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EBT 212: Dynamics

Kinematics of Particles
Nur Farhana Diyana Mohd Yunos
nurfarhanamyunos@yahoo.com
Chapter Outline: Kinematics of Particles
1) Introduction
2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
5) Motion of a Projectile
6) Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential
Components
7) Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components
8) Constrained Coordinates and Cylindrical
Coordinates
1) Introduction
Mechanics the state of rest of motion of bodies
subjected to the action of forces
Static equilibrium of a body that is either at
rest or moves with constant velocity
Dynamics deals with accelerated motion of a
body

1) Kinematics treats with geometric aspects of
the motion
2) Kinetics analysis of the forces causing the
motion
2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
Rectilinear Kinematics specifying at any instant, the
particles position, velocity, and acceleration
Position
1) Single coordinate axis, s
2) Origin, O
3) Position vector, r specific location of particle P at any
instant
4) Algebraic Scalar s in metres
Note : - Magnitude of s = Dist from O to P
- The sense (arrowhead dir of r) is defined by
algebraic sign on s
=> +ve = right of origin, -ve = left of origin
Displacement change in its position, vector quantity
If particle moves from P to P
r = r-r
s = s-s



Velocity
Average velocity,

Instantaneous velocity is defined as,
speed


2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
t
r
v
avg
A
A
=
) / (
lim
0
t r v
t
ins
A A =
A
dt
dr
v
ins
=

) / ( s m
dt
ds
v =

Average speed is defined as total distance traveled by a
particle, sT, divided by the elapsed time t.



The particle travels along the path of length sT in time



2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
t
s
v
T
avg sp
A
= ) (
t
s
v
avg
A
A
=
Acceleration velocity of particle is known at points P and P
during time interval t, average acceleration is


Instantaneous acceleration at time t is found by taking smaller
and smaller values of t and corresponding smaller and smaller
values of v,

t
v
a
avg
A
A
=
2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
) / (
2
s m
dt
dv
a =
) / (
2
2
2
s m
dt
v d
a =
a ds = v dv
Particle is slowing down, its speed is decreasing =>
decelerating =>will be negative.
Consequently, a will also be negative, therefore it will
act to the left, in the opposite sense to v
If velocity is constant, acceleration is zero
Velocity as a
Function of Time
Integrate
ac = dv/dt,
assuming that
initially v= v0
when t = 0.






Constant acceleration







2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
dt a dv
v t
c
} }
=
0 0
t a v v
c
+ =
0
Position as a
Function of Time
Integrate
v = ds/dt = v0 + act,
assuming that
initially s = s0 when t
= 0







Constant acceleration
















dt t a v ds
s t
c
) (
0 0
0
} }
+ =
2
0 0
2
1
t a t v s s
c
+ + =
Velocity as a
Function of
Position
Integrate
v dv = ac ds,
assuming that
initially v = v0 at
s = s0






Constant acceleration
















ds a vdv
v
v
s
s
c
} }
=
0 0
) ( 2
0
2
0
2
s s a
v
v
c
+ =
The car moves in a straight line such that for a short time its velocity is defined
by v = (0.9t
2
+ 0.6t) m/s where t is in sec. Determine it position and
acceleration when t = 3s. When t = 0, s = 0.




Ans: s=10.8 m, a=6m/s
2

Example 1:
Example 2:
A small projectile is forced downward into a fluid medium with an initial
velocity of 60m/s. Due to the resistance of the fluid the projectile
experiences a deceleration equal to a = (-0.4v
2
)m/s
2
, where v is in m/s
2
.
Determine the projectiles velocity and position 4s after it is fired.


3
4 . 0 v
dt
dv
a = =
s m t v
t
v
dt
v
dt
v
dv
t
v
v
s m
t
/ 8 . 0
) 60 (
1
) 60 (
1 1
8 . 0
1
1
2
1
4 . 0
1
4 . 0
2
2
2 2
0 60
/ 60 0
3
2

+ =
=
(


=
|
.
|

\
|

=

}
} }
When t=4s, v=0.599 m/s
m t s
t s
dt t ds
t
dt
ds
v
t
s t

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
)
`

+ =

} }
60
1
8 . 0
) 60 (
1
4 . 0
1
8 . 0
) 60 (
1
8 . 0
2
8 . 0
) 60 (
1
8 . 0
) 60 (
1
2 / 1
2
0
2 / 1
2
2 / 1
0 0
2
2 / 1
2
When t=4s, s=4.43 m/s
Example 3:
A rocket travel upward at 75 m/s. When it is 40m from the ground, the engine
fails. Determine max height s
B
reached by the rocket and its speed just
before it hits the ground.

Solution: Rocket traveling upward, v
A
= +75m/s when t = 0. s = s
B
when
v
B
= 0 at max ht. For entire motion, acceleration a
C
= -9.81m/s
2

(negative since it act opposite sense to positive velocity or positive
displacement)
m s
m s s m s m
s s a v v
B
B
A B C A B
327
) 40 )( / 81 . 9 ( 2 ) / 75 ( 0
) ( 2
2 2
2 2
=
+ =
+ =
s m s
m s m
s s a v v
B
B C C B C
/ 1 . 80
) 327 0 )( / 81 . 9 ( 2 0
) ( 2
2
2 2
=
+ =
+ =
When particles motion is erratic, it is best described
graphically using a series of curves that can be generated
experimentally from computer output.
a graph can be established describing the relationship with any
two of the variables, a, v, s, t
using the kinematics equations a = dv/dt, v = ds/dt, a ds = v dv
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given the s-t Graph, construct the v-t Graph
The s-t graph can be plotted if the position of the particle can be
determined experimentally during a period of time t.
To determine the particles velocity as a function of time, the v-t
Graph, use v = ds/dt
Velocity as any instant is determined by measuring the slope of
the s-t graph
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
v
dt
ds
=
Slope of s-t graph=velocity
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Example 4:
A bicycle moves along a straight road such that it
position is described by the graph as shown.
Construct the v-t and a-t graphs for 0 t 30s.
v-t Graph. The v-t graph can be determined by
differentiating the eqns defining the s-t graph
a-t Graph. The a-t graph can be determined by
differentiating the eqns defining the lines of the
v-t graph.
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given the a-t Graph, construct the v-t Graph
When the a-t graph is known, the v-t graph may be constructed
using a = dv/dt
Knowing particles initial velocity v0, and add to
this small increments of area (v)
Successive points v1 = v0 + v, for the v-t graph
Each eqn for each segment of the a-t graph may
be integrated to yield eqns for corresponding
segments of the v-t graph
Example 5:
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
v-t Graph. The v-t graph can be determined by
integrating the straight-line segments of the a-t graph.
Using initial condition v = 0 when t = 0,
A test car starts from rest and travels along a straight track
such that it accelerates at a constant rate for 10 s and then
decelerates at a constant rate. Draw the v-t and s-t graphs
and determine the time t needed to stop the car. How far
has the car traveled?
When t = 10s, v = 100m/s, using this as initial condition
for the next time period, we have
When t = t we require v = 0. This yield t = 60 s
s-t Graph. Integrating the eqns of the v-t graph yields the corresponding
eqns of the s-t graph. Using the initial conditions s = 0 when t = 0,
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
When t = 10s, s = 500m. Using this initial condition,
When t = 60s, the position is s = 3000m
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given the a-s Graph, construct the v-s Graph
v-s graph can be determined by using v dv = a ds, integrating
this eqn between the limit v = v0 at s = s0 and v = v1 at s = s1
determine the eqns which define the segments
of the a-s graph
corresponding eqns defining the segments of the
v-s graph can be obtained from integration,
using v dv = a ds
Given the v-s Graph, construct the a-s Graph
v-s graph is known, the acceleration a at any
position s can be determined using a ds = v dv
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
At any point (s,v), the slope dv/ds of the v-s graph is
measured
Since v and dv/ds are known, the value of a can be
calculated
Example 6:
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
The v-s graph describing the motion of a
motorcycle is shown in Fig 12-15a. Construct the a-s
graph of the motion and determine the time needed
for the motorcycle to reach the position s = 120 m.
Ans: At s=60m, t=8.05 s
Ans: At s=120m, t=12.0 s
Curvilinear motion occurs when the particle moves along a
curved path.
Occasionally the motion of particle represent using a fixed x, y,
z frame of reference.
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

