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REVIEW OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

By: Sathish RAJAMANI M. Sc (N)

INTRODUCTION
Personality traits is defined as enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts. Nurses must have a basic knowledge of human personality development to understand maladaptive behavioral responses commonly seen in Psychiatric Clients.

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
Freud (1961) Father of Psychiatry First to identify personality development by stages First 5 years of Childs life is considered to be the most important in development of personality since all basic characters are developed in first 5 years of age.

STRUCTURE OF THE PERSONALITY


ID

PERSONALITY

SUPER EGO

EGO

ID
The id is an important part of our personality because as newborns, it allows us to get our basic needs met. id is based on our pleasure principle (In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation.) When a child is hungry, the id wants food, and therefore the child cries. When the child needs to be changed, the id cries. When the child is uncomfortable, in pain, too hot, too cold, or just wants attention, the id speaks up until his or her needs are met.

EGO
Within the next three years, as the child interacts more and more with the world, the second part of the personality begins to develop. Freud called this part the Ego. The ego is based on the reality principle. The ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. Its the ego's job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation.

SUPER EGO
By the age of five, or the end of the phallic stage of development, the Superego develops. The Superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers

Conclusion
In a healthy person, according to Freud, the ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy the needs of the id, not upset the superego, and still take into consideration the reality of every situation. If the superego becomes to strong, the person would be driven by rigid morals, would be judgmental and unbending in his or her interactions with the world.

TOPOGRAPHY OF THE MIND

Freud believed that the majority of what we experience in our lives, the underlying emotions, beliefs, feelings, and impulses are not available to us at a conscious level. He believed that most of what drives us is buried in our unconscious.

CONSCIOUS
It includes all memories that remain within an individuals awareness. It is the smallest of all the three levels. Events and experiences that are easily remembered or retrieved are considered to be with in ones Conscious awareness. Examples: Telephone numbers, Birthdays of self and Significant others. The conscious mind is thought to be under the control of ego, the rational and logical structure of the personality.

PRECONSCIOUS
Preconscious includes all memories that may have been forgotten or are not in present awareness, but with attention, can readily be recalled into consciousness. Example: Feelings associated with significant life events that may have occurred sometimes in the past. It is thought to be partially under the control of the super ego, which helps to suppress the unacceptable thoughts and behaviors.

Unconscious
It includes all memories that one is unable to bring to conscious awareness. It is the largest of the three topographical levels. Unconscious material consists of unpleasant memories or non essential memories that can be repressed and can be retrieved only through therapy, hypnosis and with certain substances that alter the awareness and have the capacity to restructure repressed memories. Unconscious material may also emerge in dreams and in seemingly incomprehensible behavior.

STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT