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Religion: HINDUISM SKIHISM ISLAM BUDDHISM JAINISM CHRISTIANITY

INDIAN SOCIETY: PEOPLE AND LANGUAGE CULTURE

HINDUISM BUDDHISM JAINISM SIKHISM

Hinduism

Hinduism is the 3rd largest religion in the world. 80% of INDIANS practise Hinduism. It has aprrox. 2 billion followers. It is considered as the worlds oldest religion .

Hinduism is based on Reincarnation & Castes.


Hindus has numerous god and goddesses but

Brahaman is consisdered as the maker of the world . Holy place to worship is TEMPLES. Holy books THE GITA & RAMAYANA.

Hindus believe nothing that once existed is ever completely destroyed, it merely undergoes a change in its form. Reincarnation is the rebirth of the soul after death into the body of another. This belief in reincarnation has resulted in a caste system. Thecastes divide the people into lifelong social positions. They are born into a caste. It isfelt that the way one has lived in a previous life dictates into which caste you are born.If you have been a good person you are awarded by being born into a higher caste. The person who has been evil is punished by having to live his life as part of a lower caste.The original castes or orders were based on the different parts of the body of a god,Purusa.

Brahmins are consisdered to be the

highest caste in India Originally they were not permitted to engage in any type of work other than study and religious teachings. Brahmins are expected to be lactovegetarians.

Buuddhism

BUDDHISM is based on the teachings of Siddhartha

Gautama(known as GAUTAN BUDDHA) BUDDHA is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end ignorance (avidy) of dependent origination, thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering and rebirth. Two ma:jor branches of Buddhism are recognized: A)Theravada B) Mahayana. Holy place to worship is MONESTRIES.

JAINISM

Jainism is the Indian origin religion.

It prescribes a path of non-violence towards

all living beings. Jainism is also referred to as the shramana dharma. It was founded by mahavira. Holy place to worship is JAIN TEMPLES.

Sikhism

It was founded in punjab region in 15 th century. It is based on the teaching of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and

ten successive Gurus. The principal beliefs of Sikhi are faith and justice, in Wahegururepresented by the phrase ik akr meaning one God. The followers of Sikhi are ordained to follow the teachings of the ten Sikh gurus, or enlightened leaders, as well as the holy scripture entitled the Gur Granth Shib Ji. Holy place to worship is GURUDWARAS.

Islam Chritianity

Islam

It was was founded by prophet Muhammad(a prophet

of god). It was founded in the region of Middle East . The Kaaba, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, is the center of Islam. Muslims from all over the world gather there to pray in unity. A follower of Islam is called MUSLIM. Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of existence is to worship God. Holy book of muslims is KURAN. Holy place to worship is MOSQUE.

Muslims can divided into four

types: A)Sunni B)Shia C)Sufism D)Minor denominations

Christianity

It is based on the teachings of JESUS CHRIST.

He was born in JERUSLAM in Europe.


He believed as he born as the son of GOD. It is widespreaded in EUROPE,NORTH

AMERICA,AUSTRALIA & SOUTH AMERICA. It has the largest followers among the world than any other religion. Follwers of CHRISTIANITY are called CHRISTIANS. Holy book of CHRISTIANS is BIBLE. HOLY place to worship is CHURCH.

Types of groups in CHRISTIANITY: A)Catholic B)Orthodox

C)Protestant
D)Non-Trinintarian

E)Others
F)Cultural Christian

One of the Iondias great paradox is that the orhodoxy and rigidites of its society have been continually tempered by revolts and reforms,as well as by outside influences-India has an amazing ability to absorb and assimlate varied ways of being.Long before the New World creatd melting pot cultures,India played host (not always willingly)to invaders and conquerors,adventurers and traders,all of whom shaped,and were shaped by,the land they made their own.This way is why there is no racial stereotype,no monolithic culture to define India.Broadly speaking(though there are many exceptions)

North Indians are usually light skined(or wheatcomplexioned,to use the language of matrimonial ads),southerners are darker,and people in the east have Mongoloid features.In addition,over 70 million Indians belong to a variety of tribes,ranging from Proto-Australoid groups in Orrisa, to Mon-Khmer peoples in the northeast. Equally diverse are Indias languages,with 17 major regional languages,and hundreds of dialects.Hindi is spoken by the largest number of people.but it is nowhere near displacing the powerful regional language,or Bengali that boasts a rich literature and a Nobel laureate,poet Rabindranath Tagore to boot. Though most Indian languages are derived from Sanskrit,they have developed their own distinct script and literatur.

The four main languages of the south,for instance,aremore different from one another than,say,Italian is from North and Central India is it a blend of Sanskrit-derived Hindi and the Persianinspired Urdu,a vibrant evidence of the crossfertilization of cultures.The english lalguage is among the lasting legacies of British rule in India.It is spoken by a Pan-Indian elite,widely used as a link Language,and is the surest passport to upward mobility and also,thanks to the Internet,to virtual reality.

Indias culture,like its people,is a rich mosaic whose myraid elements have been born of its ancient roots,its foreign influence and its regional variety.Its richness also stems from the manner in which the Greatand Littletraditions interview.Indias classical music and dance are highly developed forms,based on texts that are 2000 years old .At the same time, there are earthier folk traditions,as well as the songs-and-and-dance routine of Bollywood films,that form the staple in the visual arts and architecture.On one hand is the breathtaking grandeur of mughal monuments or South Indian temples.On the other ,is the simple elegance of village homes,made with local materials to suit the climate,such as the mud and thatch huts of the Rabaris of Katch.

Like elsewhere in the world,premodren Indiuan art is largely inspired by religious themes and nature.The Buddhist murals of Ajanta; the inlaid carvings of flowers and animalsin Mughal and Rajput palaces; the exquisitely sculpted deities in Hindu and Jain temples ;the miniatures and folk paintings illustrating scenes from the two great epics,the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.

Indian handicraft which have grown out of ancient traditions,continue to thrive despite rapid industrialization and a fast growing market economy.Objects of utility as well as beauty , such as quilts,shawls,copper pots,clay water jars,lamps and agriculture tools are in daily use in millions of homes,handmade by artisans who keep alive the skills and traditions of their ancestors.

Religion: A)Wikipedia. B)My Own Brain

Indian Society: A)Book-Illustrated Guide To India