Kinematics of Particles
Nur Farhana Diyana Mohd Yunos
nurfarhanamyunos@yahoo.com
Chapter Outline: Kinematics of Particles
1) Introduction
2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
5) Motion of a Projectile
6) Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential
Components
7) Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components
8) Constrained Coordinates and Cylindrical
Coordinates
1) Introduction
Mechanics the state of rest of motion of bodies
subjected to the action of forces
Static equilibrium of a body that is either at
rest or moves with constant velocity
Dynamics deals with accelerated motion of a
body
1) Kinematics treats with geometric aspects of
the motion
2) Kinetics analysis of the forces causing the
motion
2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
Rectilinear Kinematics specifying at any instant, the
particles position, velocity, and acceleration
Position
1) Single coordinate axis, s
2) Origin, O
3) Position vector, r specific location of particle P at any
instant
4) Algebraic Scalar s in metres
Note :  Magnitude of s = Dist from O to P
 The sense (arrowhead dir of r) is defined by
algebraic sign on s
=> +ve = right of origin, ve = left of origin
Displacement change in its position, vector quantity
If particle moves from P to P
r = rr
s = ss
Velocity
Average velocity,
Instantaneous velocity is defined as,
speed
2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
t
r
v
avg
A
A
=
) / (
lim
0
t r v
t
ins
A A =
A
dt
dr
v
ins
=
) / ( s m
dt
ds
v =
Average speed is defined as total distance traveled by a
particle, sT, divided by the elapsed time t.
The particle travels along the path of length sT in time
2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
t
s
v
T
avg sp
A
= ) (
t
s
v
avg
A
A
=
Acceleration velocity of particle is known at points P and P
during time interval t, average acceleration is
Instantaneous acceleration at time t is found by taking smaller
and smaller values of t and corresponding smaller and smaller
values of v,
t
v
a
avg
A
A
=
2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
) / (
2
s m
dt
dv
a =
) / (
2
2
2
s m
dt
v d
a =
a ds = v dv
Particle is slowing down, its speed is decreasing =>
decelerating =>will be negative.
Consequently, a will also be negative, therefore it will
act to the left, in the opposite sense to v
If velocity is constant, acceleration is zero
Velocity as a
Function of Time
Integrate
ac = dv/dt,
assuming that
initially v= v0
when t = 0.
Constant acceleration
2) Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
dt a dv
v t
c
} }
=
0 0
t a v v
c
+ =
0
Position as a
Function of Time
Integrate
v = ds/dt = v0 + act,
assuming that
initially s = s0 when t
= 0
Constant acceleration
dt t a v ds
s t
c
) (
0 0
0
} }
+ =
2
0 0
2
1
t a t v s s
c
+ + =
Velocity as a
Function of
Position
Integrate
v dv = ac ds,
assuming that
initially v = v0 at
s = s0
Constant acceleration
ds a vdv
v
v
s
s
c
} }
=
0 0
) ( 2
0
2
0
2
s s a
v
v
c
+ =
The car moves in a straight line such that for a short time its velocity is defined
by v = (0.9t
2
+ 0.6t) m/s where t is in sec. Determine it position and
acceleration when t = 3s. When t = 0, s = 0.
Ans: s=10.8 m, a=6m/s
2
Example 1:
Example 2:
A small projectile is forced downward into a fluid medium with an initial
velocity of 60m/s. Due to the resistance of the fluid the projectile
experiences a deceleration equal to a = (0.4v
2
)m/s
2
, where v is in m/s
2
.
Determine the projectiles velocity and position 4s after it is fired.
3
4 . 0 v
dt
dv
a = =
s m t v
t
v
dt
v
dt
v
dv
t
v
v
s m
t
/ 8 . 0
) 60 (
1
) 60 (
1 1
8 . 0
1
1
2
1
4 . 0
1
4 . 0
2
2
2 2
0 60
/ 60 0
3
2
+ =
=
(
=

.

\

=
}
} }
When t=4s, v=0.599 m/s
m t s
t s
dt t ds
t
dt
ds
v
t
s t


.

\

+

.

\

=


.

\

+

.

\

=


.

\

+ =
)
`
+ =
} }
60
1
8 . 0
) 60 (
1
4 . 0
1
8 . 0
) 60 (
1
8 . 0
2
8 . 0
) 60 (
1
8 . 0
) 60 (
1
2 / 1
2
0
2 / 1
2
2 / 1
0 0
2
2 / 1
2
When t=4s, s=4.43 m/s
Example 3:
A rocket travel upward at 75 m/s. When it is 40m from the ground, the engine
fails. Determine max height s
B
reached by the rocket and its speed just
before it hits the ground.
Solution: Rocket traveling upward, v
A
= +75m/s when t = 0. s = s
B
when
v
B
= 0 at max ht. For entire motion, acceleration a
C
= 9.81m/s
2
(negative since it act opposite sense to positive velocity or positive
displacement)
m s
m s s m s m
s s a v v
B
B
A B C A B
327
) 40 )( / 81 . 9 ( 2 ) / 75 ( 0
) ( 2
2 2
2 2
=
+ =
+ =
s m s
m s m
s s a v v
B
B C C B C
/ 1 . 80
) 327 0 )( / 81 . 9 ( 2 0
) ( 2
2
2 2
=
+ =
+ =
When particles motion is erratic, it is best described
graphically using a series of curves that can be generated
experimentally from computer output.
a graph can be established describing the relationship with any
two of the variables, a, v, s, t
using the kinematics equations a = dv/dt, v = ds/dt, a ds = v dv
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given the st Graph, construct the vt Graph
The st graph can be plotted if the position of the particle can be
determined experimentally during a period of time t.
To determine the particles velocity as a function of time, the vt
Graph, use v = ds/dt
Velocity as any instant is determined by measuring the slope of
the st graph
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
v
dt
ds
=
Slope of st graph=velocity
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Example 4:
A bicycle moves along a straight road such that it
position is described by the graph as shown.
Construct the vt and at graphs for 0 t 30s.
vt Graph. The vt graph can be determined by
differentiating the eqns defining the st graph
at Graph. The at graph can be determined by
differentiating the eqns defining the lines of the
vt graph.
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given the at Graph, construct the vt Graph
When the at graph is known, the vt graph may be constructed
using a = dv/dt
Knowing particles initial velocity v0, and add to
this small increments of area (v)
Successive points v1 = v0 + v, for the vt graph
Each eqn for each segment of the at graph may
be integrated to yield eqns for corresponding
segments of the vt graph
Example 5:
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
vt Graph. The vt graph can be determined by
integrating the straightline segments of the at graph.
Using initial condition v = 0 when t = 0,
A test car starts from rest and travels along a straight track
such that it accelerates at a constant rate for 10 s and then
decelerates at a constant rate. Draw the vt and st graphs
and determine the time t needed to stop the car. How far
has the car traveled?
When t = 10s, v = 100m/s, using this as initial condition
for the next time period, we have
When t = t we require v = 0. This yield t = 60 s
st Graph. Integrating the eqns of the vt graph yields the corresponding
eqns of the st graph. Using the initial conditions s = 0 when t = 0,
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
When t = 10s, s = 500m. Using this initial condition,
When t = 60s, the position is s = 3000m
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Given the as Graph, construct the vs Graph
vs graph can be determined by using v dv = a ds, integrating
this eqn between the limit v = v0 at s = s0 and v = v1 at s = s1
determine the eqns which define the segments
of the as graph
corresponding eqns defining the segments of the
vs graph can be obtained from integration,
using v dv = a ds
Given the vs Graph, construct the as Graph
vs graph is known, the acceleration a at any
position s can be determined using a ds = v dv
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
At any point (s,v), the slope dv/ds of the vs graph is
measured
Since v and dv/ds are known, the value of a can be
calculated
Example 6:
3) Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
The vs graph describing the motion of a
motorcycle is shown in Fig 1215a. Construct the as
graph of the motion and determine the time needed
for the motorcycle to reach the position s = 120 m.
Ans: At s=60m, t=8.05 s
Ans: At s=120m, t=12.0 s
Curvilinear motion occurs when the particle moves along a
curved path.
Occasionally the motion of particle represent using a fixed x, y,
z frame of reference.
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
Position. Position vector is defined by
The magnitude of r is always positive and defined as
The direction of r is specified by
the components of the unit
vector ur = r/r
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
The velocity has a magnitude
defined as the positive value of
Velocity.
where
and a direction that is specified by the components of the unit
vector uv=v/v and is always tangent to the path.
Acceleration.
where
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
The acceleration has a magnitude defined as the positive
value of
The acceleration has a direction specified by the components of
the unit vector ua = a/a.
Since a represents the time rate of change in velocity, a
will not be tangent to the path.
Example 7:
4) Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
At any instant the horizontal position of the
weather balloon is defined by x = (9t) m, where t is
in second. If the equation of the path is y = x
2
/30,
determine the distance of the balloon from the
station at A, the magnitude and direction of the
both the velocity and acceleration when t = 2 s.
Solution
Position
When t = 2 x = 9(2)= 18 m, y = (18)
2
/30 = 10.8m The straightline
distance from A to B is
Velocity
We have
( )
( )  = = =
= = =
s m x
dt
d
y v
s m t
dt
d
x v
y
x
/ 8 . 10 30 /
/ 9 9
2
\

+ =
+
m h h
y y a v v
A C c A c
y y
28 . 3 ] 0 ) 1 )[( 81 . 9 ( 2 ) 30 sin 38 . 13 ( ) 0 (
] [ 2 ) ( ) (
2 2
2 2
= + =
+ =
r r r r a + + =
7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components
Cylindrical Coordinates
When P moves along a space, location is specified
by the three cylindrical coordinates
r, , z
Position, velocity, acceleration of the particle is
written as
z r
z r
z r p
u z u r r u r r a
u z u r u r v
u z u r r
+ + + =
+ + =
+ =
u
u
u u u
u
) 2 ( ) (
2
7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components
Time Derivatives
2 common problems:
a. When coordinates are specified as r = r(t) and
= (t), time derivative can be formed directly
b. When time parametric equations are not given,
need to specify r = f() and relationship between
the time derivatives using the chain rule of
calculus
The rob OA is rotating in the horizontal plane such
that = (t3) rad. At the same time, the collar B is
sliding outwards along OA so that r = (100t2)mm. If
in both cases, t is in seconds, determine the
velocity and acceleration of the collar when t = 1s.
7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components
Example 11:
7)Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components
Cont. Example 11:
Degrees of freedom?
Degrees of freedom are translations and/or rotations that specify
the position and/or orientation of a system
Constrains?
Constraints are restrictions on translations and/or rotations that
limit the position and/or orientation of a system
8)Constrained Motion of Connected Particles
One Degree of Freedom
Simple system of two interconnected
particles
With L, r
2
,r
1
, and bare constant
Horizontal motion (x) of A is twice
the vertical motion (y) of B
Only one variable (x or y) is needed
to specify the positions of all parts of
the system
8)Constrained Motion of Connected Particles
In the pulley configuration below,
cylinder A has a downward velocity of
0.3 m/s. Determine the velocity of B.
Solve in two ways.
8)Constrained Motion of Connected Particles
Example 12:
Two Degree of Freedom
Position of lower cylinder depends on
two variables (y
A
and y
B
)
8)Constrained Motion of Connected Particles