Position. Position vector is defined by
The magnitude of r is always positive and defined as
The direction of r is specified by
the components of the unit
vector ur = r/r
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

The velocity has a magnitude
defined as the positive value of
Velocity.
where
and a direction that is specified by the components of the unit
vector uv=v/v and is always tangent to the path.
Acceleration.
where
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

The acceleration has a magnitude defined as the positive
value of
The acceleration has a direction specified by the components of
the unit vector ua = a/a.
Since a represents the time rate of change in velocity, a
will not be tangent to the path.
Example 7:
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components

At any instant the horizontal position of the
weather balloon is defined by x = (9t) m, where t is
in second. If the equation of the path is y = x
2
/30,
determine the distance of the balloon from the
station at A, the magnitude and direction of the
both the velocity and acceleration when t = 2 s.
Solution
Position
When t = 2 x = 9(2)= 18 m, y = (18)
2
/30 = 10.8m The straight-line
distance from A to B is

Velocity
We have
( )
( ) | = = =
= = =
s m x
dt
d
y v
s m t
dt
d
x v
y
x
/ 8 . 10 30 /
/ 9 9
2

4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components



Solution
Velocity
When t = 2 s, the magnitude of velocity is


The x is tangent to the path is

Acceleration
We have thus,
( ) ( ) s m v / 1 . 14 8 . 10 9
2 2
= + =
| = = = =
2
/ 4 . 5 and 0 s m v a v a
y y x x

( ) ( )
2
2 2
/ 4 . 5 4 . 5 0 s m a = + =

= = 90
0
4 . 5
tan
1
a
u
5) Motion of Projectile

Horizontal component of velocity remain constant during the motion
Horizontal Motion Since ax = 0,
Projectiles acceleration always act vertically
Projectile launched at (x
0
, y
0
) and path is
defined in the x-y plane
Air resistance is neglected
Only force is its
weight downwards
a
c
= g = 9.81 m/s
2

Vertical. Positive y axis is directed upward, then ay = - g
5) Motion of Projectile

Problems involving the motion of a projectile have at most three unknowns
since only three independent equations can be written:
- one in the horizontal direction
- two in the vertical direction
Velocity in the horizontal and vertical direction are used to obtain the
resultant velocity
Resultant velocity is always tangent to the path
Example 8:
5) Motion of Projectile

A sack slides off the ramp with a horizontal
velocity of 12 m/s. If the height of the ramp is 6 m
from the floor, determine the time needed for the
sack to strike the floor and the range R where the
sacks begin to pile up.
Coordinate System. Origin of the coordinates is established at the beginning
of the path, point A. Initial velocity of a sack has components (v
A
)x = 12 m/s
and (v
A
)y = 0
Acceleration between point A and B a
y
= -9.81 m/s
2
Since (v
B
)x = (v
A
)x = 12
m/s, the three unknown are (v
B
)y, R and the time of flight t
AB

Vertical Motion. Vertical distance
from A to B is known
Horizontal Motion.
Example 9:
5) Motion of Projectile

The track for this racing event was designed so
that the riders jump off the slope at 30, from a
height of 1m. During the race, it was observed that
the rider remained in mid air for 1.5 s.
Determine the speed at which he was traveling off
the slope, the horizontal distance he travels before
striking the ground, and the maximum height he
attains. Neglect the size of the bike and rider.
Solution
Coordinate System
Origin is at point A. 3 unknown are v
A
, R and v
B
.

Vertical Motion
Since time of flight and the vertical distance between the ends of the paths are
known,
( ) s m v t a t v y y
A AB C AB y A A B
/ 4 . 13
2
1
) (
2
= + + = + |
Solution
Horizontal Motion
The range R can be determined as



We can determine h directly without considering t
AC
5) Motion of Projectile

4 . 17 ) 5 . 1 ( 30 cos 38 . 13 0
) (
m R
t v x x
AB x A A B
= + =
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
+

m h h
y y a v v
A C c A c
y y
28 . 3 ] 0 ) 1 )[( 81 . 9 ( 2 ) 30 sin 38 . 13 ( ) 0 (
] [ 2 ) ( ) (
2 2
2 2
= + =
+ =

6) Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential


Components
Path of motion of a particle is describe using n and t
coordinates which act normal and tangent to the path
At the instant considered have their origin located at
the particle

Planar Motion
Origin happen to coincide
with the location of the particle

6) Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential
Components

Planar Motion
Curve can be constructed from a series of differential arc
segments ds
Plane contains n and t axes is referred to as osculating
plane and is fixed in the plane of motion

Velocity.
Since the particle is moving, s is a function of time
Particles velocity v has direction that is always tangent to the
path and a magnitude that is determined by taking the time
derivative of the path function s = s(t)
6) Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential
Components

t
v v u =
where
Acceleration
Acceleration of the particle is the time rate of change of velocity
6) Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential
Components

As the particle moves along the arc ds in time dt, u
t
preserves its
magnitude of unity
When particle changes direction, it becomes u
t



d u
t
stretches between the arrowhead of u
t
and u
t
, which lie on
an infinitesimal arc of radius u
t
= 1
where
Magnitude of acceleration is the
positive value of
When the skier reaches the point A along the
parabolic path, he has a speed of 6m/s which is
increasing at 2m/s
2
. Determine the direction of
his velocity and the direction and magnitude of
this acceleration at this instant. Neglect the size
of the skier in the calculation.
Example 10:
6) Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential
Components

Coordinate System. Establish the origin of
the n, t axes at the fixed point A on the path
and determine the components of v and a
along these axes.

Velocity. The velocity is directed tangent to
the path.
v make an angle of = tan
-1
=
45 with the x axis
Acceleration. Determined from
6) Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential
Components

The acceleration becomes
7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components

Polar Coordinates
Location of P use both the radial coordinate r
and a traverse coordinate which is
counterclockwise angle
Angle measured in deg or rad
where 1 rad = 180
Position
At any instant, position
defined by position vector

7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components

Acceleration
For small angles, u= - ur
We write the acceleration in component form as


Since ar and a are always perpendicular


Acceleration is not
tangent to the path
2
, , 2
r r r
a a u a u a r r a r r
u u u
u u u = + = = +
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2 u u u


r r r r a + + =
7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components

Cylindrical Coordinates
When P moves along a space, location is specified
by the three cylindrical coordinates
r, , z
Position, velocity, acceleration of the particle is
written as
z r
z r
z r p
u z u r r u r r a
u z u r u r v
u z u r r


+ + + =
+ + =
+ =
u
u
u u u
u
) 2 ( ) (
2
7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components

Time Derivatives
2 common problems:
a. When coordinates are specified as r = r(t) and
= (t), time derivative can be formed directly

b. When time parametric equations are not given,
need to specify r = f() and relationship between
the time derivatives using the chain rule of
calculus
The rob OA is rotating in the horizontal plane such
that = (t3) rad. At the same time, the collar B is
sliding outwards along OA so that r = (100t2)mm. If
in both cases, t is in seconds, determine the
velocity and acceleration of the collar when t = 1s.
7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components
Example 11:
7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components

Cont. Example 11:
Degrees of freedom?
Degrees of freedom are translations and/or rotations that specify
the position and/or orientation of a system
Constrains?
Constraints are restrictions on translations and/or rotations that
limit the position and/or orientation of a system
8)Constrained Motion of Connected Particles

One Degree of Freedom
Simple system of two interconnected
particles
With L, r
2
,r
1
, and bare constant
Horizontal motion (x) of A is twice
the vertical motion (y) of B
Only one variable (x or y) is needed
to specify the positions of all parts of
the system

8)Constrained Motion of Connected Particles

In the pulley configuration below,
cylinder A has a downward velocity of
0.3 m/s. Determine the velocity of B.
Solve in two ways.
8)Constrained Motion of Connected Particles

Example 12:
Two Degree of Freedom
Position of lower cylinder depends on
two variables (y
A
and y
B
)
8)Constrained Motion of Connected Particles