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Learning Theories and Style

Pre- Quiz
1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

Cognition and emotional aspect Thought processes Reaction to environment Synthesis of information Punishment and Incentives

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Behavior Cognitive Learning Social Cognitive Operant Classical

Learning Theories and Style


Behavioral Cognitive Social

Theory

Learning Theory

Cognitive Theory

Behavioral Theory

Behavioral Theory
Behavioral

learning theories are a part of behaviorism, which is the study of the behavior of a person or animal reacting to something in the environment. AMY COCKE

Behavioural Theory
Behavioural

or learning theories differ from many other personality theories in one basic way. They focus more on specific observable behaviors rather than internal motivations, needs and perceptions. They state that people learn or acquire their behaviors.

Behavioural Theory
1.

Pavlov Bandura Skinner

a.

Classical Conditioning

2.

b.

Behavioral Learning
Operant Conditioning Social Cognitive Learning

3.

c.

d.

Behavioural Theory
Pavlov

= Classical Conditioning

Behavioural Theory
Bandura

= Social Cognitive Learning

Banduras

social cognitive theory has shown peoples observations mold their characteristic behavior.

Behavioural Theory
Skinner

= Operant Conditioning

Positive reinforcer: Rewards or something desirable is received after a behavior occurs

Negative reinforcer: Escapes or something undesirable is avoided after a behavior occurs


Presentation punishment: An undesirable stimulus is received after a behavior occurs Removal punishment: A desirable is lost or removed after a behavior occurs

Cognitive Learning Theory

What is Cognitive Learning Theory?


Cognitive

theory is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes. It is also an approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning.

What is Cognitive Learning Theory?


Cognitive

learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge and skill by mental or cognitive processes the procedures we have for manipulating information 'in our heads'. Cognitive processes include creating mental representations of physical objects and events, and other forms of information processing.

Jean Piaget
- Theorized that children progress through stages in the Theory of Cognitive Development.

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development


Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development (1970) identified four major stages in which children progress: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational. This theory suggests that these stages reflect differences in a child's cognitive abilities and that learners cannot be taught key cognitive tasks unless they have reached a particular stage of cognitive development.

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development


Sensorimotor

of language

- extends from birth to the acquisition

Pre-operational

- sparse and logically inadequate mental operations operational - characterized by the appropriate use of logic

Concrete

Formal

operational - capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning

Social Cognitive Learning

Social Cognitive Learning


individual's

knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences.

Sees human behavior as produced by the interplay of personal, behavioral, and environmental influences

Recognizes the influences of environment on behavior, but focuses on the ability of the individual to alter environments to their own advantage as well as the capacity for collective action

Concepts of the Social Cognitive Theory

1. Psychological Determinants of Behaviors


Outcome expectations: beliefs about outcomes of behaviors and the perceived value of these outcomes Social outcome expectations: expectations about how people will evaluate our behavior Self-evaluative outcome expectations: how we expect to feel about ourselves if we perform a particular behavior Self-efficacy: a persons belief about their capacity to influence events that affect their life Collective efficacy: a groups shared belief in their capacity to influence events

2. Observational Learning
Learning to perform new behaviors by exposure to modeling of that behavior Three basic models of observational learning: A live model (actual demonstrating) A verbal instructional model (descriptions and explanations.) A symbolic model (real/ fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media.)

The Modeling Process

3. Environmental Determinants of Behavior


the powerful influence of environment on behavior Reciprocal determinism viewpoint stresses that no amount of observational learning will lead to change unless the environment supports the new behavior
Recognizes

References:
Article

Source: http://EzineArticles.com/365039 http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/beduc/chapt er_5.pdf http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/The ory%20clusters/Health%20Communication/Social_c ognitive_theory.doc/ Understanding Psychology (Robert Feldsman) Health Education (Nursing book)

Quiz
6-12

Topics our group discussed and brief definition three categories in Behavioural theory psychologist in Stages of Cognitive Development

13-15 15

Quiz
16. Reaction to environment 17. Punishment and Incentives 18. Cognition and emotional aspect 19. Synthesis of information 20. Thought processes
a. b. c. d. e. f.

Operant Behavior Learning Cognitive Classical Social Cognitive