


Impact, as the balls fall on the large pieces of coal.
Attrition, as particles slide over each other as well as over the liners. Crushing, as balls roll over each other and over the liners with coal particles between them

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Tube Mill
Referring to Fig. 41, coal enters the air-swept tube mill through the feeder at the upper left, and is carried out of the mill with the airflow created by the exhauster at the upper right of the mill.

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Impact Mill
High-speed impact pulverizers (turning at 1200 to 1800 r/min) consist of a series of hinged or fixed hammers revolving in a chamber that is lined with wear-resistant, metal plates, as shown in Fig. 42 and Fig. 43.

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Impact Mill

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Ball Race Mill

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Diagram of Ball Race Mill

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Bowl Mill

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Objective Eight
UNDERFEED STOKER
Stokers are classified as overfeed, underfeed, or crossfeed type, depending on whether the coal is fed into the furnace from above, below, or the side of the fuel bed.

The underfeed method is based on the upward, parallel flow of fuel and air. Since fresh coal is admitted beneath the burning fuel bed, volatile matter, moisture, and air pass through the active burning zone, and less soot and smoke are produced than with overfeed firing. Referring to Fig. 47, the underfeed fuel-bed section receives fresh coal fed upward between the two tuyeres.

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Single Retort Underfeed Stoker

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Single Retort Stoker

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Underfeed Stoker

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Overfeed Stocker
An overfeed stoker, shown schematically in Fig. 51, uses the countercurrent flow of fuel and air, with fuel flowing downward and air flowing upward. The freshly charged fuel is heated by the burning coal on the grate and by hot combustion gases rising from the grate. Anthracite and bituminous coals are suitable for this type of firing. Referring to Fig. 51, the overfeed fuel-bed section receives fresh (green) coal on the top surface. The ignition plane lies between the green coal and the incandescent coke.

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Spreader Stoker

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Crossfeed Stocker

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Crossfeed Stoker Arrangement

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Traveling Grate or Crossfeed Stoker

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Types of Grates

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Traveling Bar Grate Surface

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Fired Heaters
Objective One
DIRECT FIRED HEATER USES

Direct-fired heaters are common in refineries and chemical plants. They are used to heat fluids for different process functions. They are called direct-fired because the tubes carrying the fluid to be heated come in direct contact with the heat of the furnace. The process fluid is heated directly in the furnace. Some of the uses for direct-fired heaters are:

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Fractionator reboiling. They are used to heat fluid drawn off the bottom of a fractionator tower, so that the fluid can re-enter the fractionator tower in a partially vaporized state. This arrangement is shown in Fig. 1.

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Preheating the feed to a fractionator tower: The heater is used to heat the makeup to the fractionator tower (Fig. 2).

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Preheating the process feed to a reactor: The heater heats the process flow to a reactor. The fluid must be hot enough for the reaction to occur. Start-up heaters are used only to get the chemical reaction started. When the reaction is selfsufficient, the heater is shutdown. This arrangement is shown in Fig. 3. For chemical reactions: The fired heater may be used to heat a fluid to promote a direct chemical reaction. This reaction will occur inside the heater tubes.

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To heat a heat transfer medium: The heat transfer medium, such as hot oil, is used to heat various process operations throughout the plant. The fired heater continuously heats the hot oil, as in Fig. 4.

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For Fluid Heating ( Courtesy of Born Canada )

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FIRED HEATER DESIGNS

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Process Heater Designs ( CRC Press )

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VERTICAL HEATER CONSTRUCTION

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Fig. 9 shows a typical process heater or furnace of vertical cylindrical design. These types of heaters are very common in chemical processing facilities. They are bottom fired and have a cylindrical radiant section. The convection section is rectangular and sits on top of the radiant section. The stack is mounted on top of the convection section. They are normally natural draft. The burners fire upward into the radiant furnace. Ladders and platforms allow access to the convection section and stack damper. Fig. 10 is a photograph of this type of heater as installed in a process plant.

Vertical Cylindrical Heater

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Objective Three
Gas Burner for Fired Heater

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Natural Gas Burner For A Vertical Heater John Zinc)

(Courtesy

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FLAME SCANNERS

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Objective Four
FUEL GAS SUPPLY SYSTEM

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Fuel Gas System Piping with Field Control Cabinet (Courtesy Born Canada)

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Objective Five
HEATER MONITORING Controlling heater operation requires knowledge of the heater temperatures. Most heaters have thermocouples permanently mounted in different locations. Normal locations for process side thermocouples are: Inlet to the convection section

Between the convection section and radiant section


At the outlet of the radiant section

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Draft Monitoring

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Draft Sample Points (Courtesy Born Canada)

The draft sampling system must be air tight because of the very small pressures being measured. Any leakage into the sampling lines or tubes will cause a false reading. Normal areas to measure draft are near the floor of the firebox, just below the convection section, and in the duct above the convection section, as shown in Fig. 17.

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Excess Air

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Protective Devices
Examples of shutdowns that are built into a fired heater control system are:
Emergency shutdown switch: This is a manually activated switch, which the operator would use in case of emergency. There is often a switch in the field and in the control room. High or low fuel gas pressure shutdowns: These switches are set to ensure the burners are functioning within their safe limits.

Flame out: The burner flame scanners will shut off the fuel supply to the burners if a stable flame is not maintained.

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High stack temperature: This trip is set to guard against the overheating of the heater process coils. It is a signal that the heater is firing too hard, or that there is a tube leak inside the heater, adding fuel to the heat of the burners. Low process flow: If the flow of fluid through the tubes were interrupted for some reason, the tubes would quickly overheat. The heater is shutdown until a normal flow is reestablished.

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Objective Six
HEATER STARTUP PROCEDURE
A burner management system is built into each process heater to ensure that the burners will be lit safely. Control is transferred to the automatic control system only when safe to do so. Fig. 19 illustrates such a system. The sequence of events begins with the power being turned on to the burner management system. When power is turned on, the burner management system will acknowledge, and allow the next step to proceed.

Permissives are checked before the purge can be started. Permissives include: Fuel valves to the pilots and burners are closed The stack damper is open The fuel gas supply pressure to the pilots and burners is within an acceptable operating range Other safety conditions specific to the heater are met

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Burner Management System

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Objective Seven
Indirect Fired Heater and Coil Assemblies

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Heater Firetube

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Steam Bath Heater

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Salt Bath Indirect Fired Heater