Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

PROCESS ENGINEERING ECONOMICS (BKF4143)

Chapter 1 Introduction to Economics


Fundamentals

of economics The concept of supply and demand Banking and Monetary system Macro vs Microeconomics

Why study and understand Economics?

Learn a way of thinking

Opportunity cost Marginalism and sunk costs Efficient markets

To understand the society To understand global affairs To be an informed citizen

What is economics?

ECONOMICS is social science that studies how individuals, governments, firms, and nations make optimal choices on allocating scarce resources to satisfy their unlimited wants. Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. (wikipedia, 2011)

Scarcity
SCARCITY

is the basic economic problem that arises because people have unlimited wants but resources are limited. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently.

Marginalism
In

economics, marginal means extra, additional or a change in. Marginal Benefit (MB)

Refers to what people are willing to give up in order to obtain one more unit of a good

Marginal

Cost (MC)

Refers to the value of what is given up in order to produce the additional unit.

Supply and Demand


Supply and demand is perhaps one of the most fundamental concepts of economics and it is the backbone of a market economy. Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a product or service is desired by buyers. The quantity demanded is the amount of a product people are willing to buy at a certain price; the relationship between price and quantity demanded is known as the demand relationship. Supply represents how much the market can offer. The quantity supplied refers to the amount of a certain good producers are willing to supply when receiving a certain price. The correlation between price and how much of a good or service is supplied to the market is known as the supply relationship. Price, therefore, is a reflection of supply and demand.

Supply and Demand


The

Law of Demand

The law of demand states that, if all other factors remain equal, the higher the price of a good, the less people will demand that good. In other words, the higher the price, the lower the quantity demanded.

Supply and Demand


The

Law of Supply

the law of supply demonstrates the quantities that will be sold at a certain price. the higher the price, the higher the quantity supplied. Read

Supply and Demand


How

supply and demand affect price????

Equilibrium

Supply and Demand


When supply and demand are equal (i.e. when the supply function and demand function intersect) the economy is said to be at equilibrium. At this point, the allocation of goods is at its most efficient because the amount of goods being supplied is exactly the same as the amount of goods being demanded.

Supply and Demand


Disequilibrium

supply)

(Excess

Disequilibrium

If the price is set too high, excess supply will be created within the economy and there will be allocative inefficiency.

demand) Excess demand is created when price is set below the equilibrium price. Because the price is so low, too many consumers want the good while producers are not making enough of it.

(Excess